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Performance Management: Putting Research into Action by James W. Smither

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Types of Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB)

Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) has been defined as “volitional acts that harm or intend to harm organizations and their stakeholders (for example, clients, co-workers, customers, and supervisors)” (Spector & Fox, 2005, pp. 151-152). Accumulating evidence shows that CWBs are pervasive and expensive. Harper (1990) estimated that up to 75 percent of employees have engaged in theft, computer fraud, embezzlement, vandalism, sabotage, or fraudulent absenteeism; the cost of these CWBs may reach hundreds of billions of dollars a year. Research has identified five dimensions of CWB, including abuse against others, production deviance, sabotage, theft, and withdrawal (Spector, Fox, Penney, Bruursema, ...

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