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Pharmaceutical Physical Chemistry: Theory and Practices

Book Description

Physical chemistry is a compulsory paper offered to all the students of pharmacy. There is a dearth of good books that exclusively cover the syllabi of physical chemistry offered to pharmacy courses. Pharmaceutical Physical Chemistry: Theory and Practices has been designed considering their requirements laid down by AICTE and other premier institutes/universities. Apart from the theory 20 most common laboratory experiments have been included to make this book a unique offering to the students of pharmacy.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. About the Author
  5. Dedication
  6. Preface
  7. 1. Behaviour of Gases
    1. 1.1 - Introduction
    2. 1.2 - Gas Laws
      1. 1.2.1 - Boyle’s Law
      2. 1.2.2 - Charles Law
      3. 1.2.3 - Avogadro’s Law
      4. 1.2.4 - The Combined Gas Law Equation or the Gas Equation
      5. 1.2.5 - Graham’s Law of Diffusion
      6. 1.2.6 - Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
    3. 1.3 - Kinetic Theory of Gases
      1. 1.3.1 - Postulates (Assumptions) of Kinetic Theory
    4. 1.4 - Derivation of Kinetic Gas Equation
    5. 1.5 - Derivation of Gas Laws from Kinetic Equation
      1. 1.5.1 - Some Useful Deductions from Kinetic Theory of Gases
    6. 1.6 - Ideal and Real Gases
      1. 1.6.1 - Ideal Gases
      2. 1.6.2 - Real Gas
    7. 1.7 - Deviations of Real Gases from Gas Laws
      1. 1.7.1 - Deviations from Boyle’s Law
    8. 1.8 - Causes of the Derivations from Ideal Behaviour
    9. 1.9 - Van der Waals’ Equation (Reduced Equation of State) (Equation of State for Real Gases)
      1. 1.9.1 - Units of van der Waals’ Constants
      2. 1.9.2 - Significance of van der Waals’ Constant
    10. 1.10 - Explanation of Behaviour of Real Gases on the Basis of van der Waals’ Equation
    11. 1.11 - Isotherms of Carbon Dioxide—Critical Phenomenon
    12. 1.12 - Principle of Continuity of States
    13. 1.13 - Critical Constants
      1. 1.13.1 - Relations Between van der Waals’ Constants and Critical Constants
      2. 1.13.2 - Derivation of PcVc=3/8RTc from van der Waals’ Equation
      3. 1.13.3 - Calculation of van der Waals’ Constants in terms of Tc and Pc
    14. 1.14 - Law of Corresponding States
      1. 1.14.1 - Significance of Law of Corresponding States
    15. 1.15 - Limitations of van der Waals’ Equation
    16. Revision Questions
    17. Multiple Choice Questions
    18. Answers
  8. 2. The Liquid State
    1. 2.1 - Introduction
    2. 2.2 - General Characteristics of Liquids
    3. 2.3 - Classification of Physical Properties of Liquids
    4. 2.4 - Surface Tension
      1. 2.4.1 - Some Important Results
      2. 2.4.2 - Effect of Temperature on Surface Tension
      3. 2.4.3 - Measurement of Surface Tension
      4. 2.4.4 - Surface Tension in Everyday Life
      5. 2.4.5 - Surface Tension and Chemical Constitution (Parachor)
    5. 2.5 - Viscosity
      1. 2.5.1 - Coefficient of Viscosity
      2. 2.5.2 - Measurement of Viscosity
      3. 2.5.3 - Effect of Temperature on Viscosity
      4. 2.5.4 - Factors Affecting Viscosity
      5. 2.5.5 - Viscosity and Chemical Constitution
