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PC Based Instrumentation and Control, 3rd Edition

Book Description

PC Based Instrumentation and Control is a guide to implementing computer control, instrumentation and data acquisition using a standard PC and some of the most popular computer languages.

Numerous examples of configurations and working circuits, as well as representative software, make this a practical, hands-on guide to implementing PC-based testing and calibration systems and increasing efficiency without compromising quality or reliability. Guidance is given on modifying the circuits and software routines to meet the reader's specific needs.

The third edition includes updated coverage of PC hardware and bus systems, a new chapter on virtual instruments and an introduction to programming and software development in a modern 32-bit environment. Additional examples have been included, with source code and executables available for download from the companion website www.key2control.com.

Table of Contents

  1. Front cover
  2. Halftitle
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. 1 The PC
    1. Microcomputer systems
      1. Data representation
      2. Bus expansion
      3. Microprocessor operation
      4. Data transfer and control
      5. Parallel versus serial I/O
    2. The processor
      1. The x86 processor family
      2. Addressing
      3. 80286, 80386, and 80486 processors
      4. Interrupt handling
      5. The Pentium family of processors
    3. PC architecture
      1. Cooling
    4. Legacy support devices
      1. Maths coprocessors
      2. 8237A Direct Memory Access Controller
      3. 8253 Programmable Interval Timer
      4. 8255A Programmable Peripheral Interface
      5. 8259A Programmable Interrupt Controller
      6. 8284A Clock generator
      7. 8288 Bus Controller
      8. Chipsets
    5. PC memory
      1. Memory operation
      2. Memory organization
      3. Data integrity
      4. Memory terminology
      5. Memory size
      6. Memory speed
      7. CMOS memory
      8. BIOS ROM
      9. PC memory allocation
      10. BIOS data area
    6. Disk drives
  8. 2 PC expansion bus systems
    1. Expansion methods
    2. Development of PC expansion bus architectures
    3. PC ISA/EISA expansion bus
    4. PC expansion cards
    5. Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) bus
      1. The 62-way ISA (PC expansion bus) connector
      2. The 36-way EISA (PC-AT expansion bus) connector
      3. Electrical characteristics
      4. Design of PC expansion cards
    6. The PC/104 bus
    7. Peripheral Component Interconnect/Interface (PCI) bus
    8. Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP)
    9. The Universal Serial bus
      1. USB applications and principal features
      2. USB implementation
      3. Connection and disconnection of USB devices
      4. USB bus topology and physical connections
      5. Error detection and handling
      6. USB data transfers
      7. USB devices
      8. USB data flow model
      9. USB physical interface
    10. Representative I/O cards
      1. Measurement Computing Corporation PDISO-8
      2. Blue chip technology AIP-24
      3. Measurement Computing Corporation Dual-422
      4. Arcom APCI-ADADIO multifunction I/O card
      5. The PMD-1208LS USB device
  9. 3 Using the command line interface
    1. The need for an operating system
    2. Origins of DOS
    3. DOS basics
      1. Booting the system
      2. I/O channels
    4. DOS commands
      1. File specifications
      2. File extensions
      3. Wildcard characters
      4. Internal and external commands
    5. Using batch files
      1. Batch file commands
      2. Creating batch files
      3. Passing parameters
    6. Using CONFIG.SYS
    7. Using configuration files and device drivers
    8. Using AUTOEXEC.BAT
    9. Using DEBUG
      1. Debug commands
      2. A Debug walkthrough
      3. Using Debug’s line assembler
  10. 4 Programming
    1. Choice of language
    2. Software development
      1. Control structures
      2. Loops
      3. Error checking and input validation
      4. Event-driven programs
      5. Testing
      6. Documentation
      7. Presentation
  11. 5 Assembly language programming
    1. Advantages of assembly language
    2. Disadvantages of assembly language
    3. Developing assembly language programs
      1. Software tools
    4. 8086 assembly language
      1. 8086 instruction set summary
      2. 8086 register model
      3. Interrupt handling
    5. MASM32
      1. A MASM32 walkthrough
  12. 6 BASIC programming
    1. Microsoft BASIC for DOS
    2. Developing Microsoft BASIC for DOS programs
    3. Variable types
    4. Variable names
    5. BASIC command summary
    6. Subroutines
    7. Procedures
    8. User-defined functions
    9. Logical constructs
    10. Prompts and messages
    11. Keyboard entry
      1. Single key inputs
      2. Numerical inputs
      3. String inputs
    12. PowerBASIC for DOS
    13. Accessing assembly language from within BASIC programs
    14. Accessing the I/O ports in DOS or Windows 9x environments
