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Petroleum Production Systems, Second Edition

Book Description

The Definitive Guide to Petroleum Production Systems–Now Fully Updated With the Industry’s Most Valuable New Techniques

Petroleum Production Systems, Second Edition, is the comprehensive source for clear and fundamental methods for about modern petroleum production engineering practice. Written by four leading experts, it thoroughly introduces modern principles of petroleum production systems design and operation, fully considering the combined behavior of reservoirs, surface equipment, pipeline systems, and storage facilities. Long considered the definitive text for production engineers, this edition adds extensive new coverage of hydraulic fracturing, with emphasis on well productivity optimization. It presents new chapters on horizontal wells and well performance evaluation, including production data analysis and sand management.

This edition features

  • A structured approach spanning classical production engineering, well testing, production logging, artificial lift, and matrix and hydraulic fracture stimulation

  • Revisions throughout to reflect recent innovations and extensive feedback from both students and colleagues

  • Detailed coverage of modern best practices and their rationales

  • Unconventional oil and gas well design

  • Many new examples and problems

  • Detailed data sets for three characteristic reservoir types: an undersaturated oil reservoir, a saturated oil reservoir, and a gas reservoir

  • Table of Contents

    1. Title Page
    2. Copyright Page
    3. Contents
    4. Foreword
    5. Preface
    6. About the Authors
      1. Michael J. Economides
      2. A. Daniel Hill
      3. Christine Ehlig-Economides
      4. Ding Zhu
    7. Chapter 1. The Role of Petroleum Production Engineering
      1. 1.1. Introduction
      2. 1.2. Components of the Petroleum Production System
      3. 1.3. Well Productivity and Production Engineering
      4. 1.4. Units and Conversions
      5. References
    8. Chapter 2. Production from Undersaturated Oil Reservoirs
      1. 2.1. Introduction
      2. 2.2. Steady-State Well Performance
      3. 2.3. Transient Flow of Undersaturated Oil
      4. 2.4. Pseudosteady-State Flow
      5. 2.5. Wells Draining Irregular Patterns
      6. 2.6. Inflow Performance Relationship
      7. 2.7. Effects of Water Production, Relative Permeability
      8. 2.8. Summary of Single-Phase Oil Inflow Performance Relationships
      9. References
      10. Problems
    9. Chapter 3. Production from Two-Phase Reservoirs
      1. 3.1. Introduction
      2. 3.2. Properties of Saturated Oil
      3. 3.3. Two-Phase Flow in a Reservoir
      4. 3.4. Oil Inflow Performance for a Two-Phase Reservoir
      5. 3.5. Generalized Vogel Inflow Performance
      6. 3.6. Fetkovich’s Approximation
      7. References
      8. Problems
    10. Chapter 4. Production from Natural Gas Reservoirs
      1. 4.1. Introduction
      2. 4.2. Correlations and Useful Calculations for Natural Gases
      3. 4.3. Approximation of Gas Well Deliverability
      4. 4.4. Gas Well Deliverability for Non-Darcy Flow
      5. 4.5. Transient Flow of a Gas Well
      6. References
      7. Problems
    11. Chapter 5. Production from Horizontal Wells
      1. 5.1. Introduction
      2. 5.2. Steady-State Well Performance
      3. 5.3. Pseudosteady-State Flow
      4. 5.4. Inflow Performance Relationship for Horizontal Gas Wells
      5. 5.5. Two-Phase Correlations for Horizontal Well Inflow
      6. 5.6. Multilateral Well Technology
      7. References
      8. Problems
    12. Chapter 6. The Near-Wellbore Condition and Damage Characterization; Skin Effects
      1. 6.1. Introduction
      2. 6.2. Hawkins’ Formula
      3. 6.3. Skin Components for Vertical and Inclined Wells
      4. 6.4. Skin from Partial Completion and Well Deviation
      5. 6.5. Horizontal Well Damage Skin Effect
      6. 6.6. Well Completion Skin Factors
      7. 6.7. Formation Damage Mechanisms
      8. 6.8. Sources of Formation Damage During Well Operations
      9. References
      10. Problems
    13. Chapter 7. Wellbore Flow Performance
      1. 7.1. Introduction
      2. 7.2. Single-Phase Flow of an Incompressible, Newtonian Fluid
      3. 7.3. Single-Phase Flow of a Compressible, Newtonian Fluid
      4. 7.4. Multiphase Flow in Wells
      5. References
      6. Problems
    14. Chapter 8. Flow in Horizontal Wellbores, Wellheads, and Gathering Systems