    6. 2.6 - Refractive Index
      1. 2.6.1 - Measurement of Refractive Index
      2. 2.6.2 - Refractive Index and Chemical Constitution
    7. 2.7 - Optical Activity
      1. 2.7.1 - Optical Activity
      2. 2.7.2 - Specific Rotation
      3. 2.7.3 - Optical Activity and Chemical Constitution
    8. 2.8 - Polarity of Bonds
      1. 2.8.1 - Polar Character of Covalent Bond
    9. 2.9 - Dipole Moment
      1. 2.9.1 - Unit of Dipole Moment
      2. 2.9.2 - Dipole Moment and Molecular Structure
      3. 2.9.3 - Application of Dipole Moments
    10. Revision Questions
    11. Multiple Choice Questions
    12. Answers
  9. 3. Solution
    1. 3.1 - Introduction
    2. 3.2 - Modes of Expressing Concentration of Solutions
    3. 3.3 - Raoult’s Law
      1. 3.3.1 - For a Solution of Volatile Liquids
      2. 3.3.2 - For a Solution of Non-volatile Solute
    4. 3.4 - Ideal Solution
      1. 3.4.1 - Non-ideal Solution
      2. 3.4.2 - Solutions Showing Positive Deviations
      3. 3.4.3 - Solutions Showing Negative Deviations
      4. 3.4.4 - Factors Responsible for Deviations
      5. 3.4.5 - Distinction Between Ideal and Non-ideal Solutions
      6. 3.4.6 - Difference Between Solutions of Positive and Negative Deviations
    5. 3.5 - Colligative Properties of Dilute Solution
    6. 3.6 - Lowering of Vapour Pressure
      1. 3.6.1 - Determination of Molecular Masses of Non-volatile Solute
    7. 3.7 - Elevation in Boiling Point
      1. 3.7.1 - Expression for the Elevation in Boiling Point
      2. 3.7.2 - Calculation of Molecular Masses
    8. 3.8 - Depression of Freezing Point
      1. 3.8.1 - Expression for the Depression in Freezing Point
      2. 3.8.2 - Calculation of Molecular Masses
    9. 3.9 - Osmotic Pressure
      1. 3.9.1 - Difference Between Osmosis and Diffusion
      2. 3.9.2 - Osmotic Pressure
      3. 3.9.3 - Determination of Osmotic Pressure Berkley and Hertley’s Method
      4. 3.9.4 - Osmotic Pressure is a Colligative Property
      5. 3.9.5 - Isotonic Solutions
      6. 3.9.6 - Calculation of Molecular Masses from Osmotic Pressure
    10. 3.10 - Abnormal Molecular Masses
      1. 3.10.1 - Modified Equation for Colligative Properties in Case of Abnormal Molecular Masses
    11. Revision Question
    12. Multiple Choice Questions
    13. Answers
  10. 4. Thermodynamics
    1. 4.1 - Introduction
      1. 4.1.1 - Objective of Thermodynamics
      2. 4.1.2 - Limitation of Thermodynamics
    2. 4.2 - Some Common Thermodynamics Terms
      1. 4.2.1 - Thermodynamic Equilibrium
      2. 4.2.2 - Thermodynamic Processes
      3. 4.2.3 - Reversible and Irreversible Processes
      4. 4.2.4 - Thermodynamic Properties
    3. 4.3 - Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
      1. 4.3.1 - Absolute Scale of Temperature
    4. 4.4 - Work, Heat and Energy Changes
      1. 4.4.1 - Work
      2. 4.4.2 - Heat
      3. 4.4.3 - Equivalence Between Mechanical Work and Heat
      4. 4.4.4 - Internal Energy
    5. 4.5 - First Law of Thermodynamics
      1. 4.5.1 - Mathematical Formulation of First Law of Thermodynamics
      2. 4.5.2 - Some Special Forms of First Law of Thermodynamics
      3. 4.5.3 - Limitations of the First Law of Thermodynamics
