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Performance Management Systems and Strategies

Book Description

Performance Management Systems and Strategies aims to provide extensive theoretical knowledge with practical overtones for students, and application-based knowledge for professionals to successfully implement performance management systems and strategies. With such comprehensive knowledge and practical skills HR students would be able to develop their capabilities as future manager to manage performance in any organization.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. About the Authors
  5. Dedication
  6. Preface
  7. Chapter 1 - Introduction to Performance Management
    1. Introduction
    2. History of Human Resource Management Function
    3. Process of Development in India
      1. Human Resource Development As a Separate Personnel Discipline
      2. Performance Management As an HRD Function
      3. Job Description
      4. Standards of Performance
      5. Observation and Feedback
      6. Performance Appraisal
      7. Performance Development Plan
      8. Performance Management Through Continuous Learning
    4. Definitions and Concepts of Performance Management
    5. History of Performance Management
    6. Performance Management As a Management Tool
    7. Philosophy of Performance Management
    8. Overview of Performance Management
    9. Performance Objectives and Standards
      1. Performance Objectives and Standards—Comparative Analysis of Advantages and Disadvantages
      2. Characteristics of Performance Objectives
      3. Some Examples of Performance Objectives
      4. Points to Be Considered for Developing Performance Objectives
    10. Standards of Performance
      1. Relating Performance Standards to the Hierarchical Level
      2. Checklist for Performance Standards
      3. Benefits of Performance Management
    11. Process of Performance Management
    12. Performance Domains
    13. Performance Dimensions
    14. Teamwork Dimensions
    15. Performance Ethics
      1. Summary
      2. Key Words
      3. General Review Questions
      4. Critical Review Question
      5. References
      6. Further Reading
      7. Case Study on Performance Management Systems
      8. Case Study
  8. Chapter 2 - Performance Planning
    1. Introduction
    2. Performance Planning Process
    3. Development and Contents of a Performance Plan
    4. Performance Planning Steps
    5. Process of Developing Employee Performance Plans
    6. Eight-step Model of Elements and Standards of a Performance Plan
      1. Step 1: Understand the Overall Picture
      2. Step 2: Identify the Accomplishments at the Work Unit Level
      3. Step 3: Identify Individual Accomplishments and Their Integration with the Work Unit Goals
      4. Step 4: Convert Expected Accomplishments into Performance Elements, Duly Mentioning Their Type and Priority
      5. Step 5: Determine Work Unit and Individual Measures
      6. Step 6: Develop Work Unit and Individual Standards
      7. Step 7: Determine How to Monitor Performance
      8. Step 8: Check the Performance Plan
    7. Preparing the Performance Development Plan
    8. Transition from Individual Performance Plan to Group Performance Plan
    9. Performance Plan and Role Clarity
    10. Role Descriptions Template
    11. Creating Strategic Plans and Their Alignment with the Performance Plans
    12. Strategy Realization: Essential Elements Through Performance Plans
      1. Summary
      2. Key Words
      3. General Review Questions
      4. Critical Review Question
      5. References
      6. Further Reading
      7. Case Study
  9. Chapter 3 - Performance Appraisal
    1. Introduction
    2. Definitions
    3. Role of Appraisals in Performance Management
    4. Process and Methods of Performance Appraisal
    5. Purposes of Performance Appraisal
    6. Importance of Performance Appraisal
    7. Objectives of Performance Appraisal
    8. Reasons for Failure of Performance Appraisal
    9. Steps to Performance Appraisal
    10. Characteristics of an Appraisal System
    11. Performance Appraisal Design
    12. Approaches to Performance Appraisal
    13. Types and Methods of Performance Appraisal
      1. Traditional Methods
      2. Straight Ranking Method
      3. Paired Comparison Techniques
      4. Man-to-Man Comparison
      5. Grading Method
      6. Graphic or Linear Rating Scale
      7. Example of Graphic Rating Scale
      8. Forced Choice Description Method
      9. Forced Distribution Method
      10. Checklist Method
      11. Free Easy Method
      12. Critical Incident Method
      13. Work Standard Approach
      14. Group Appraisal Method
      15. Field Review Method
    14. Modern Methods
      1. Appraisal by Results for Management by Objectives
      2. Advantages
      3. Disadvantages
    15. Steps Followed in MBO Implementation
      1. Assessment Centre Method
      2. Human Asset Accounting Method
      3. Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)
      4. Behavioural Observation Scales (BOS)
