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Physical and Biological Hazards of the Workplace, 3rd Edition

Book Description

Completely updated version this classic reference covers both physical hazards and biological agents
  • Provides updated information on protecting workers from proven and possible health risks from manual material handling, extremes of temperature and pressure, ionizing and non-ionizing (magnetic fields) radiation, shiftwork, and more
  • Details major changes in our understanding of biological hazards including Ebola, Chikungunya, Zika, HIV, Hepatitis C, Lyme disease, MERS-CoV, TB, and much more
  • All infectious diseases have been updated from an occupational health perspective
  • Includes practical guidance on to how to set up medical surveillance for hazards and suggests preventive measures that can be used to reduce occupational diseases

Table of Contents

  1. COVER
  2. TITLE PAGE
  3. ABOUT THE EDITORS
  4. LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
  5. FOREWORD TO THE FIRST EDITION
  6. PREFACE
  7. ACGIH POLICY STATEMENT
  8. ACGIH STATEMENT OF POSITION
  9. Part I: PHYSICAL HAZARDS
    1. Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION to PHYSICAL HAZARDS
      1. MECHANICS
      2. ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION
      3. WORKER PROTECTION
      4. Further Reading
  10. I: Worker–Material Interfaces
    1. Chapter 2: ERGONOMICS and UPPER EXTREMITY MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS
      1. OCCUPATIONAL SETTING
      2. MEASUREMENT—ASSESSMENT
      3. EXPOSURE GUIDELINES
      4. NORMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND ANATOMY
      5. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS
      6. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
      7. SURVEILLANCE
      8. PREVENTION
      9. References
    2. Chapter 3: MANUAL MATERIALS HANDLING
      1. OCCUPATIONAL SETTING
      2. NORMAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE SPINE
      3. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF INJURY AND RISK FACTORS
      4. MEASUREMENT ISSUES
      5. GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS
      6. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
      7. MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE
      8. PREVENTION
      9. SUMMARY
      10. References
    3. Chapter 4: OCCUPATIONAL VIBRATION EXPOSURE
      1. OCCUPATIONAL SETTING
      2. OCCUPATIONAL VIBRATION MEASUREMENTS
      3. OCCUPATIONAL VIBRATION GUIDELINES USED IN THE UNITED STATES
      4. WHOLE‐BODY VIBRATION AND LOW BACK PROBLEMS
      5. PREVENTION
      6. HAND–ARM VIBRATION MEDICAL EFFECTS
      7. DIAGNOSIS
      8. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
      9. TREATMENT AND MANAGEMENT
      10. HAND–ARM VIBRATION CONTROL
      11. References
    4. Chapter 5: MECHANICAL ENERGY
      1. OCCUPATIONAL SETTING
      2. MEASUREMENT ISSUES
      3. EXPOSURE GUIDELINES
      4. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF INJURY
      5. TREATMENT
      6. SURVEILLANCE PROGRAMS
      7. PREVENTION
      8. SUMMARY
      9. References
  11. II: The Physical Work Environment
    1. Chapter 6: HOT ENVIRONMENTS
      1. OCCUPATIONAL SETTING
      2. MEASUREMENT ISSUES
      3. EXPOSURE GUIDELINES
      4. ACGIH GUIDELINES
      5. NIOSH GUIDELINES
      6. NORMAL PHYSIOLOGY
      7. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ILLNESS AND TREATMENT
      8. MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE
      9. HEAT EXPOSURE AND REPRODUCTION
      10. PREVENTION
      11. References
    2. Chapter 7: COLD ENVIRONMENTS
      1. OCCUPATIONAL SETTING
      2. MEASUREMENT ISSUES
      3. EXPOSURE GUIDELINES
      4. NORMAL PHYSIOLOGY
      5. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF INJURY
      6. DIAGNOSIS
      7. TREATMENT
      8. MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE
      9. PREVENTION
      10. References
    3. Chapter 8: HIGH-PRESSURE ENVIRONMENTS
      1. OCCUPATIONAL SETTING
      2. MEASUREMENT ISSUES AND PHYSICS OF PRESSURE
      3. EXPOSURE GUIDELINES
      4. SPECIAL UNDERWATER STRESSORS
      5. OTHER HAZARDS IN THE DIVING ENVIRONMENT
      6. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF DIRECT PRESSURE INJURY
      7. LONG-TERM HEALTH EFFECTS
      8. TREATMENT OF BUBBLE-RELATED DISEASE
      9. MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE
      10. PREVENTION
      11. References
    4. Chapter 9: LOW-PRESSURE and HIGH-ALTITUDE ENVIRONMENTS
      1. OCCUPATIONAL SETTING
      2. LOW-PRESSURE ENVIRONMENTS
      3. HYPOXIA
      4. HIGH-ALTITUDE ACCLIMATIZATION AND ILLNESS
