O'Reilly logo

PEM Fuel Cells by Ken S. Chen, Yun Wang

Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required

7.2 ICE FORMATION

7.2.1 Water Transport and Conservation

In the cathode catalyst layer, the net water addition is the ORR’s production plus that transported inward through boundaries. Assuming that no super-cooled liquid is present, water exists in the ionomer, gaseous, and ice phases under subfreezing conditions. Phase equilibrium usually holds true due to the small dimension of pores (~0.1 μm). Ice starts to emerge when the vapor phase reaches saturation. Cold start consists of three major stages: the first stage of cold start is water accumulation in the ionomer and gas phases until the vapor-phase pressure reaches the saturation pressure limit. In the second stage, the ionomer and gaseous phases are already saturated, and hence water is added ...

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, interactive tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required