      5. Mixed Standard Scales
      6. Behavioural Checklist Method
    16. The 360-degree Appraisals
    17. Potential Appraisal
      1. Techniques of Potential Appraisal
    18. Components of the Appraisal Format
    19. Dimension of Personal Attributes
    20. Biases in Performance Appraisal
      1. The Halo and Horn Effect
      2. The Leniency Error
      3. The Error of Strictness
      4. The Central Tendency Error
      5. The Recency Effect
      6. The Contrast Error
      7. The Similarity Effect
    21. Reducing Performance Errors
    22. Diagnosing Poor Performance
    23. Improving Motivation
      1. Summary
      2. Key Words
      3. General Review Questions
      4. Critical Review Question
      5. References
      6. Further reading
      7. Case Study—1
      8. Case Study—2
  10. Chapter 4 - Performance Management Review
    1. Introduction
      1. Top of Form
    2. Definition
    3. Scope of Performance Review
    4. Types of Performance Review
    5. Performance Review Meeting
    6. Steps in Performance Review
      1. Before the Performance Review
      2. During the Performance Review
      3. After the Performance Review
    7. Benefits of Performance Review
    8. Structured Performance Review Process
      1. Performance Counselling
    9. Conditions for Effective Performance Counselling
    10. Different Phases of Performance Counselling
    11. Performance Counselling Process
    12. Counselling Interview
      1. Summary
      2. Key Words
      3. General Review Questions
      4. Critical Review Question
      5. Further Reading
      6. Case Study
  11. Chapter 5 - Performance Management Systems
    1. Introduction
    2. Importance of PMS
    3. Features of PMS
      1. Focus on Objective Setting
      2. Systems for Review of Objectives
      3. Developing Personal Improvement Plans
      4. Training and Development
      5. Ensuring Formal Appraisal with Feedback
      6. Compensation Review
      7. Developing Competence-based Organizational Capability
    4. Process of Building PMS
    5. Dimensions of PMS
      1. Output or Result Dimensions
      2. Input Dimension
      3. Time Dimension
      4. Focus Dimension
    6. Conceptual Framework of PMS
    7. PMS and Organizational Strategy
    8. Organizational and Social Perspectives of PMS
    9. Performance Consulting
    10. Role of Performance Consultants
    11. The Four Pillars of PMS
    12. Performance Management Theatre
    13. Annual Stock-taking of Performance
    14. E-performance Management
    15. Performance Prism
      1. Summary
      2. Key Words
      3. General Review Questions
      4. Critical Review Question
      5. References
      6. Case Study
  12. Chapter 6 - Strategic Performance Management
    1. Introduction
    2. Definition
    3. Evolution of Strategic Performance Management
    4. Characteristics of SPM
    5. SPM and Generic Strategies
    6. Performance and Strategy Linkage
      1. Reward Practices
      2. Firm Performance
    7. Purpose of Performance Management Strategy
    8. The Process of Performance Management Strategy
    9. Components of Strategic Performance Management Process
    10. Strategy and Performance Management Cycle
    11. Dimensions of Linkage Between Individual Performances and Strategy
    12. Benefits of SPM
    13. Advantages of SPM
    14. Disadvantages of SPM
    15. SPM and the Balanced Scorecard
    16. SPM and Metrics
    17. SPM for Environmental Threats and Risks
      1. Summary
      2. Key Words
      3. General Review Questions
      4. Critical Review Question
      5. Further Reading
      6. Case Study
  13. Chapter 7 - Competency-based Performance Management Systems
    1. Introduction
    2. Managerial Skills and Competencies
    3. Skill Inventories
    4. Multi-skilling
    5. Skills for the New Millennium
    6. Developing Competencies for Effective Performance Management
    7. Types of Competencies
    8. Competency Characteristics
    9. Competency Identification and Assessment Process
    10. Steps of a Competency Identification Process
    11. Steps to Introduce Competency-based System
    12. Advantages of a Competency-based Approach
    13. Developing Competency Models
    14. Examples of HR Competencies
    15. Competency-based Performance Management Systems
    16. Essential Elements of Performance-based Competency
    17. Competency Dictionary
      1. Summary
      2. Key Words
      3. General Review Questions
      4. Critical Review Question
      5. References
      6. Case Study
  14. Chapter 8 - Performance-based Compensation
    1. Introduction
    2. Definitions
    3. Various Concepts of Compensation
    4. Determining Compensation Through Job Evaluation
    5. Incentive Schemes
    6. Performance-related Compensation Design
    7. Benefits of Performance-based Compensation
    8. Performance-related Pay
      1. Problems in Monitoring the PRP
      2. Selection of Appropriate Performance Appraisal Tools
      3. Perceptual Differences Between the Managers and the Employees