      1. 8.1. Introduction
      2. 8.2. Flow in Horizontal Pipes
      3. 8.3. Flow through Chokes
      4. 8.4. Surface Gathering Systems
      5. 8.5. Flow in Horizontal Wellbores
      6. References
      7. Problems
    15. Chapter 9. Well Deliverability
      1. 9.1. Introduction
      2. 9.2. Combination of Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) and Vertical Flow Performance (VFP)
      3. 9.3. IPR and VFP of Two-Phase Reservoirs
      4. 9.4. IPR and VFP in Gas Reservoirs
      5. Problems
    16. Chapter 10. Forecast of Well Production
      1. 10.1. Introduction
      2. 10.2. Transient Production Rate Forecast
      3. 10.3. Material Balance for an Undersaturated Reservoir and Production Forecast Under Pseudosteady-State Conditions
      4. 10.4. The General Material Balance for Oil Reservoirs
      5. 10.5. Production Forecast from a Two-Phase Reservoir: Solution Gas Drive
      6. 10.6. Gas Material Balance and Forecast of Gas Well Performance
      7. References
      8. Problems
    17. Chapter 11. Gas Lift
      1. 11.1. Introduction
      2. 11.2. Well Construction for Gas Lift
      3. 11.3. Continuous Gas-Lift Design
      4. 11.4. Unloading Wells with Multiple Gas-Lift Valves
      5. 11.5. Optimization of Gas-Lift Design
      6. 11.6. Gas-Lift Performance Curve
      7. 11.7. Gas-Lift Requirements versus Time
      8. References
      9. Problems
    18. Chapter 12. Pump-Assisted Lift
      1. 12.1. Introduction
      2. 12.2. Positive-Displacement Pumps
      3. 12.3. Dynamic Displacement Pumps
      4. 12.4. Lifting Liquids in Gas Wells; Plunger Lift
      5. References
      6. Problems
    19. Chapter 13. Well Performance Evaluation
      1. 13.1. Introduction
      2. 13.2. Open-Hole Formation Evaluation
      3. 13.3. Cased Hole Logs
      4. 13.4. Transient Well Analysis
      5. References
      6. Problems
    20. Chapter 14. Matrix Acidizing: Acid/Rock Interactions
      1. 14.1. Introduction
      2. 14.2. Acid–Mineral Reaction Stoichiometry
      3. 14.3. Acid–Mineral Reaction Kinetics
      4. 14.4. Acid Transport to the Mineral Surface
      5. 14.5. Precipitation of Acid Reaction Products
      6. References
      7. Problems
    21. Chapter 15. Sandstone Acidizing Design
      1. 15.1. Introduction
      2. 15.2. Acid Selection
      3. 15.3. Acid Volume and Injection Rate
      4. 15.4. Fluid Placement and Diversion
      5. 15.5. Preflush and Postflush Design
      6. 15.6. Acid Additives
      7. 15.7. Acidizing Treatment Operations
      8. References
      9. Problems
    22. Chapter 16. Carbonate Acidizing Design
      1. 16.1. Introduction
      2. 16.2. Wormhole Formation and Growth
      3. 16.3. Wormhole Propagation Models
      4. 16.4. Matrix Acidizing Design for Carbonates
      5. 16.5. Acid Fracturing
      6. 16.6. Acidizing of Horizontal Wells
      7. References
      8. Problems
    23. Chapter 17. Hydraulic Fracturing for Well Stimulation
      1. 17.1. Introduction
      2. 17.2. Length, Conductivity, and Equivalent Skin Effect
      3. 17.3. Optimal Fracture Geometry for Maximizing the Fractured Well Productivity
      4. 17.4. Fractured Well Behavior in Conventional Low-Permeability Reservoirs
      5. 17.5. The Effect of Non-Darcy Flow on Fractured Well Performance
      6. 17.6. Fractured Well Performance for Unconventional Tight Sand or Shale Reservoirs
      7. 17.7. Choke Effect for Transverse Hydraulic Fractures
      8. References
      9. Problems
    24. Chapter 18. The Design and Execution of Hydraulic Fracturing Treatments
      1. 18.1. Introduction
      2. 18.2. The Fracturing of Reservoir Rock
      3. 18.3. Fracture Geometry
      4. 18.4. The Created Fracture Geometry and Net Pressure
      5. 18.5. Fracturing Fluids
      6. 18.6. Proppants and Fracture Conductivity
      7. 18.7. Fracture Diagnostics
      8. 18.8. Fracturing Horizontal Wells
      9. References
      10. Problems
    25. Chapter 19. Sand Management
      1. 19.1. Introduction
      2. 19.2. Sand Flow Modeling
      3. 19.3. Sand Management
      4. 19.4. Sand Exclusion
      5. 19.5. Completion Failure Avoidance
      6. References
      7. Problems
    26. Appendix A
      1. Well in an Undersaturated Oil Reservoir
      2. At the Bubble Point
      3. At Initial Conditions
    27. Appendix B
      1. Well in a Two-Phase Reservoir
      2. At Bubble Point
    28. Appendix C
      1. Well in a Natural Gas Reservoir
      2. Well and Reservoir Variables
    29. Index