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Physics of Organic Semiconductors, 2nd, Completely New Revised Edition

Book Description

The field of organic electronics has seen a steady growth over the last 15 years. At the same time, our scientific understanding of how to achieve optimum device performance has grown, and this book gives an overview of our present-day knowledge of the physics behind organic semiconductor devices. Based on the very successful first edition, the editors have invited top scientists from the US, Japan, and Europe to include the developments from recent years, covering such fundamental issues as:

  • growth and characterization of thin films of organic semiconductors,

  • charge transport and photophysical properties of the materials as well as their electronic structure at interfaces, and

  • analysis and modeling of devices like organic light-emitting diodes or organic lasers.

The result is an overview of the field for both readers with basic knowledge and for an application-oriented audience. It thus bridges the gap between textbook knowledge largely based on crystalline molecular solids and those books focusing more on device applications.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Related Titles
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Foreword
  6. Preface
  7. List of Contributors
  8. Part One: Film Growth, Electronic Structure, and Interfaces
    1. Chapter 1: Organic Molecular Beam Deposition
      1. 1.1 Introduction
      2. 1.2 Organic Molecular Beam Deposition
      3. 1.3 Films on Oxidized Silicon
      4. 1.4 Films on Aluminum Oxide
      5. 1.5 Films on Metals
      6. 1.6 Films on Other Substrates
      7. 1.7 More Complex Heterostructures and Technical Interfaces
      8. 1.8 Summary and Conclusions
      9. Acknowledgments
      10. References
    2. Chapter 2: Electronic Structure of Interfaces with Conjugated Organic Materials
      1. 2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2 Energy Levels of Organic Semiconductors
      3. 2.3 Interfaces between Organic Semiconductors and Electrodes
      4. 2.4 Energy Levels at Organic Semiconductor Heterojunctions
      5. 2.5 Conclusions
      6. Acknowledgments
      7. References
    3. Chapter 3: Electronic Structure of Molecular Solids: Bridge to the Electrical Conduction
      1. 3.1 Introduction
      2. 3.2 General View of Electronic States of Organic Solids
      3. 3.3 Electronic Structure in Relation to Charge Transport
      4. 3.4 Electron–Phonon Coupling, Hopping Mobility, and Polaron Binding Energy
      5. 3.5 Summary
      6. Acknowledgments
      7. References
    4. Chapter 4: Interfacial Doping for Efficient Charge Injection in Organic Semiconductors
      1. 4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2 Insertion of an Interfacial Layer in the Organic/Electrode Junction
      3. 4.3 Doped Organic/Electrode Junctions
      4. 4.4 Doped Organic/Undoped Organic Junction
      5. 4.5 Applications
      6. 4.6 Conclusions
      7. References
    5. Chapter 5: Displacement Current Measurement for Exploring Charge Carrier Dynamics in Organic Semiconductor Devices
      1. 5.1 Introduction
      2. 5.2 Displacement Current Measurement
      3. 5.3 Charge Accumulation at Organic Heterointerfaces
      4. 5.4 Conclusions
      5. Acknowledgment
      6. References
  9. Part Two: Charge Transport
    1. Chapter 6: Effects of Gaussian Disorder on Charge-Carrier Transport and Recombination in Organic Semiconductors
      1. 6.1 Introduction
      2. 6.2 Mobility Models for Hopping in a Disordered Gaussian DOS
      3. 6.3 Modeling of the Recombination Rate
      4. 6.4 OLED Device Modeling
      5. 6.5 Experimental Studies
      6. 6.6 Conclusions and Outlook
      7. Acknowledgments
      8. References
    2. Chapter 7: Charge Transport Physics of High-Mobility Molecular Semiconductors
      1. 7.1 Introduction
      2. 7.2 Review of Recent High-Mobility Small-Molecule and Polymer Organic Semiconductors
      3. 7.3 General Discussion of Transport Physics/Transport Models of Organic Semiconductors
      4. 7.4 Transport Physics of High-Mobility Molecular Semiconductors
      5. 7.5 Conclusions
      6. References
    3. Chapter 8: Ambipolar Charge-Carrier Transport in Molecular Field-Effect Transistors
      1. 8.1 Introduction
      2. 8.2 Ambipolar Charge-Carrier Transport in Blends of Molecular Hole- and Electron-Conducting Materials
