You are previewing PHP Web Services.

PHP Web Services

Cover of PHP Web Services by Lorna Jane Mitchell Published by O'Reilly Media, Inc.
  1. Preface
    1. Conventions Used in This Book
    2. Using Code Examples
    3. Safari® Books Online
    4. How to Contact Us
  2. 1. Introduction
  3. 2. HTTP
    1. Examining HTTP
      1. Curl
      2. Browser Tools
      3. PHP
  4. 3. Request and Response
    1. Clients and Servers
  5. 4. HTTP Verbs
    1. GET
    2. POST
    3. Other HTTP Verbs
  6. 5. Headers
    1. Request and Response Headers
    2. Common HTTP Headers
      1. User-Agent
      2. Headers for Content Negotiation
      3. Authorization
      4. Custom Headers
  7. 6. Cookies
    1. Cookie Mechanics
    2. Working With Cookies in PHP
  8. 7. JSON
    1. When to Choose JSON
    2. Handling JSON with PHP
    3. JSON in Existing APIs
  9. 8. XML
    1. When To Choose XML
    2. XML in PHP
    3. XML in Existing APIs
  10. 9. RPC and SOAP Services
    1. RPC
    2. SOAP
      1. WSDL
      2. PHP SOAP Client
      3. PHP SOAP Server
      4. Generating a WSDL File from PHP
      5. PHP Client and Server with WSDL
  11. 10. REST
    1. RESTful URLs
    2. Resource Structure and Hypermedia
    3. Data and Media Types
    4. HTTP Features in REST
      1. Create Resources
      2. Read Records
      3. Update Records
      4. Delete Records
    5. Additional Headers in RESTful Services
      1. Authorisation Headers
      2. Caching Headers
    6. RESTful vs Useful
  12. 11. Debugging Web Services
    1. Debug Output
    2. Logging
    3. Debugging From Outside Your Application
      1. Wireshark
      2. Charles Proxy
    4. Finding the Tool for the Job
  13. 12. Making Service Design Decisions
    1. Service Type Decisions
    2. Consider Data Formats
    3. Customisable Experiences
    4. Pick Your Defaults
  14. 13. Building a Robust Service
    1. Consistency is Key
      1. Consistent and Meaningful Naming
      2. Common Validation Rules
      3. Predictable Structures
    2. Making Design Decisions for Robustness
  15. 14. Error Handling in APIs
    1. Output Format
    2. Meaningful Error Messages
    3. What To Do When You See Errors
  16. 15. Documentation
    1. Overview Documentation
    2. API Documentation
    3. Interactive Documentation
    4. Tutorials and the Wider Ecosystem
  17. A. A Guide To Common Status Codes
  18. B. Common HTTP Headers
  19. About the Author
  20. Copyright
O'Reilly logo

Chapter 2. HTTP

HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol, and is the basis upon which the web is built. Each HTTP transaction consists of a request and a response. The HTTP protocol itself is made up of many pieces; there’s the URL that the request was directed at, the verb that was used, other headers and status codes - and of course the body of the responses which is what we usually see when we browse the web in a browser.

As an example, point a browser at http://oreilly.com/ and see a page looking something like Figure 2-1; we either find the information on the page or we use the hyperlinks on that page to journey onwards for the information desired.

O’Reilly Homepage
Figure 2-1. O’Reilly Homepage

The web page arrives in the body of the HTTP response, but it tells only half of the story. The rest is in the other parts of the HTTP request and response and for this example, we see something like this:

Request header:

GET / HTTP/1.1
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux i686) AppleWebKit/537.8 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/23.0.1246.0 Safari/537.8
Host: oreilly.com
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Encoding: gzip,deflate,sdch
Accept-Language: en-GB,en-US;q=0.8,en;q=0.6

Response header:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK Date: Thu, 15 Nov 2012 09:36:05 GMT Server: Apache Last-Modified: Thu, 15 Nov 2012 08:35:04 GMT Accept-Ranges: bytes Content-Length: 80554 Content-Type: text/html; ...

The best content for your career. Discover unlimited learning on demand for around $1/day.