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Parallel and Concurrent Programming in Haskell

Cover of Parallel and Concurrent Programming in Haskell by Simon Marlow Published by O'Reilly Media, Inc.
  1. Special Upgrade Offer
  2. Preface
    1. Audience
    2. How to Read This Book
    3. Conventions Used in This Book
    4. Using Sample Code
    5. Safari® Books Online
    6. How to Contact Us
    7. Acknowledgments
  3. 1. Introduction
    1. Terminology: Parallelism and Concurrency
    2. Tools and Resources
    3. Sample Code
  4. I. Parallel Haskell
    1. 2. Basic Parallelism: The Eval Monad
      1. Lazy Evaluation and Weak Head Normal Form
      2. The Eval Monad, rpar, and rseq
      3. Example: Parallelizing a Sudoku Solver
      4. Deepseq
    2. 3. Evaluation Strategies
      1. Parameterized Strategies
      2. A Strategy for Evaluating a List in Parallel
      3. Example: The K-Means Problem
      4. GC’d Sparks and Speculative Parallelism
      5. Parallelizing Lazy Streams with parBuffer
      6. Chunking Strategies
      7. The Identity Property
    3. 4. Dataflow Parallelism: The Par Monad
      1. Example: Shortest Paths in a Graph
      2. Pipeline Parallelism
      3. Example: A Conference Timetable
      4. Example: A Parallel Type Inferencer
      5. Using Different Schedulers
      6. The Par Monad Compared to Strategies
    4. 5. Data Parallel Programming with Repa
      1. Arrays, Shapes, and Indices
      2. Operations on Arrays
      3. Example: Computing Shortest Paths
      4. Folding and Shape-Polymorphism
      5. Example: Image Rotation
      6. Summary
    5. 6. GPU Programming with Accelerate
      1. Overview
      2. Arrays and Indices
      3. Running a Simple Accelerate Computation
      4. Scalar Arrays
      5. Indexing Arrays
      6. Creating Arrays Inside Acc
      7. Zipping Two Arrays
      8. Constants
      9. Example: Shortest Paths
      10. Example: A Mandelbrot Set Generator
  5. II. Concurrent Haskell
    1. 7. Basic Concurrency: Threads and MVars
      1. A Simple Example: Reminders
      2. Communication: MVars
      3. MVar as a Simple Channel: A Logging Service
      4. MVar as a Container for Shared State
      5. MVar as a Building Block: Unbounded Channels
      6. Fairness
    2. 8. Overlapping Input/Output
      1. Exceptions in Haskell
      2. Error Handling with Async
      3. Merging
    3. 9. Cancellation and Timeouts
      1. Asynchronous Exceptions
      2. Masking Asynchronous Exceptions
      3. The bracket Operation
      4. Asynchronous Exception Safety for Channels
      5. Timeouts
      6. Catching Asynchronous Exceptions
      7. mask and forkIO
      8. Asynchronous Exceptions: Discussion
    4. 10. Software Transactional Memory
      1. Running Example: Managing Windows
      2. Blocking
      3. Blocking Until Something Changes
      4. Merging with STM
      5. Async Revisited
      6. Implementing Channels with STM
      7. An Alternative Channel Implementation
      8. Bounded Channels
      9. What Can We Not Do with STM?
      10. Performance
      11. Summary
    5. 11. Higher-Level Concurrency Abstractions
      1. Avoiding Thread Leakage
      2. Symmetric Concurrency Combinators
      3. Adding a Functor Instance
      4. Summary: The Async API
    6. 12. Concurrent Network Servers
      1. A Trivial Server
      2. Extending the Simple Server with State
      3. A Chat Server
    7. 13. Parallel Programming Using Threads
      1. How to Achieve Parallelism with Concurrency
      2. Example: Searching for Files
    8. 14. Distributed Programming
      1. The Distributed-Process Family of Packages
      2. Distributed Concurrency or Parallelism?
      3. A First Example: Pings
      4. Multi-Node Ping
      5. Typed Channels
      6. Handling Failure
      7. A Distributed Chat Server
      8. Exercise: A Distributed Key-Value Store
    9. 15. Debugging, Tuning, and Interfacing with Foreign Code
      1. Debugging Concurrent Programs
      2. Tuning Concurrent (and Parallel) Programs
      3. Concurrency and the Foreign Function Interface
    10. Index
  6. About the Author
  7. Colophon
  8. Special Upgrade Offer
  9. Copyright
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Chapter 4. Dataflow Parallelism: The Par Monad