    6. 4.6 - The Heat Content or Enthalpy of a System
    7. 4.7 - Heat Capacities at Constant Pressure and at Constant Volume
      1. 4.7.1 - Heat Capacity at Constant Volume
      2. 4.7.2 - Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure
      3. 4.7.3 - Relationship Between Cp and Cv
    8. 4.8 - Joule-Thomson Effect
    9. 4.9 - Reversible-Isothermal Expansion of an Ideal Gas
      1. 4.9.1 - Maximum Work
    10. 4.10 - Second Law of Thermodynamics
      1. 4.10.1 - Spontaneous Processes and Reactions (Basis of Second Law)
      2. 4.10.2 - Spontaneous Reactions
    11. 4.11 - Entropy
      1. 4.11.1 - Mathematical Explanation of Entropy
      2. 4.11.2 - Entropy Change in Chemical Reaction
      3. 4.11.3 - Units of Entropy
      4. 4.11.4 - Physical Significance of Entropy
      5. 4.11.5 - Entropy Change Accompanying Change of Phase
      6. 4.11.6 - Entropy Changes in Reversible Processes
      7. 4.11.7 - Entropy Changes in Irreversible Processes
      8. 4.11.8 - Entropy as Criterion of Spontaneity
      9. 4.11.9 - Entropy Changes for an Ideal Gas
    12. Revision Questions
    13. Multiple Choice Questions
    14. Answers
  11. 5. Adsorption and Catalysis
    1. 5.1 - Adsorption
    2. 5.2 - Types of Adsorption
    3. 5.3 - Factors Affecting Adsorption of Gases on Solids
    4. 5.4 - Adsorption Isobar (Effect of Temperature on Adsorption)
    5. 5.5 - Adsorption Isotherm (Effect of Pressure)
      1. 5.5.1 - Explanation of Type I Isotherm
      2. 5.5.2 - Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm
      3. 5.5.3 - The Langmuir Adsorption Isotherm
      4. 5.5.4 - Verification
      5. 5.5.5 - Explanation of Type II and III Isotherms
      6. 5.5.6 - Explanation of Type IV and V Isotherms
    6. 5.6 - Theory of Adsorption
    7. 5.7 - Gibbs’ Adsorption Equation
    8. 5.8 - Applications of Gibbs’ Adsorption Equation
    9. 5.9 - Equation for Multi-Layer Adsorption (B.E.T. Equation)
      1. 5.9.1 - Determination of Surface Area of the Adsorbent
    10. 5.10 - Catalysis
      1. 5.10.1 - Positive and Negative Catalyses
    11. 5.11 - Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalyses
    12. 5.12 - How Does a Catalyst Work?
      1. 5.12.1 - Characteristics of Catalytic Reactions
      2. 5.12.2 - Acid–Base Catalysis
      3. 5.12.3 - Enzyme Catalysis
    13. 5.13 - Mechanism of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalyses
      1. 5.13.1 - Significant Characteristics of Heterogeneous Catalysis
      2. 5.13.2 - Facts Explained by Adsorption Theory
    14. Revision Questions
    15. Multiple Choice Questions
    16. Answers
  12. 6. Photochemistry
    1. 6.1 - Introduction
    2. 6.2 - Thermochemical and Photochemical Reactions
    3. 6.3 - Laws Governing Light Absorption — Lambert’s Law and Beer’s Law
    4. 6.3.1 - Limitations of Lambert–Beer’s Law
    5. 6.4 - Laws of Photochemistry
      1. 6.4.1 - Grotthus–Drapper Principle of Photochemical Activation: (First Law of Photochemistry)
      2. 6.4.2 - Stark–Einstein’s Law of Photochemical Equivalence— The Second Law of Photochemistry
    6. 6.5 - Quantum Efficiency
      1. 6.5.1 - Explanation of the Unexpected Behaviour
      2. 6.5.2 - Classification of Photochemical Reactions (Based on their Quantum Efficiencies)