      5. OTHER ALTITUDE-RELATED CONDITIONS
      6. References
    5. Chapter 10: SHIFT WORK
      1. OCCUPATIONAL SETTING
      2. MEASUREMENT GUIDELINES
      3. EXPOSURE GUIDELINES (SCHEDULE DESIGN)
      4. NORMAL PHYSIOLOGY
      5. PATHOBIOLOGY (CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS AND SHIFT WORK)
      6. DIAGNOSIS
      7. TREATMENT (COUNTERMEASURES)
      8. MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE
      9. PREVENTION AND ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS
      10. References
  12. III: Energy and Electromagnetic Radiation
    1. Chapter 11: IONIZING RADIATION
      1. BACKGROUND RADIATION
      2. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES
      3. DIAGNOSTIC MEDICAL EXPOSURES
      4. MEASUREMENT ISSUES AND THE PHYSICS OF IONIZING RADIATION
      5. EXPOSURE GUIDELINES
      6. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND HEALTH EFFECTS
      7. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
      8. PREVENTION
      9. EMERGENCY INFORMATION AND EXPERT ADVICE
      10. References
    2. Chapter 12: ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION
      1. OCCUPATIONAL SETTING
      2. MEASUREMENT ISSUES
      3. EXPOSURE GUIDELINES
      4. NORMAL PHYSIOLOGY
      5. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF INJURY
      6. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
      7. MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE
      8. PREVENTION
      9. References
    3. Chapter 13: VISIBLE LIGHT and INFRARED RADIATION
      1. OCCUPATIONAL SETTING
      2. MEASUREMENT ISSUES
      3. EXPOSURE GUIDELINES
      4. NORMAL PHYSIOLOGY
      5. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF INJURY
      6. TREATMENT
      7. MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE
      8. PREVENTION
      9. References
    4. Chapter 14: LASER RADIATION
      1. OCCUPATIONAL SETTING
      2. MEASUREMENT ISSUES AND CLASSIFICATION OF LASER POWER
      3. EXPOSURE GUIDELINES
      4. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF INJURY
      5. TREATMENT
      6. MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE
      7. PREVENTION
      8. References
    5. Chapter 15: MICROWAVE, RADIOFREQUENCY, and EXTREMELY LOW-FREQUENCY ENERGY
      1. MICROWAVE AND RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION
      2. EXTREMELY LOW-FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION: MAGNETIC FIELDS
      3. References
    6. Chapter 16: NOISE
      1. OCCUPATIONAL SETTING
      2. MEASUREMENT ISSUES
      3. EXPOSURE GUIDELINES
      4. NORMAL PHYSIOLOGY
      5. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF NOISE-INDUCED HEARING LOSS
      6. DIAGNOSIS
      7. TREATMENT
      8. MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE
      9. PREVENTION
      10. References
    7. Chapter 17: ELECTRICAL POWER and ELECTRICAL INJURIES
      1. OCCUPATIONAL SETTING
      2. LIGHTNING INJURIES
      3. References
  13. Part II: BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS
    1. Chapter 18: GENERAL PRINCIPLES of MICROBIOLOGY and INFECTIOUS DISEASE
      1. ETIOLOGY OF DISEASE
      2. TRANSMISSIBILITY OF DISEASE
      3. INFECTIVITY OF DISEASE
      4. CLASSIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMS FOR LABORATORY WORK
    2. Chapter 19: CLINICAL RECOGNITION of OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE and HEALTH CONSEQUENCES
      1. INFECTION
      2. SPECIFIC CLINICAL DISEASES
      3. IMMUNE MECHANISMS AND HYPERSENSITIVITY DISORDERS
      4. SPECIFIC CLINICAL SYNDROMES
      5. LABORATORY CONFIRMATION OF INFECTIOUS AND HYPERSENSITIVITY DISEASES
      6. CLINICAL TESTING FOR HYPERSENSITIVITY
      7. WHEN TO SUSPECT OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS OF BIOLOGICAL ORIGIN
      8. EVALUATION OF SUSPECTED OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS
    3. Chapter 20: PREVENTION of ILLNESS from BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS
      1. OCCUPATIONS WITH POTENTIAL BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS
      2. THE OSHA BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS STANDARD
      3. THE HISTORY OF OSHA GUIDELINES FOR TUBERCULOSIS
      4. PROPOSED OSHA INFECTIOUS DISEASE STANDARD
      5. PREVENTION OF EXPOSURE TO BIOLOGICAL AGENTS
      6. SURVEILLANCE
      7. VACCINATION
      8. SPECIAL SITUATIONS
    4. Chapter 21: VIRUSES
      1. ARBOVIRUSES (Yellow fever, Dengue fever, Chikungunya, Zika fever, Japanese encephalitis, St Louis encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis, La Crosse encephalitis, Colorado tick fever)