In the previous two chapters, we looked at the Eval monad and Strategies, which work in conjunction with lazy evaluation to express parallelism. A Strategy consumes a lazy data structure and evaluates parts of it in parallel. This model has some advantages: it allows the decoupling of the algorithm from the parallelism, and it allows parallel evaluation strategies to be built compositionally. But Strategies and Eval are not always the most convenient or effective way to express parallelism. We might not want to build a lazy data structure, for example. Lazy evaluation brings the nice modularity properties that we get with Strategies, but on the flip side, lazy evaluation can make it tricky to understand and diagnose performance.

In this chapter, we’ll explore another parallel programming model, the Par monad, with a different set of tradeoffs. The goal of the Par monad is to be more explicit about granularity and data dependencies, and to avoid the reliance on lazy evaluation, but without sacrificing the determinism that we value for parallel programming. In this programming model, the programmer has to give more detail but in return gains more control. The Par monad has some other interesting benefits; for example, it is implemented entirely as a Haskell library and the implementation can be readily modified to accommodate alternative scheduling strategies.

The interface is based around a monad called, unsurprisingly, Par:

newtype Par a
instance Applicative Par
instance Monad Par

runPar :: Par a -> a

A computation in the Par monad can be run using runPar to produce a pure result. The purpose of Par is to introduce parallelism, so we need a way to create parallel tasks:

fork :: Par () -> Par ()

The Par computation passed as the argument to fork (the “child”) is executed in parallel with the caller of fork (the “parent”). But fork doesn’t return anything to the parent, so you might be wondering how we get the result back if we start a parallel computation with fork. Values can be passed between Par computations using the IVar type[11] and its operations:

data IVar a  -- instance Eq

new :: Par (IVar a)
put :: NFData a => IVar a -> a -> Par ()
get :: IVar a -> Par a

Think of an IVar as a box that starts empty. The put operation stores a value in the box, and get reads the value. If the get operation finds the box empty, then it waits until the box is filled by a put. So an IVar lets you communicate values between parallel Par computations, because you can put a value in the box in one place and get it in another.

Once filled, the box stays full; the get operation doesn’t remove the value from the box. It is an error to call put more than once on the same IVar.

The IVar type is a relative of the MVar type that we shall see later in the context of Concurrent Haskell (Communication: MVars), the main difference being that an IVar can be written only once. An IVar is also like a future or promise, concepts that may be familiar to you from other parallel or concurrent languages.

Caution

There is nothing in the types to stop you from returning an IVar from runPar and passing it to another call of runPar. This is a Very Bad Idea; don’t do it. The implementation of the Par monad assumes that IVars are created and used within the same runPar, and breaking this assumption could lead to a runtime error, deadlock, or worse.

The library could prevent you from doing this using qualified types in the same way that the ST monad prevents you from returning an STRef from runST. This is planned for a future version.

Together, fork and IVars allow the construction of dataflow networks. Let’s see how that works with a few simple examples.

We’ll start in the same way we did in Chapter 2: write some code to perform two independent computations in parallel. As before, I’m going to use the fib function to simulate some work we want to do:

parmonad.hs

    runPar $ do
      i <- new                          -- 1
      j <- new                          -- 2
      fork (put i (fib n))              -- 3
      fork (put j (fib m))              -- 4
      a <- get i                        -- 5
      b <- get j                        -- 6
      return (a+b)                      -- 7
1 2

Creates two new IVars to hold the results, i and j.

3 4

fork two independent Par computations. The first puts the value of fib n into the IVar i, and the second puts the value of fib m into the IVar j.

5 6

The parent of the two forks calls get to wait for the results from i and j.

7

Finally, add the results and return.

When run, this program evaluates fib n and fib m in parallel. To try it yourself, compile parmonad.hs and run it passing two values for n and m, for example:

$ ./parmonad 34 35 +RTS -N2

The pattern in this program is represented graphically in Figure 4-1.