    9. Lack of Participation of Employees in Designing PRP
    10. Compensation Broadbanding Using PMS Results
    11. Compensation Design Through Skill-based Programmes
    12. Major Obstacles to the Introduction of Skill-based Pay
    13. Application of Skill-based Pay
    14. Competency-based Pay
    15. Obstacles in Introducing Performance-related Pay
    16. Performance Guide Charts
    17. Use of Performance Criteria for Designing Executive Compensation
    18. Calibration of Executive Compensation to Performance
    19. Performance Measurement in Executive Incentive Programmes
      1. Summary
      2. Key Words
      3. General Review Questions
      4. Critical Review Question
      5. References
      6. Case Study
  15. Chapter 9 - Performance-based Career Planning, Career Development, and Succession Plans
    1. Introduction
    2. Definitions and Concepts
    3. Important Elements of Career
    4. Meaning and Overview of Career Development
    5. Importance of Career Development
    6. Significance and Advantages of Career Development
    7. Purposes and Objectives of Career Development
    8. Types of Career Development Programmes
    9. Difference Between Career Development and Career Planning
    10. Difference with Manpower Planning
    11. Difference with Succession Planning
    12. Different Stages or Cycles of Career Development Process
      1. Exploratory Stage
      2. Establishment Stage
      3. Maintenance Stage
      4. Stage of Decline
    13. Issues in Career Development Process
      1. Exploratory Stage
      2. Establishment Stage
      3. Maintenance Stage
      4. Decline Stage
    14. Career Anchors
      1. Managerial Competence
      2. Technical/Functional Competence
      3. Security and Stability
      4. Creativity and Challenge
      5. Freedom and Autonomy
      6. Other Anchors
    15. Career Development and Employee Empowerment
    16. Issues Involved
    17. Indian Scenario
    18. Career Planning and Career Development Process
    19. Integration of Career Development Process with Career Stage and Family Issues
    20. Developing Career Paths Compatible with Changing Needs
    21. Steps of Career Planning Process
      1. Preparing Personnel Skills Inventories
      2. Developing Career Paths
      3. Put the Right Man at the Right Place
      4. Impart Training
      5. Review and Counsel
      6. Succession Planning
      7. Steps of Succession Planning
    22. PMS Career Planning, Career Development, and Successful Planning
      1. Summary
      2. Key Words
      3. General Review Questions
      4. Critical Review Question
      5. Further Reading
      6. Case Study
  16. Chapter 10 - Team Performance Management
    1. Introduction
    2. Definition and Concepts
    3. Principles of Team Performance Management
      1. Types of Teams
      2. Approaches to Change Team Behaviours
    4. Work Wheel and Team Performance
      1. Advising
      2. Innovating
      3. Promoting
      4. Developing
      5. Organizing
      6. Producing
      7. Inspecting
      8. Maintaining
      9. Linking
    5. Measuring Team Performance
    6. Managing Team Performance
    7. Different Stages of Teamwork
    8. Team Building Exercises
      1. Objectives of T-group
      2. Benefits of T-group Training
    9. Role Analysis
      1. Summary
      2. Key Words
      3. General Review Questions
      4. Critical Review Question
      5. References
      6. Case Study—1
      7. Case Study—2
  17. Chapter 11 - Performance Measurements Through Balanced and HR Scorecards
    1. Introduction
    2. Definition and Concepts
    3. Different Perspectives of Balanced Scorecard
      1. The Learning and Growth Perspective
      2. The Business Process Perspective
      3. The Customer Perspective
      4. The Financial Perspective
    4. Benefits of the Balanced Scorecard
    5. HR Scorecard
      1. The HR Scorecard Approach
      2. Process of Developing the HR Scorecard
      3. Benefits of the HR Scorecard
    6. Need for Implementation of Balanced Scorecard and Balanced HR Scorecard
      1. Summary
      2. Key Words
      3. General Review Questions
      4. Critical Review Question
      5. References
      6. Case Study
  18. Chapter 12 - Performance Management and Mentoring
    1. Introduction
    2. Definitions and Concepts
    3. Characteristics of Mentoring
    4. Mentoring and Coaching
      1. Benefits of Mentoring
      2. Types of Mentoring
    5. Foundations of a Mentoring Programme
    6. Ethical Guidelines for an Effective Mentoring Programme
    7. Culture of Mentoring
    8. Executive Mentoring
      1. Summary
      2. Key Words
      3. General Review Questions
      4. Critical Review Question
      5. References
      6. Case Study
  19. Chapter 13 - Performance Measurement
    1. Introduction
    2. Measuring Performance
      1. Measurement Quality
      2. Selection of Performance Measurement Criteria
      3. Integrated Performance Measurement Systems
    3. Statistical Methods of Performance Measures
      1. Use of Control Charts for Measuring Performance Variation