      3. 8.3 Ambipolar Charge-Carrier Transport in Molecular Semiconductors by Applying a Passivated Insulator Surface
      4. 8.4 Electrode Variation for Ambipolar and Bipolar Transport
      5. 8.5 Applications of Bipolar Transport for Ambipolar and Complementary Inverters
      6. 8.6 Realization of Light-Emitting Transistors with Combined Al and TTF-TCNQ Electrodes
      7. 8.7 Conclusion
      8. Acknowledgments
      9. References
    4. Chapter 9: Organic Magnetoresistance and Spin Diffusion in Organic Semiconductor Thin-Film Devices
      1. 9.1 Introduction
      2. 9.2 Organic Magnetoresistance
      3. 9.3 Theory of Spin–Orbit Coupling in Singly Charged Polymer Chains
      4. 9.4 Theory of Spin Diffusion in Disordered Organic Semiconductors
      5. 9.5 Distinguishing between Tunneling and Injection Regimes of Ferromagnet/Organic Semiconductor/Ferromagnet Junctions
      6. 9.6 Conclusion
      7. Acknowledgments
      8. References
  10. Part Three: Photophysics
    1. Chapter 10: Excitons at Polymer Interfaces
      1. 10.1 Introduction
      2. 10.2 Fabrication and Structural Characterization of Polymer Heterojunctions
      3. 10.3 Electronic Structure at Polymer/Polymer Interfaces
      4. 10.4 Excitons at Homointerfaces
      5. 10.5 Type-I Heterojunctions
      6. 10.6 Type-II Heterojunctions
      7. 10.7 CT State Recombination
      8. 10.8 Charge Separation and Photovoltaic Devices based on Polymer:Polymer Blends
      9. 10.9 Future Directions
      10. References
    2. Chapter 11: Electronic Processes at Organic Semiconductor Heterojunctions: The Mechanism of Exciton Dissociation in Semicrystalline Solid-State Microstructures
      1. 11.1 Introduction
      2. 11.2 Experimental Methods
      3. 11.3 Results and Analysis
      4. 11.4 Conclusions
      5. Acknowledgments
      6. References
    3. Chapter 12: Recent Progress in the Understanding of Exciton Dynamics within Phosphorescent OLEDs
      1. 12.1 Introduction
      2. 12.2 Exciton Formation
      3. 12.3 Distributing Excitons in the Organic Layer(s)
      4. 12.4 High Brightness Effects in Phosphorescent Devices
      5. Acknowledgments
      6. References
    4. Chapter 13: Organometallic Emitters for OLEDs: Triplet Harvesting, Singlet Harvesting, Case Structures, and Trends
      1. 13.1 Introduction
      2. 13.2 Electroluminescence
      3. 13.3 Triplet Emitters: Basic Understanding and Trends
      4. 13.4 Case Studies: Blue Light Emitting Pt(II) and Ir(III) Compounds
      5. 13.5 Case Studies: Singlet Harvesting and Blue Light Emitting Cu(I) Complexes
      6. 13.6 Conclusion
      7. Acknowledgments
      8. References
  11. Part Four: Device Physics
    1. Chapter 14: Doping of Organic Semiconductors
      1. 14.1 Introduction
      2. 14.2 Doping Fundamentals
      3. 14.3 Organic p–n Junctions
      4. 14.4 OLEDs with Doped Transport Layers
      5. 14.5 Organic Solar Cells with Doped Transport Layers
      6. 14.6 Conclusion
      7. 14.7 Summary and Outlook
      8. Acknowledgments
      9. References
    2. Chapter 15: Device Efficiency of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
      1. 15.1 Introduction
      2. 15.2 OLED Operation
      3. 15.3 Electroluminescence Quantum Efficiency
      4. 15.4 Fundamentals of Light Outcoupling in OLEDs
      5. 15.5 Approaches to Improved Light Outcoupling
      6. 15.6 Conclusion
      7. Acknowledgments
      8. References
    3. Chapter 16: Light Outcoupling in Organic Light-Emitting Devices
      1. 16.1 Introduction
      2. 16.2 Theories and Properties of OLED Optics
      3. 16.3 A Few Techniques and Device Structures to Enhance Light Outcoupling of OLEDs
      4. 16.4 Summary
      5. References
    4. Chapter 17: Photogeneration and Recombination in Polymer Solar Cells
      1. 17.1 Introduction
      2. 17.2 Photogeneration of Charge Carriers
      3. 17.3 Charge Carrier Transport in Disordered Organic Semiconductors
      4. 17.4 Recombination of Photogenerated Charge Carriers
      5. 17.5 Open-Circuit Voltage
      6. 17.6 Summary
      7. References
    5. Chapter 18: Light-Emitting Organic Crystal Field-Effect Transistors for Future Organic Injection Lasers
      1. 18.1 Introduction
      2. 18.2 Highly Photoluminescent Oligo(p-phenylenevinylene) Derivatives
      3. 18.3 Ambipolar Light-Emitting Field-Effect Transistors Based on Organic Single Crystals
      4. 18.4 Summary and the Outlook for Future Organic Injection Lasers
      5. References
  12. Index