Simple Par example
Figure 4-1. Simple Par example

The diagram makes it clear that what we are creating is a dataflow graph: that is, a graph in which the nodes (fib n, etc.) contain the computation and data flows down the edges (i and j). To be concrete, each fork in the program creates a node, each new creates an edge, and get and put connect the edges to the nodes.

From the diagram, we can see that the two nodes containing fib n and fib m are independent of each other, and that is why they can be computed in parallel, which is exactly what the monad-par library will do. However, the dataflow graph doesn’t exist in any explicit form at runtime; the library works by keeping track of all the computations that can currently be performed (a work pool), and dividing those amongst the available processors using an appropriate scheduling strategy. The dataflow graph is just a way to visualize and understand the structure of the parallelism. Unfortunately, right now there’s no way to generate a visual representation of the dataflow graph from some Par monad code, but hopefully in the future someone will write a tool to do that.

Using dataflow to express parallelism is quite an old idea; there were people experimenting with custom hardware architectures designed around dataflow back in the 1970s and 1980s. In contrast to those designs that were focused on exploiting very fine-grained parallelism automatically, here we are using dataflow as an explicit parallel programming model. But we are using dataflow here for the same reasons that it was attractive back then: instead of saying what is to be done in parallel, we only describe the data dependencies, thereby exposing all the implicit parallelism to be exploited.

While the Par monad is particularly suited to expressing dataflow networks, it can also express other common patterns. For example, we can build an equivalent of the parMap combinator that we saw earlier in Chapter 2. To make it easier to define parMap, let’s first build a simple abstraction for a parallel computation that returns a result:

spawn :: NFData a => Par a -> Par (IVar a)
spawn p = do
  i <- new
  fork (do x <- p; put i x)
  return i

The spawn function forks a computation in parallel and returns an IVar that can be used to wait for the result. For convenience, spawn is already provided by Control.Monad.Par.

Parallel map consists of calling spawn to apply the function to each element of the list and then waiting for all the results:

parMapM :: NFData b => (a -> Par b) -> [a] -> Par [b]
parMapM f as = do
  ibs <- mapM (spawn . f) as
  mapM get ibs

(parMapM is also provided by Control.Monad.Par, albeit in a more generalized form than the version shown here.)

Note that the function argument, f, returns its result in the Par monad; this means that f itself can create further parallelism using fork and the other Par operations. When the function argument of a map is monadic, convention is to add the M suffix to the function name, hence parMapM.

It is straightforward to define a variant of parMapM that takes a non-monadic function instead, by inserting a return:

parMap :: NFData b => (a -> b) -> [a] -> Par [b]
parMap f as = do
  ibs <- mapM (spawn . return . f) as
  mapM get ibs

One other thing to note here is that, unlike the parMap we saw in Chapter 2, parMapM and parMap wait for all the results before returning. Depending on the context, this may or may not be the most useful behavior. If you don’t want to wait for the results, then you could always just use mapM (spawn . f), which returns a list of IVars.

Example: Shortest Paths in a Graph

The Floyd-Warshall algorithm finds the lengths of the shortest paths between all pairs of nodes in a weighted directed graph. The algorithm is quite simple and can be expressed as a function over three vertices. Assuming vertices are numbered from one, and we have a function weight g i j that gives the weight of the edge from i to j in graph g, the algorithm is described by this pseudocode:

shortestPath :: Graph -> Vertex -> Vertex -> Vertex -> Weight
shortestPath g i j 0 = weight g i j
shortestPath g i j k = min (shortestPath g i j (k-1))
                           (shortestPath g i k (k-1) + shortestPath g k j (k-1))

You can think of the algorithm intuitively this way: shortestPath g i j k gives the length of the shortest path from i to j, passing through vertices up to k only. At k == 0, the paths between each pair of vertices consists of the direct edges only. For a non-zero k, there are two cases: either the shortest path from i to j passes through k, or it does not. The shortest path passing through k is given by the sum of the shortest path from i to k and from k to j. Then the shortest path from i to j is the minimum of the two choices, either passing through k or not.

We wouldn’t want to implement the algorithm like this directly, because it requires an exponential number of recursive calls. This is a classic example of a dynamic programming problem: rather than recursing top-down, we can build the solution bottom-up, so that earlier results can be used when computing later ones. In this case, we want to start by computing the shortest paths between all pairs of nodes for k == 0, then for k == 1, and so on until k reaches the maximum vertex. Each step is O(n2) in the vertices, so the whole algorithm is O(n3).

