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PCI Express System Architecture by MindShare, Inc, Ravi Budruk, Don Anderson, Tom Shanley

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Implementing Multi-host/Intelligent Adapters in PCI Express Base Systems

Up to this point, our discussions have been limited to one processor with one memory space. As technology progressed, system designers began developing end points with their own native processors built in. The problem that this caused was that both the host processor and the intelligent adapter would, upon power up or reset, attempt to enumerate the entire system, causing system conflict and ultimately a non-functional system.[2]

[2] While we are using an intelligent endpoint as the examples, we should note that a similar problem exists for multi-host systems.

To get around this, architects designed non-transparent bridges. A non-transparent PCI-to-PCI Bridge, or PCI Express-to-PCI ...

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