    7. 6.6 - Study of Some Photochemical Reactions
    8. 6.7 - Fluorescence and Phosphorescence
      1. 6.7.1 - Fluorescence
      2. 6.7.2 - Phosphorescence
      3. 6.7.3 - Photophysical Process—Consequence of Light Absorption (Jablonski Diagram)
      4. 6.7.4 - Mechanism of Fluorescence and Phosphorescence
      5. 6.7.5 - Difference between Fluorescence and Phosphorescence
    9. Revision Questions
    10. Multiple Choice Questions
    11. Answers
  13. 7. Chemical Kinetics
    1. 7.1 - Introduction
    2. 7.2 - Rate of a Reaction
      1. 7.2.1 - Measurement of Rate of a Reaction
      2. 7.2.2 - Expressing the Rate of a Reaction
      3. 7.2.3 - Factors Influencing Rate of a Reaction
    3. 7.3 - Rate Constant and Rate Equation
      1. 7.3.1 - Differences Between Rate of a Reaction and Rate Constant
    4. 7.4 - Order of a Reaction
      1. 7.4.1 - Units for Rate Constant or Specific Reaction Rate
    5. 7.5 - Molecularity of a Reaction
      1. 7.5.1 - Differences Between Order and Molecularity of a Reaction
    6. 7.6 - Zero-order Reactions
      1. 7.6.1 - Characteristics of a Zero-order Reaction
    7. 7.7 - Intergrated Rate Law Equation for First-order Reactions
      1. 7.7.1 - Characteristics or Significance of First-order Reaction
      2. 7.7.2 - Examples of the Reactions of First Order
      3. 7.7.3 - Pseudo First-order Reaction
    8. 7.8 - Second-order Reactions
      1. 7.8.1 - Characteristics of Second-order Reaction
      2. 7.8.2 - Example of the Second-order Reaction
    9. 7.9 - Third-order Reaction
      1. 7.9.1 - Characteristics of a Third-order Reaction
      2. 7.9.2 - Example of Third-order Reactions
    10. 7.10 - Reactions of Higher Order
    11. 7.11 - Determination of Rate Law, Rate Constant and Order of Reaction
    12. 7.12 - Some Complications in Determination of Order of a Reaction
      1. 7.12.1 - Consecutive Reactions
    13. 7.13 - Temperature Dependence of Reaction Rates
      1. 7.13.1 - Explanation of Effect of Temperature
      2. 7.13.2 - Arrhenius Equation
    14. 7.14 - Mechanism of a Reaction (Concept of Molecularity and Order of a Reaction)
    15. 7.15 - Theories of Reaction Rates
    16. Revision Questions
    17. Multiple Choice Questions
    18. Answers
  14. 8. Quantum Mechanics
    1. 8.1 - Introduction
    2. 8.2 - Classical Mechanics and Its Limitations
      1. 8.2.1 - Limitations
    3. 8.3 - Origin of Quantum Mechanics
      1. 8.3.1 - Classical Mechanics Versus Quantum (or wave) Mechanics
    4. 8.4 - Black Body Radiations
    5. 8.5 - Kirchoff’s Law
      1. 8.5.1 - Spectral Distribution of Black Body Radiation
    6. 8.6 - Stefan-Boltzmann Fourth Power Law
    7. 8.7 - Wien’s Displacement Law
    8. 8.8 - Planck’s Radiation Law
    9. 8.9 - Postulates of Quantum Mechanics
    10. 8.10 - Operators in Quantum Mechanics
      1. 8.10.1 - Types of Operators
    11. 8.11 - Schrödinger Wave Equation
      1. 8.11.1 - Derivation of Schrödinger Wave Equation
    12. 8.12 - Eigenvalues and Eigenfunctions (or Wave Functions)
      1. 8.12.1 - Physical Significance of the Wave Function
    13. 8.13 - Normalized and Orthogonal Eigenfunctions
    14. 8.14 - Concept of Atomic Orbital
