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Plant Design and Operations

Book Description

Plant Design and Operations provides practical guidance on the design, operation, and maintenance of process facilities. The book is based on years of hands-on experience gathered during the design and operation of a wide range of facilities in many different types of industry including chemicals, refining, offshore oil and gas, and pipelines. The book helps managers, engineers, operators, and maintenance specialists with advice and guidance that can be used right away in working situations.

Each chapter provides information and guidance that can be used immediately. For example, the chapter on Energy Control Procedures describes seven levels of positive isolation — ranging from a closed block valve all the way to double block and bleed with line break. The Safety in Design chapter describes topics such as area classification, fire protection, stairways and platforms, fixed ladders, emergency showers, lighting, and alarms.

Other areas covered in detail by the book include security, equipment, and transportation. A logical, practical guide to maintenance task organization is provided, from conducting a Job Hazards Analysis to the issue of a work permit, and to the shutdown and isolation of equipment. Common hazards are covered in detail, including flow problems, high pressure, corrosion, power failure, and many more.



  • Provides information to managers, engineers, operators and maintenance personnel which is immediately applicable to their operations
  • Supported by useful, real-world examples and experience from a wide range of facilities and industries
  • Includes guidance on occupational health and safety, industrial hygiene and personal protective equipment

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Copyright
  4. Chapter 1. Operations
    1. Introduction
    2. Professional Advice
    3. Regulations, Standards, and Guidance
    4. Units of Measurement
    5. Risk Reduction
    6. Flammable and Combustible Materials
    7. Area Classification
    8. Housekeeping
    9. Nonprocess Operations
    10. Simultaneous Operations
    11. Examples
  5. Chapter 2. Maintenance and inspection
    1. Introduction
    2. Types of maintenance
    3. Maintenance task organization
    4. Pressure tests
    5. Online cleaning and repair
    6. Inspection
  6. Chapter 3. Energy control procedures
    1. Introduction
    2. Regulations and standards
    3. Removal of the hazard
    4. Equipment and piping
    5. Minimizing contact with air
    6. Positive isolation
    7. Lockout/tagout
    8. Electrical Isolation
    9. Administrative Controls
    10. Work permits
    11. Confined-space entry
    12. Tie-Ins
    13. Hot Tapping
    14. Plugged lines
  7. Chapter 4. Occupational safety
    1. Introduction
    2. Measuring Performance
    3. Safety manual
    4. Behavior-based safety
    5. Lone Worker Policy
    6. Incident Reporting
    7. Portable Gas Detectors
    8. Machinery safety
    9. Fall protection
    10. Dropped Objects
    11. Compressed Gas Cylinders
    12. Overhead power lines
    13. Cranes and rigging
  8. Chapter 5. Chemicals
    1. Introduction
    2. Fluid Categories
    3. Material safety data sheets
    4. Global harmonization system
    5. The safety diamond
    6. Exposure limits
    7. Benzene
    8. Hydrogen fluoride
    9. Sulfur dioxide
    10. Hydrogen sulfide
    11. Chlorine
    12. Carbon Monoxide
    13. Carbon Dioxide
    14. Nitrogen
    15. Lead
  9. Chapter 6. Personal protective equipment
    1. Introduction
    2. Employer Responsibility
    3. Regulations and Standards
    4. Clothing
    5. Respiratory protection
    6. Head Protection
    7. Hand protection
    8. Foot Protection
    9. Eye protection
  10. Chapter 7. Health and industrial hygiene
    1. Introduction
    2. Employee access to records
    3. Asbestos
    4. Noise
    5. Naturally occurring radioactive material
    6. Lifting
    7. Heat stress
    8. Cold stress
    9. Radiant Heat
    10. Food and galley hygiene
    11. Alcohol and drug policy
  11. Chapter 8. Human factors and ergonomics
    1. Introduction
    2. Process Safety Management
    3. Human Error
    4. Ergonomics
    5. Human Factors on Projects
    6. Control Rooms
    7. Valve Criticality Analysis
    8. Signs
    9. Labeling
    10. Color Coding
  12. Chapter 9. Firefighting
    1. Introduction
    2. Regulations and Standards
    3. Principles of Firefighting
    4. Firewater
    5. Portable Fire Extinguishers
    6. Training
  13. Chapter 10. Safety in design
    1. Introduction
    2. Units of Measurement
    3. Fire Protection
    4. Stairways, Ramps, and Platforms
    5. Fixed Ladders
    6. Emergency Showers and Eyewashes
  14. Chapter 11. Siting and layout
    1. Introduction
    2. Regulations and Standards
    3. Siting
    4. Layout
    5. Spacing
    6. Blocks and Roads
    7. Equipment
    8. Piping and Valves
    9. Utilities
    10. Buildings
    11. Loading and Unloading
    12. Emergency Equipment
    13. Fire and Gas Detection
    14. Manual Alarm Call Points
    15. Offshore Facilities
  15. Chapter 12. Equipment
    1. Introduction
    2. Pressure Vessels
    3. Storage Tanks
    4. Pumps
    5. Compressors
    6. Heat Exchangers
    7. Fired Heaters
    8. Boilers
    9. Internal Combustion Engines
    10. Electrical equipment
  16. Chapter 13. Piping and valves
    1. Introduction
    2. Piping
    3. Blinds
    4. Valves
    5. Pressure relief devices
    6. Flame arrestors
    7. Flares
  17. Chapter 14. Safety instrumentation
    1. Introduction
    2. Alarms
    3. Safety instrumented systems
    4. HIPPS
  18. Chapter 15. Transportation
    1. Introduction
    2. Regulations and Standards
    3. Road Vehicles
    4. Loading/Unloading
    5. Marine Transport
    6. Helicopters
  19. Chapter 16. Security
    1. Introduction
    2. Regulations and Standards
    3. Types of Attack
    4. Security Vulnerability Analyses
    5. Managing Security
    6. Response to a Threatening Call
  20. Chapter 17. Common hazards
    1. Introduction
    2. Process Hazards
    3. Hazards of Utilities
    4. Hazards of Water
    5. Hazards of Steam
    6. Hazards of Ice
    7. Hazards of Compressed Gas
    8. Hazards of Air
    9. Hazards of External Events
    10. Hazards of Equipment and Instruments
    11. Hazards of Piping, Valves, and Hoses
  21. References
  22. Index