      2. References
      3. ARENAVIRUSES
      4. References
      5. CORONAVIRUS
      6. References
      7. CYTOMEGALOVIRUS (CMV)
      8. References
      9. FILOVIRUSES (EBOLA AND MARBURG VIRUSES)
      10. References
      11. HANTAVIRUSES
      12. References
      13. HEPATITIS A VIRUS (HAV)
      14. References
      15. HEPATITIS B VIRUS (HBV)
      16. References
      17. HEPATITIS C VIRUS (HCV)
      18. References
      19. HERPES B VIRUS
      20. References
      21. HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS (HSV)
      22. References
      23. HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV-1)
      24. References
      25. HUMAN T-CELL LYMPHOTROPHIC VIRUS
      26. References
      27. INFLUENZA VIRUS
      28. References
      29. MEASLES VIRUS
      30. References
      31. MUMPS VIRUS
      32. References
      33. NOROVIRUS (FORMERLY NORWALK VIRUS) AND OTHER ENTERIC VIRUSES
      34. References
      35. PARVOVIRUS B19
      36. References
      37. RABIES VIRUS
      38. References
      39. RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS (RSV)
      40. References
      41. RUBELLA VIRUS
      42. References
      43. SIMIAN RETROVIRUSES
      44. References
      45. VACCINIA
      46. References
      47. VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS (VZV)
      48. References
    5. Chapter 22: BACTERIA
      1. ACINETOBACTER SPECIES
      2. BACILLUS SPECIES
      3. BORRELIA SPECIES
      4. BRUCELLA SPECIES
      5. CAMPYLOBACTER SPECIES
      6. CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM (INCLUDING C. ARGENTINENSE, C. BARATII, AND C. BUTYRICUM)
      7. CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE
      8. CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS (also C. SEPTICUM, C. NOVI)
      9. CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI
      10. CORYNEBACTERIUM SPECIES
      11. ERYSIPELOTHRIX RHUSIOPATHIAE
      12. ESCHERICHIA COLI
      13. FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS (INCLUDING F. NOVOCIDA)
      14. HAEMOPHILUS DUCREYI
      15. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZA
      16. HELICOBACTER PYLORI
      17. LEGIONELLA SPECIES (LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA, LEGIONELLA LONGBEACHAE)
      18. LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS
      19. LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES
      20. MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE
      21. NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE
      22. NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS
      23. PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA
      24. PSEUDOMONAS AND BURKHOLDERIA SPECIES
      25. RAT-BITE FEVER: STREPTOBACILLUS MONILIFORMIS AND SPIRILLUM MINOR
      26. RELAPSING FEVER: BORRELIA SPECIES (other than B. burgdorferi)
      27. SALMONELLA SPECIES
      28. SHIGELLA SPECIES
      29. STAPHYLOCOCCUS SPECIES
      30. STREPTOCOCCUS SPECIES
      31. TREPONEMA PALLIDUM
      32. VIBRIO CHOLERAE
      33. VIBRIO SPECIES OTHER THAN V. CHOLERAE (V. PARAHEMOLYTICUS, V. VULNIFICUS)
      34. YERSINIA PESTIS
      35. YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS AND ENTEROCOLITICA
    6. Chapter 23: MYCOBACTERIA
      1. MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS (M. tb.)
      2. MYCOBACTERIA OTHER THAN MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS
    7. Chapter 24: FUNGI
      1. ALTERNARIA SPECIES
      2. References
      3. ASPERGILLUS SPECIES
      4. References
      5. BASIDIOMYCETES (INCLUDING MERULIUS LACRYMANS, LYCOPERDON, AND MUSHROOMS)
      6. References
      7. BLASTOMYCES DERMATITIDIS
      8. References
      9. CANDIDA SPECIES
      10. References
      11. CLADOSPORIUM SPECIES
      12. References
      13. COCCIDIOIDES IMMITIS
      14. References
      15. CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS AND CRYPTOCOCCUS GATTII
      16. References
      17. CRYPTOSTROMA CORTICALE
      18. References
      19. FONSECAEA AND OTHER AGENTS OF CHROMOMYCOSIS
      20. References
      21. HISTOPLASMA CAPSULATUM