    15. 8.15 - Probability Distribution Curves
    16. 8.16 - Radial Probability Distribution Curves
      1. 8.16.1 - Radial Probability Distribution Curve for 1s Orbital
      2. 8.16.2 - Radial Probability Distribution Curves for other s Orbitals
      3. 8.16.3 - Comparison of Radial Probability, Distribution Curves for 1s with Other s Atomic Orbitals
      4. 8.16.4 - Radial Probability Distribution Curves for p Orbitals
      5. 8.16.5 - Comparison of Radial Probability Distribution Curves for 2s and 2p Orbitals
      6. 8.16.6 - Comparison of Radial Probability Distribution Curves for 3s, 3p and 3d Orbitals
    17. Revision Questions
    18. Multiple Choice Questions
    19. Answers
  15. 9. Ionic Equilibria
    1. 9.1 - Introduction
    2. 9.2 - Arrhenius Theory of Ionization
      1. 9.2.1 - Degree of Dissociation or Ionization
    3. 9.3 - Ionisation of Weak Electrolytes—Ostwald’s Dilution Law
      1. 9.3.1 - Verification of Ostwald’s Dilution Law
    4. 9.4 - Arrhenius Concept of Acids and Bases
      1. 9.4.1 - Limitation of Arrhenius Theory
    5. 9.5 - Ionisation Constant of Weak Acids and Bases (Arrhenius Concept)
    6. 9.6 - Bronsted–Lowry Concept of Acids and Bases
      1. 9.6.1 - Conjugate Acid Base Pairs
      2. 9.6.2 - Relative Strength of Acids and Bases
      3. 9.6.3 - Limitation of Bronsted—Lowry Theory
    7. 9.7 - Lewis Concept of Acids and Bases
      1. 9.7.1 - Limitations of Lewis Concept
    8. 9.8 - Ionic Product of Water
      1. 9.8.1 - Concentrations of H3O + and OH – ions in Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases
    9. 9.9 - PH Scale
      1. 9.9.1 - The POH Scale
    10. 9.10 - Buffer Solution
      1. 9.10.1 - Buffer Action of Buffer Solutions
      2. 9.10.2 - Applications of Buffer Solutions
    11. Revision Questions
    12. Multiple Choice Questions
    13. Answers
  16. 10. Distribution Law
    1. 10.1 - Introduction
    2. 10.2 - Conditions for the Validity of the Distribution Law
    3. 10.3 - Effect of Temperature on Distribution Coefficient
    4. 10.4 - Thermodynamic Derivation of Distribution Law
      1. 10.4.1 - Principle
    5. 10.5 - Distribution Law and Molecular State of Solute
      1. 10.5.1 - Case I: When the Solute Undergoes Association in one of the Solvents
      2. 10.5.2 - Case II: When the Solute Undergoes Dissociation in one of the Solvents
      3. 10.5.3 - Case III: When the Solute Enters into Chemical Combination with One of the Solvents
    6. 10.6 - Applications of Distribution Law
      1. 10.6.1 - Determination of Solubility of a Solute in a Solvent
      2. 10.6.2 - Determination of Molecular State of Solute in Different Solvents
      3. 10.6.3 - Determination of Distribution Indicators
      4. 10.6.4 - Study of Complex Ions
      5. 10.6.5 - In the Process of Extraction
      6. 10.6.6 - Application of Principle of Extraction To Desilverization of Lead
      7. 10.6.7 - Determination of Degree of Hydrolysis
    7. Revision Questions
    8. Multiple Choice Questions
    9. Answers
  17. 11. Electrochemistry
    1. 11.1 - Introduction
    2. 11.2 - Electrolysis
      1. 11.2.1 - Faraday’s First Law of Electrolysis
      2. 11.2.2 - Faraday’s Second Law of Electrolysis
      3. 11.2.3 - Application of Electrolysis
