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Paris, Capital of Modernity by David Harvey

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CHAPTER FOUR

THE ORGANIZATION OF SPACE RELATIONS

The more production comes to rest on exchange value, hence on exchange, the more important do the physical conditions of exchange—the means of communication and transport—become for the costs of circulation.… While capital must on one side strive to tear down every spatial barrier.… and conquer the whole earth for its market, it strives on the other side to annihilate this space with time.

—MARX

The integration of the national space of France had long been on the agenda. But by 1850, “the implantation of the structures and methods of modern large scale capitalism rendered the conquest and rational organization of space, its better adaptation to new needs, imperative.”1 The amelioration of the ...

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