      22. References
      23. MADURELLA SPECIES AND OTHER AGENTS OF MYCETOMA
      24. References
      25. PARACOCCIDIOIDES BRASILIENSIS
      26. References
      27. PENICILLIUM SPECIES
      28. References
      29. SPOROTHRIX SCHENCKII
      30. References
      31. STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM
      32. References
      33. TRICHOPHYTON AND OTHER DERMATOPHYTES
      34. References
      35. ZYGOMYCETES
      36. References
    8. Chapter 25: ANAPLASMA, CHLAMYDOPHILA, COXIELLA, EHRLICHIA, and RICKETTSIA
      1. ANAPLASMA
      2. References
      3. CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI
      4. References
      5. COXIELLA BURNETII
      6. References
      7. EHRLICHIA SPECIES
      8. References
      9. RICKETTSIA RICKETTSII
      10. References
    9. Chapter 26: PARASITES
      1. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM
      2. References
      3. CYCLOSPORIASIS
      4. References
      5. CUTANEOUS, MUCOCUTANEOUS, AND VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS
      6. References
      7. NANOPHYETUS
      8. References
      9. PFIESTERIA PISCICIDA
      10. References
      11. PLASMODIUM SPECIES
      12. References
      13. TOXOPLASMA GONDII
      14. References
    10. Chapter 27: ENVENOMATIONS
      1. ARTHROPOD ENVENOMATIONS
      2. HYMENOPTERA
      3. References
      4. LATRODECTUS SPECIES
      5. References
      6. LOXOSCELES SPECIES
      7. References
      8. SCORPIONIDA (SCORPIONS)
      9. References
      10. MARINE ENVENOMATIONS
      11. CATFISH
      12. References
      13. COELENTERATE: ANTHOZOA
      14. References
      15. COELENTERATE: HYDROZOA
      16. References
      17. COELENTERATA: SCYPHOZOA
      18. References
      19. DASYATIS (STINGRAY)
      20. References
      21. ECHINODERMATA
      22. References
      23. MOLLUSCA
      24. References
      25. PORIFERA
      26. References
      27. SCORPAENIDAE
      28. References
      29. SNAKE ENVENOMATIONS
      30. COLUBRIDAE
      31. References
      32. CROTALIDAE
      33. References
      34. ELAPIDAE
      35. References
      36. HYDROPHIDAE
      37. References
    11. Chapter 28: ALLERGENS
      1. ENZYMES
      2. References
      3. FARM ANIMALS
      4. References
      5. GRAIN DUST
      6. References
      7. INSECTS
      8. References
      9. LABORATORY ANIMALS
      10. References
      11. MITES
      12. References
      13. PLANTS
      14. References
      15. SHELLFISH AND OTHER MARINE INVERTEBRATES
      16. References
      17. WHEAT FLOUR AND EGG
      18. References
    12. Chapter 29: LATEX
      1. OCCUPATIONAL SETTING
      2. EXPOSURE (ROUTE)
      3. PATHOBIOLOGY
      4. DIAGNOSIS
      5. TREATMENT
      6. MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE
      7. PREVENTION
      8. References
    13. Chapter 30: MALIGNANT CELLS
      1. OCCUPATIONAL SETTING
      2. EXPOSURE (ROUTE)
      3. PATHOBIOLOGY
      4. TREATMENT
      5. MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE
      6. PREVENTION
      7. References
    14. Chapter 31: RECOMBINANT ORGANISMS
      1. OCCUPATIONAL SETTING
      2. EXPOSURE (ROUTE)
      3. PATHOBIOLOGY
      4. MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE
      5. PREVENTION
      6. References
    15. Chapter 32: PRIONS
      1. OCCUPATIONAL SETTING
      2. EXPOSURE (ROUTE)
      3. PATHOBIOLOGY
      4. DIAGNOSIS
      5. TREATMENT
      6. PREVENTION
      7. References
    16. Chapter 33: ENDOTOXINS
      1. OCCUPATIONAL SETTING
      2. EXPOSURE (ROUTE)
      3. PATHOBIOLOGY
      4. ACUTE EXPOSURES
      5. CHRONIC EXPOSURE
      6. DIAGNOSIS
      7. TREATMENT
      8. MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE
      9. PREVENTION
      10. References
    17. Chapter 34: WOOD DUST
      1. OCCUPATIONAL SETTING
      2. EXPOSURE (ROUTE)
      3. PATHOBIOLOGY
      4. DIAGNOSIS
      5. TREATMENT
      6. MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE
      7. PREVENTION
      8. References
  14. INDEX
  15. END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT