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Physical Mathematics by Kevin Cahill

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Linear algebra

1.1 Numbers

The natural numbers are the positive integers and zero. Rational numbers are ratios of integers. Irrational numbers have decimal digits dn

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(1.1)

that do not repeat. Thus the repeating decimals 1/2 = 0.50000 . . . and are rational, while π = 3.141592654 . . . is irrational. Decimal arithmetic was invented in India over 1500 years ago but was not widely adopted in the Europe until the seventeenth century.

The ...

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