*2*

*Fourier series*

**2.1 Complex Fourier series**

The phases , one for each integer *n*, are orthonormal on an interval of length 2*π*

(2.1) |

where *δ _{n,m}* = 1 if

(2.2) |

then their orthonormality (2.1) gives the *n*th coefficient *f _{n}* as the integral

(2.3) |

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