The algorithm is often run over an adjacency matrix, which is a very efficient representation of a dense graph. But here we’re going to assume a sparse graph (most pairs of vertices do not have an edge between them), and use a representation more suitable for this case:

fwsparse/SparseGraph.hs

type Vertex = Int
type Weight = Int

type Graph = IntMap (IntMap Weight)

weight :: Graph -> Vertex -> Vertex -> Maybe Weight
weight g i j = do
  jmap <- Map.lookup i g
  Map.lookup j jmap

The graph is essentially a mapping from pairs of nodes to weights, but it is represented more efficiently as a two-layer map. For example, to find the edge between i and j, we look up i in the outer map, yielding another map in which we look up j to find the weight. The function weight embodies this pair of lookups using the Maybe monad. If there is no edge between the two vertices, then weight returns Nothing.

Here is the sequential implementation of the shortest path algorithm:

fwsparse/fwsparse.hs

shortestPaths :: [Vertex] -> Graph -> Graph
shortestPaths vs g = foldl' update g vs            -- 1
 where
  update g k = Map.mapWithKey shortmap g           -- 2
   where
     shortmap :: Vertex -> IntMap Weight -> IntMap Weight
     shortmap i jmap = foldr shortest Map.empty vs -- 3
        where shortest j m =
                case (old,new) of                  -- 4
                   (Nothing, Nothing) -> m
                   (Nothing, Just w ) -> Map.insert j w m
                   (Just w,  Nothing) -> Map.insert j w m
                   (Just w1, Just w2) -> Map.insert j (min w1 w2) m
                where
                  old = Map.lookup j jmap          -- 5
                  new = do w1 <- weight g i k      -- 6
                           w2 <- weight g k j
                           return (w1+w2)

shortestPaths takes a list of vertices in addition to the graph; we could have derived this from the graph, but it’s slightly more convenient to pass it in. The result is also a Graph, but instead of containing the weights of the edges between vertices, it contains the lengths of the shortest paths between vertices. For simplicity, we’re not returning the shortest paths themselves, although this can be added without affecting the asymptotic time or space complexity.

1

The algorithm as a whole is a left-fold over the list of vertices; this corresponds to iterating over values of k in the pseudocode description shown earlier. At each stage we add a new vertex to the set of vertices that can be used to construct paths, until at the end we have paths that can use all the vertices. Note that we use the strict left-fold, foldl', to ensure that we’re evaluating the graph at every step and not building up a chain of thunks (we’re also using a strict IntMap to avoid thunks building up inside the Graph; this turns out to be vital for avoiding a space leak).

2

The update function computes each step by mapping the function shortmap over the outer IntMap in the graph. There’s no need to map over the whole list of vertices because we know that any vertex that does not have an entry in the outer map cannot have a path to any other vertex (although it might have incoming paths).

3

shortmap takes i, the current vertex, and jmap, the mapping of shortest paths from i. This function does need to consider every vertex in the graph as a possible destination because there may be vertices that we can reach from i via k, but which do not currently have an entry in jmap. So here we’re building up a new jmap by folding over the list of vertices, vs.

5

For a given j, look up the current shortest path from i to j, and call it old.

6

Look up the shortest path from i to j via k (if one exists), and call it new.

4

Find the minimum of old and new, and insert it into the new mapping. Naturally, one path is the winner if the other path does not exist.

The algorithm is a nest of three loops. The outer loop is a left-fold with a data dependency between iterations, so it cannot be parallelized (as a side note, folds can be parallelized only when the operation being folded is associative, and then the linear fold can be turned into a tree). The next loop, however, is a map:

  update g k = Map.mapWithKey shortmap g

As we know, maps parallelize nicely. Will this give the right granularity? The map is over the outer IntMap of the Graph, so there will be as many tasks as there are vertices without edges. There will typically be at least hundreds of edges in the graph, so there are clearly enough separate work items to keep even tens of cores busy. Furthermore, each task is an O(n) loop over the list of vertices, so we are unlikely to have problems with the granularity being too fine.