    15. Microsoft Visual Basic
    16. PowerBASIC for Windows
    17. Using dynamic link library (DLL) files
    18. Accessing the I/O ports from the Windows Protected Mode environment
    19. Inpout32.dll
    20. Data files
  13. 7 C and C++ programming
    1. C programming techniques
      1. Include files
      2. Streams
      3. Using C functions
      4. I/O functions
      5. Messages
      6. Loops
      7. Inputs and prompts
      8. Menu selection
      9. Passing arguments into main
      10. Disk files
    2. Difference between C and C++
    3. Port I/O in C and C++
  14. 8 The IEEE-488 bus
    1. IEEE-488 devices
      1. Listeners
      2. Talkers
      3. Talkers and listeners
      4. Controllers
    2. IEEE-488 bus signals
      1. Commands
      2. Handshaking
      3. Service requests
      4. Multi-line commands
    3. Bus configurations
    4. IEEE-488 controllers
    5. IEEE-488 software
    6. Troubleshooting the IEEE-488 bus
  15. 9 Interfacing
    1. Characteristics of digital I/O ports
    2. Characteristics of analogue I/O ports
    3. Sensors
    4. Interfacing switches and sensors
      1. Sensors with digital outputs
      2. Sensors with analogue outputs
    5. Output devices
      1. Status and warning indications
      2. Driving LCD displays
      3. Driving medium- and high-current loads
      4. Audible outputs
      5. DC motors
      6. Output drivers
      7. Driving mains connected loads
      8. Driving solenoids and solenoid-operated valves
      9. Driving stepper motors
  16. 10 Software packages
    1. Selecting a software package
      1. Ease of use
      2. Flexibility
      3. Performance
      4. Functionality
    2. Software classification
      1. Custom-written software
      2. Programming language extensions
      3. Programmable applications
      4. Dedicated applications
      5. Tools and utilities
      6. Operating system utilities
  17. 11 Virtual instruments
    1. Selecting a virtual instrument
      1. Instrument types
      2. Instrument connection options
    2. Digital storage oscilloscopes
      1. Sampling rate and bandwidth
      2. Resolution and accuracy
      3. Low-cost DSO
      4. High-speed DSO
      5. High-resolution DSO
      6. Choosing a computer-based DSO
      7. Basic operation of a DSO
      8. Waveform display
      9. Parameter measurement
      10. Spectrum analysis
    3. Sound card oscilloscopes
      1. Windows Oscilloscope 2.51
      2. Software Oscilloscope
      3. Waveform display
      4. Parameter measurement
      5. Spectrum analysis
  18. 12 Applications
    1. Expansion cards
    2. Approaches
      1. PC instruments
      2. Industrial PC systems
      3. Backplane bus-based systems
      4. Networked/distributed PC systems
    3. Specifying hardware and software
      1. Hardware design
      2. Software design
    4. Applications
      1. Monitoring oscillator stability
      2. Testing crystal filters
      3. A speech enunciator
      4. Strain measurement and display
      5. Backup battery load test
      6. Load sequencer
      7. Environmental monitoring
      8. Icing flow tunnel
  19. 13 Reliability and fault-finding
    1. Quality procedures
    2. Reliability and fault-tolerance
      1. Hardware techniques
      2. Software techniques
      3. The Power On Self Test (POST)
    3. System BIOS
      1. BIOS upgrading
    4. Troubleshooting Windows problems
      1. Invalid page faults
      2. General protection faults
      3. Fatal exceptions
      4. Protection errors
      5. Kernel errors
      6. Dynamic link library faults
    5. Using Dr. Watson
    6. Benchmarking and performance measurement
      1. System information
    7. Benchmarking
      1. Processor Benchmark
      2. CPU Multimedia Benchmark
      3. Memory Benchmark
      4. Hard disk Benchmark
      5. CD Benchmark
      6. Network Benchmark
    8. Fault-finding and troubleshooting techniques
    9. Test equipment
      1. Multi-range meters
      2. Logic probes
      3. Logic pulsers
      4. Oscilloscopes
    10. Fault location procedure
  20. Appendix A Glossary of terms
  21. Appendix B SI units
    1. Fundamental units Selected derived units
  22. Appendix C Multiples and sub-multiples
  23. Appendix D Decimal, hexadecimal, binary and, ASCII table
  24. Appendix E Powers of 2
  25. Appendix F Processor sockets
  26. Appendix G Processor data
  27. Appendix H Common file extensions
  28. Appendix I BIOS error codes
    1. IBM BIOS
    2. AMI BIOS
    3. Award BIOS
    4. Phoenix BIOS
  29. Appendix J Manufacturers, suppliers and distributors
    1. Expansion systems, embedded controllers, DAQ, and industrial control systems
    2. Motherboards, memories, processors, drives, and accessories
    3. Data communication products and accessories
    4. Memory devices
    5. Electronic components and test equipment
    6. Computer supplies
    7. Software
  30. Appendix K Useful websites
  31. Appendix L Bibliography
    1. Interfacing
    2. Electronic circuits
    3. PC hardware
    4. Programming
  32. Appendix M Reference material available from the Web
  33. Index