    3. 11.3 - Electrolytic Conduction
      1. 11.3.1 - Differences Between Metallic Conductor and Electrolytic Conductor
      2. 11.3.2 - Factors Affecting Electrolytic Conduction
      3. 11.3.3 - Electrical Conductance
      4. 11.3.4 - Specific Conductance
      5. 11.3.5 - Equivalent Conductance and Molecular Conductance
      6. 11.3.6 - Relation Between Specific Conductance and Equivalent Conductance
      7. 11.3.7 - Experimental Measurement of Conductance
      8. 11.3.8 - Effect of Dilution on Conductance
    4. 11.4 - Kohlrausch Law
      1. 11.4.1 - Applications of Kohlrausch’s Law
    5. 11.5 - Migration of Ions
      1. 11.5.1 - Migration Velocity of Ions and Change in Concentration—Hittorf Theoretical Device
    6. 11.6 - Transport Number
      1. 11.6.1 - Important Relations Concerning Transport Number
      2. 11.6.2 - Factors Controlling Transport Number
      3. 11.6.3 - Determination of Transport Numbers
    7. 11.7 - Limitations of Arrhenius Theory
    8. 11.8 - Modern Theory of Strong Electrolytes
    9. Revision Questions
    10. Multiple Choice Questions
    11. Answers
  18. 12. Electromotive Force and Oxidation–Reduction System
    1. 12.1 - Introduction
    2. 12.2 - Single Electrode Potential
      1. 12.2.1 - Definition
    3. 12.3 - Standard Electrode Potential
    4. 12.4 - Measurement of Single Electrode Potential
      1. 12.4.1 - Sign Conventions
    5. 12.5 - Reference Electrodes
      1. 12.5.1 - Primary Reference Electrodes
      2. 12.5.2 - Secondary Reference Electrodes
      3. 12.5.3 - Advantages of Glass Electrode
      4. 12.5.4 - Limitations of Glass Electrode
    6. 12.6 - Electrochemical Series
      1. 12.6.1 - Applications of Electrochemical Series
    7. 12.7 - Cell Potential or EMF of a Cell
      1. 12.7.1 - Calculation of EMF of a Cell
    8. 12.8 - Derivation of Nernst Equation (Concentration Dependence of Electrode Potential)
      1. 12.8.1 - Application of Nernst Equation
    9. Revision Questions
    10. Multiple Choice Questions
    11. Answers
  19. 13. Solid State (Crystalline State)
    1. 13.1 - Introduction
    2. 13.2 - Crystalline and Amorphous Solids
    3. 13.3 - Some Terms Used in Crystal Structure
    4. 13.4 - Crystal Lattice and Unit Cell
    5. 13.5 - Elements of Symmetry
      1. 13.5.1 - Plane of Symmetry and Reflections
      2. 13.5.2 - Axis of Symmetry or Axis of Rotation
      3. 13.5.3 - Centre of Symmetry or Inversion Centre
      4. 13.5.4 - Improper Axis or Rotation Reflector Axis and Improper Rotation
      5. 13.5.5 - Axis of Rotation Inversion
      6. 13.5.6 - Total Elements of Symmetry
    6. 13.6 - Crystallographic Designations
      1. 13.6.1 - Weiss Indices (Parameter System of Weiss)
      2. 13.6.2 - Index System of Miller (Miller Indices)
    7. 13.7 - Laws of Crystallography
      1. 13.7.1 - The Law of Constancy of Interfacial Angles
      2. 13.7.2 - The Law of Rationality of Indices
      3. 13.7.3 - The Law of Symmetry
    8. 13.8 - Crystal Systems
    9. 13.9 - Types of Unit Cells in Crystal System (Bravais Lattice)
    10. 13.10 - Bragg’s Method of Crystal Analysis
      1. 13.10.1 - Principle
      2. 13.10.2 - Derivation of Bragg’s Equation