      2. Control Charts for Measuring Performance Attributes
    4. Performance Measures Through Ranking and Rating
      1. Management-by-Objectives (MBO)
      2. Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)
      3. The Mixed-Standard Scale (MSS)
      4. Behavioural Observation Scales (BOS)
    5. Ranking Systems
      1. Comparing Job Performance Rating Systems
      2. Multiple Raters/360-degree Feedback
      3. Scales for Evaluation of Performance Measures
    6. Performance Matrix and Models
      1. Shingo Prize Model
      2. EFQM Model
      3. Malcolm Baldrige Criteria for World-class Performance
    7. General Performance Measures
    8. Developing Specific Measures
    9. Deciding the Performance Standards
    10. Annual Stock-taking of Performance
    11. Performance Metrics
      1. Key Performance Indicators (KPI)
      2. Performance Measures Through Productivity Metrics
      3. Summary
      4. Key Words
      5. General Review Questions
      6. Critical Review Question
      7. Further Reading
      8. Case Study
  20. Chapter 14 - International Performance Management
    1. Introduction
    2. Definitions and Concepts
    3. Structure and Strategy of International Performance Management
    4. Expatriates’ Performance Management
    5. Effect of Culture
      1. Influences on Performance Appraisals
    6. Performance Management in International Assignment
    7. Globalization and International Performance Management
    8. Compensation and International Performance Management Practices
    9. Appraising Performance
    10. International Performance Management Practices
      1. Summary
      2. Key Words
      3. General Review Questions
      4. Critical Review Question
      5. References
      6. Case Study
  21. Chapter 15 - Performance Audit, Human Resource Valuation, Accounting, and Audit
    1. Introduction to Performance Management Audit
    2. Scope of Performance Management Audit
    3. Differences Between the Performance Audit and Financial Audit
    4. Checklist of Performance Audit
    5. Structure of Performance Audit
    6. Steps in Performance Audit
    7. Methods and Techniques of Performance Audit
    8. Performance Data Reliability Audit (DRA)
    9. Human Resource Valuation, Accounting, and Audit
    10. Various Methods of Valuating Human Resources
      1. Non-monetary Measurement
      2. Monetary Measurement
    11. HR Audit
      1. Objectives of HR Audit
      2. Job/Role of HR Auditor
      3. Importance of HR Audit
      4. Records Used for HR Audit
      5. Methods and Techniques of HR Audit
      6. Checklists for HR Audit
    12. Human Resource Records
    13. List of Personnel Records
      1. Recommendations for Personnel Record Keeping
      2. Use of Human Resource Information System (HRIS) for Maintaining Personnel Records
    14. Scope of HR Audit
    15. Purposes of HR Audit
      1. Human Resource Management (HRM)
      2. HR Information Systems (HIRS)
      3. Audit of the Service Role of HR
      4. Audit of the Compliance Role of HR
      5. Audit of the Strategic Role of HR
      6. Audit of the Financial Management Role of HR (Financial Ratios)
    16. Benefits of HR Audit
      1. Summary
      2. Key Words
      3. General Review Questions
      4. Critical Review Question
      5. References
      6. Case Study
  22. Chapter 16 - Ethical and Legal Issues of
    1. Introduction
    2. Definition and Concepts
    3. Ethical Perspective in Performance Appraisal System
    4. Objectives of Performance Management Ethics
    5. Code of Ethics and Code of Conduct
      1. Benefits of Code of Ethics
      2. Benefits of Ethical Practices in Organizations
    6. Implementing Code of Ethics in the Workplace
    7. Ethical Dilemma in Performance Management
    8. Legal Aspects of Performance Management
      1. Summary
      2. Key Words
      3. Concept Review Questions
      4. Critical Review Question
      5. References
      6. Case Study
  23. Chapter 17 - Contemporary Issues in Performance
    1. Introduction
    2. Business Process Reengineering—Concepts and Definitions
    3. McKinsey 7S Framework
    4. Toyota Production System (TPS) and Lean Management
      1. Andon
      2. Genchi Genbutsu
      3. Heijunka
      4. Hoshin
      5. Jidoka
      6. Jishuken
      7. Just-in-Time
      8. Kaizen
      9. Nemawashi
      10. Pokayoke
    5. Performance Improvement Through Quality Management Practices
      1. Performance Improvement Through Quality
      2. Cost of Quality
      3. Quality Management Principles
      4. Teamwork Through Quality Management
      5. Employee Empowerment
      6. Quality of Work Life (QWL)
    6. Performance Improvement Through Six-sigma Practices
      1. Six-sigma Implementation
    7. Performance Improvement Through Innovation and Creativity
    8. Quick Response Manufacturing (QRM)
      1. Summary
      2. Key Words
      3. Concept Review Questions
      4. Critical Review Question
      5. References
      6. Case Study
  24. Acknowledgements
  25. Copyright