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Polarimetric Doppler Weather Radar

Book Description

This 2001 book provides a detailed introduction to the principles of Doppler and polarimetric radar, focusing in particular on their use in the analysis of weather systems. The design features and operation of practical radar systems are highlighted throughout the book in order to illustrate important theoretical foundations. The authors begin by discussing background topics such as electromagnetic scattering, polarization, and wave propagation. They then deal in detail with the engineering aspects of pulsed Doppler polarimetric radar, including the relevant signal theory, spectral estimation techniques, and noise considerations. They close by examining a range of key applications in meteorology and remote sensing. The book will be of great use to graduate students of electrical engineering and atmospheric science as well as to practitioners involved in the applications of polarimetric radar systems.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Notation
  9. 1. Electromagnetic concepts useful for radar applications
    1. 1.1 Review of Maxwell’s equations and potentials
    2. 1.2 Integral representation for scattering by a dielectric particle
    3. 1.3 Rayleigh scattering by a dielectric sphere
    4. 1.4 Scattering, bistatic, and radar cross sections
    5. 1.5 Absorption and extinction cross sections
    6. 1.6 Clausius-Mosotti equation and Maxwell-Garnet mixing formula
    7. 1.7 Faraday’s law and non-relativistic Doppler shift
    8. 1.8 Moving dielectric spheres: coherent and incoherent summation
    9. 1.9 Moving dielectric sphere under plane wave incidence
    10. 1.10 Coherent forward scattering by a slab of dielectric spheres
    11. Notes
  10. 2. Scattering matrix
    1. 2.1 The forward scatter and back scatter alignment conventions
    2. 2.2 Reciprocity theorem
    3. 2.3 Scattering matrix for sphere and spheroid in the Rayleigh-Gans approximation
    4. 2.4 Mie solution
    5. 2.5 Mie coefficients in powers of k[sub(0)]a: low frequency approximation
    6. 2.6 Numerical scattering methods for non-spherical particles
    7. Notes
  11. 3. Wave, antenna, and radar polarization
    1. 3.1 Polarization state of a plane wave
    2. 3.2 Basics of antenna radiation and reception
    3. 3.3 Dual-polarized antennas: linear polarization basis
    4. 3.4 Radar range equation for a single particle: linear polarization basis
    5. 3.5 Change of polarization basis: linear to circular basis
    6. 3.6 Radar range equation: circular basis
    7. 3.7 Bilinear form of the voltage equation
    8. 3.8 Polarization synthesis and characteristic polarizations
    9. 3.9 Partially polarized waves: coherency matrix and Stokes’ vector
    10. 3.10 Ensemble-averaged Mueller matrix
    11. 3.11 Time-averaged Mueller and covariance matrices
    12. 3.12 Some implications of symmetry in scattering
    13. 3.13 Covariance matrix in circular basis
    14. 3.14 Relation between linear and circular radar observables
    15. Notes
  12. 4. Dual-polarized wave propagation in precipitation media
    1. 4.1 Coherent wave propagation
    2. 4.2 Oguchi’s solution
    3. 4.3 Radar range equation with transmission matrix: linear polarization basis
    4. 4.4 Radar range equation with transmission matrix: circular polarization basis
    5. 4.5 Transmission-modified covariance matrix
    6. 4.6 Relation between linear and circular radar observables in the presence of propagation effects
    7. 4.7 Measurements in a “hybrid” basis
    8. Notes
  13. 5. Doppler radar signal theory and spectral estimation
    1. 5.1 Review of signals and systems
    2. 5.2 Received signal from precipitation
    3. 5.3 Mean power of the received signal
    4. 5.4 Coherency matrix measurements
    5. 5.5 Autocorrelation of the received signal
    6. 5.6 Spaced-time, spaced-frequency coherency function
    7. 5.7 Sampling the received signal
    8. 5.8 Noise in radar systems
    9. 5.9 Statistical properties of the received signal
    10. 5.10 Estimation of mean power
    11. 5.11 Doppler spectrum (or power spectral density) and estimate of mean velocity
    12. 5.12 Example of received signal statistics and spectral estimation
    13. Notes
  14. 6. Dual-polarized radar systems and signal processing algorithms
    1. 6.1 General system aspects
    2. 6.2 Antenna performance characteristics
    3. 6.3 Radar calibration
    4. 6.4 Estimation of the covariance matrix
    5. 6.5 Variance of the estimates of the covariance matrix elements
    6. 6.6 Estimation of specific differential phase (K[sub(dp)])
    7. Notes
  15. 7. The polarimetric basis for characterizing precipitation
    1. 7.1 Rain
    2. 7.2 Convective precipitation
    3. 7.3 Stratiform precipitation
    4. 7.4 The estimation of attenuation and differential attenuation in rain using Φ[sub(dp)]
    5. 7.5 Hydrometeor classification
    6. Notes
  16. 8. Radar rainfall estimation
    1. 8.1 Physically based parametric rain rate estimation algorithms
    2. 8.2 Physically based parametric rainwater content algorithms
    3. 8.3 Error structure and practical issues related to rain rate algorithms using Z[sub(h)], Z[sub(dr)], and K[sub(dp)]
    4. 8.4 Statistical procedures for rainfall estimation
    5. 8.5 Neural-network-based radar estimation of rainfall
    6. 8.6 Some general comments on radar rainfall estimation
    7. Notes
  17. Appendices
    1. 1. Review of electrostatics
    2. 2. Review of vector spherical harmonics and multipole expansion of the electromagnetic field
    3. 3. T-matrix method
    4. 4. Solution for the transmission matrix
    5. 5. Formulas for variance computation of autocorrelation functions, their magnitude, and phase, and for estimators in the periodic block pulsing scheme
  18. References
  19. Index