      3. 13.10.3 - Bragg’s Method for Determining Crystal Structure
      4. 13.10.4 - Applications of Bragg’s Equation
    11. 13.11 - Types of Crystalline Solids
      1. 13.11.1 - Ionic Solids
      2. 13.11.2 - Metallic Solids
      3. 13.11.3 - Covalent Solids
      4. 13.11.4 - Molecular Solids
    12. Revision Questions
    13. Multiple Choice Questions
    14. Answers
  20. 14. Chemical Bonding
    1. 14.1 - Introduction
    2. 14.2 - Valence Bond (Vb) Theory
    3. 14.3 - Molecular Orbital (Mo) Theory
      1. 14.3.1 - Molecular Orbitals
      2. 14.3.2 - Conditions for Atomic Orbitals to Form Molecular Orbitals
      3. 14.3.3 - Difference Between Atomic and Molecular Orbitals
      4. 14.3.4 - Formation of Bonding and Anti-bonding Molecular Orbitals (Lcao Method)
      5. 14.3.5 - Bonding and Anti-bonding Molecular Orbitals in Terms of Wave Functions
      6. 14.3.6 - Characteristics of Bonding and Anti-bonding Molecular Orbitals
      7. 14.3.7 - Combination of Atomic Orbitals—Sigma (s) and Pi (p) Molecular Orbitals
    4. 14.4 - Relative Energies of Molecular Orbitals and Filling of Electrons
    5. 14.5 - Stability of Molecules
      1. 14.5.1 - Stability of Molecules in Terms of Bonding and Anti-bonding Electrons
      2. 14.5.2 - Stability of Molecules in Terms of Bond Order
    6. 14.6 - Molecular Orbital Configurations
      1. 14.6.1 - Bonding in Some Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules and Ions – Electronic Configurations
      2. 14.6.2 - Helium Ion, He2+
      3. 14.6.3 - Nitrogen Molecule, N2
      4. 14.6.4 - Oxygen Molecule, O2
      5. 14.6.5 - The Fluorine Molecule, F2
      6. 14.6.6 - Hypothetical Neon Molecule, Ne2
      7. 14.6.7 - Molecular Orbital Electronic Configuration of Some Common Heteronuclear Molecules
    7. 14.7 - Comparison of Valence Bond (Vb) Theory and Molecular Orbital (Mo) Theory
      1. 14.7.1 - Points of Similarly
      2. 14.7.2 - Points of Difference
    8. Revision Questions
    9. Multiple Choice Questions
    10. Answers
  21. 15. Phase Equilibria
    1. 15.1 - Introduction
    2. 15.2 - Explanation of the Terms Involved
      1. 15.2.1 - True and Metastable Equilibrium
      2. 15.2.2 - Phase
      3. 15.2.3 - Components
      4. 15.2.4 - Degrees of Freedom or Variance
    3. 15.3 - Mathematical Statement of Phase Rule
    4. 15.4 - Phase Diagrams
    5. 15.5 - One-component Systems
    6. 15.6 - The Water System
    7. 15.7 - Sulphur System
    8. 15.8 - Application of Phase Rule To Two-component Systems (Liquid–Solid Phase Diagram)
    9. 15.9 - Type A—Simple Eutectic System
      1. 15.9.1 - Characteristics of Eutectic Point
      2. 15.9.2 - Use of Eutectic Systems
      3. 15.9.3 - Lead–Silver System
      4. 15.9.4 - Pattinson’s Process for Desilverization of Lead
    10. 15.10 - Type B—System in Which Two Components form a Stable Compound (Zinc–Magnesium Alloy System)
      1. 15.10.1 - Eutectic Points and Congruent Melting Point
    11. 15.11 - Type C—The Two-component Form: A Compound With Incongruent Melting Point
      1. 15.11.1 - Sodium – Potassium System
    12. 15.12 - Thermal Analysis (Cooling Curve)
    13. Revision Questions
    14. Multiple Choice Questions
    15. Answers
  22. Copyright