With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

No credit card required

Book Description

Achieving believable motion in animation requires an understanding of physics that most of us missed out on in art school. Although animators often break the laws of physics for comedic or dramatic effect, you need to know which laws you’re breaking in order to make it work. And while large studios might be able to spend a lot of time and money testing different approaches or hiring a physics consultant, smaller studios and independent animators have no such luxury. This book takes the mystery out of physics tasks like character motion, light and shadow placement, explosions, ocean movement, and outer space scenes, making it easy to apply realistic physics to your work.

• Physics concepts are explained in animator’s terms, relating concepts specifically to animation movement and appearance.
• Complex mathematical concepts are broken down into clear steps you can follow to solve animation problems quickly and effectively.
• Bonus companion website at www.physicsforanimators.com offers additional resources, including examples in movies and games, links to resources, and tips on using physics in your work.

Uniting theory and practice, author Michele Bousquet teaches animators how to swiftly and efficiently create scientifically accurate scenes and fix problem spots, and how and when to break the laws of physics. Ideal for everything from classical 2D animation to advanced CG special effects, this book provides animators with solutions that are simple, quick, and powerful.

1. Cover
2. Title
4. Contents
5. Acknowledgements
6. Foreword
7. Introduction
8. SECTION 1 CLASSICAL PHYSICS
1. 1 Matter and Masses
1. Matter
1. Composition of Matter
2. Atoms and Binding
2. Masses
2. 2 Motion and Timing
1. Motion Lines and Paths
2. Linear Motion
3. Circular Motion
1. Types of Circular Motion
2. Rotational Motion
3. Centripetal Motion
4. Pendulum Motion
4. Wave Motion
1. What Waves Do
2. Visibility of Waves
3. Types of Waves
4. Wave Properties
5. Common Sound Effects
5. Timing
1. Timing Tools
2. Uniform Motion Timing
3. Slow In and Slow Out
4. Acceleration Timing
5. The Odd Rule
6. Motion Graphs
3. 3 Forces
1. Components of Force
1. Familiar and Unfamiliar Forces
2. Gravity
1. Gravitational Acceleration
3. Timing for Gravity
4. Calculating Total Time and Distance
5. Physics-Based Calculations
6. Visual Calculation Methods
7. Moving and Falling
8. Ascending Against Gravity
9. Center of Gravity
3. Friction
4. Pressure and Gases
1. Pressure Increase from Heat
2. Chemical Reaction
3. Force from Pressure Decrease
4. Atmospheric Pressure
5. Torque
1. Torque Basics
2. Torque Terminology
3. Maximizing Torque
4. Lever Systems
5. Lever System Classes
6. Balancing Torque in a Lever System
7. Increasing Leverage
6. Torque in Animation
7. Action/Reaction
8. Electricity and Magnetism
1. Electricity
2. Magnetism
3. Visualizing Electricity and Magnetism
4. 4 Light and Color
1. Light Basics
1. Light as Rays
2. Light and Reflection
3. Seeing in a Mirror
4. Bouncing Light Rays
5. Physically Based Lights
2. Reflection
1. Specular Reflection
2. Diffuse Reflection
3. Diffuse vs. Specular Reflections
4. Diffuse Interreflection
5. Partial Reflections
6. Refraction
7. Caustics
3. Gamma Correction
1. Linear vs. Curved Light Intensity
2. Gamma Calculations
3. Linear Workflow
9. SECTION 2 CHARACTER DESIGN AND ANIMATION
1. 5 Character Design
1. Size and Scale
1. Proportion and Scale
2. Physical Characteristics and Size
2. Joints
1. Types of Joints
2. Joints as Levers
3. Weight Distribution
1. Character Center of Gravity
2. Balance
2. 6 Character Animation
1. Jumping
1. Parts of a Jump
2. Calculating Jump Actions
3. Calculating Jump Timing
4. Push Time
5. Push Key Spacing
6. Motion Arc and Jump Timing
7. Landing
8. Stop Time
9. Very High Jumps
2. Walking
1. Poses
2. Hip Rotation
3. Shoulder Rotation
3. Dancing and Gymnastics
4. Lifting Weight
5. Getting Hit
1. Fight Scenes
2. Momentum and Force of Impact
3. Changing Momentum
6. Tipping Over
8. Overlapping Action
10. SECTION 3 VISUAL EFFECTS
1. 7 Environment
1. Cloud
1. What’s in a Cloud
2. Types of Clouds
3. Cloud Altitudes
4. Inside a Cloud
5. Movement of Clouds
6. Cloud Effects
2. Rain
1. Rain Formation
2. Wind and Rain
3. Where Rain Forms
4. Raindrops
3. Lightning
1. How Lightning Forms
2. Effects from Lightning
4. Thunder
2. 8 Fire and Explosions
1. Fire
1. Flames
2. Smoldering Solid Matter
3. Fireball
2. Smoke
1. Smoke Appearance
3. Explosions
1. Types of Explosions
2. Life of an Explosion
3. Role of Containers
4. Timing for Explosions
5. Shockwaves
4. Breakage and Fracture
1. Anatomy of Fracture
2. Crack Patterns
3. Animating Breakage
3. 9 Liquid Effects
1. Properties of Liquids
1. Cohesion
3. Viscosity
4. Surface Tension
5. Buoyancy
2. Liquid Appearance
3. Oceans and Lakes
1. Waves
2. Ocean and Lake Appearance
4. 10 Earth and Outer Space
1. Earth Today
1. Earth’s Layers
2. Atmosphere
2. Formation of Earth
1. Gaseous Earth
2. Supercontinents
3. Formation of Modern Landscape
3. Earth’s Crust
1. What’s a Rock?
2. Causes of Geology
4. Designing a Landscape
5. Life on Earth
6. Outer Space
1. Origin of the Universe
2. Stars
3. Galaxies
4. Nebulas
5. The Vacuum of Outer Space