Let’s consider how to add parallelism here. It’s not an ordinary map—we’re using the mapWithKey function provided by Data.IntMap to map directly over the IntMap. We could turn the IntMap into a list, run a standard parMap over that, and then turn it back into an IntMap, but the conversion to and from a list would add some overhead. Fortunately, the IntMap library provides a way to traverse an IntMap in a monad:

traverseWithKey :: Applicative t
                => (Key -> a -> t b)
                -> IntMap a
                -> t (IntMap b)

Don’t worry if you’re not familiar with the Applicative type class; most of the time, you can read Applicative as Monad and you’ll be fine. All the standard Monad types are also Applicative, and in general any Monad can be made into an Applicative easily.[12]

So traverseWithKey essentially maps a monadic function over the IntMap, for any monad t. The monadic function is passed not only the element a, but also the Key, which is just what we need here: shortmap needs both the key (the source vertex) and the element (the map from destination vertices to weights).

So we want to behave like parMap, except that we’ll use traverseWithKey to map over the IntMap. Here is the parallel code for update:

  update g k = runPar $ do
    m <- Map.traverseWithKey (\i jmap -> spawn (return (shortmap i jmap))) g
    traverse get m

We’ve put runPar inside update; the rest of the shortestPaths function will remain as before, and all the parallelism is confined to update. We’re calling traverseWithKey to spawn a call to shortmap for each of the elements of the IntMap. The result of this call will be an IntMap (IVar (IntMap Weight)); that is, there’s an IVar in place of each element. To get the new Graph, we need to call get on each of these IVars and produce a new Graph with all the elements, which is what the final call to traverse does. The traverse function is from the Traversable class; for our purposes here, it is like traverseWithKey but doesn’t pass the Key to the function.

Let’s take a look at the speedup we get from this code. Running the original program on a random graph with 800 edges over 1,000 vertices:

$ ./fwsparse 1000 800 +RTS -s
...
  Total   time    4.16s  (  4.17s elapsed)

And our parallel version, first on one core:

$ ./fwsparse1 1000 800 +RTS -s
...
  Total   time    4.54s  (  4.57s elapsed)

Adding the parallel traversal has cost us about 10% overhead; this is quite a lot, and if we were optimizing this program for real, we would want to look into whether that overhead can be reduced. Perhaps it is caused by doing one runPar per iteration (a runPar is quite expensive) or perhaps traverseWithKey is expensive.

The speedup on four cores is fairly respectable:

$ ./fwsparse1 1000 800 +RTS -s -N4
...
  Total   time    5.27s  (  1.38s elapsed)

This gives us a speedup of 3.02 over the sequential version. To improve this speedup further, the first target would be to reduce the overhead of the parallel version.

Pipeline Parallelism

Next, we’re going to look at a different way to expose parallelism: pipeline parallelism. Back in Parallelizing Lazy Streams with parBuffer, we saw how to use parallelism in a program that consumed and produced input lazily, although in that case we used data parallelism, which is parallelism between the stream elements. Here, we’re going to show how to make use of parallelism between the stages of a pipeline. For example, we might have a pipeline that looks like this:

image with no caption

Each stage of the pipeline is doing some computation on the stream elements and maintaining state as it does so. When a pipeline stage maintains some state, we can’t exploit parallelism between the stream elements as we did in Parallelizing Lazy Streams with parBuffer. Instead, we would like each of the pipeline stages to run on a separate core, with the data streaming between them. The Par monad, together with the techniques in this section, allows us to do that.

The basic idea is as follows: instead of representing the stream as a lazy list, use an explicit representation of a stream:

data IList a
  = Nil
  | Cons a (IVar (IList a))

type Stream a = IVar (IList a)

An IList is a list with an IVar as the tail. This allows the producer to generate the list incrementally, while a consumer runs in parallel, grabbing elements as they are produced. A Stream is an IVar containing an IList.

We’ll need a few functions for working with Streams. First, we need a generic producer that turns a lazy list into a Stream:

streamFromList :: NFData a => [a] -> Par (Stream a)
streamFromList xs = do
  var <- new                            -- 1
  fork $ loop xs var                    -- 2
  return var                            -- 3
 where
  loop [] var = put var Nil             -- 4
  loop (x:xs) var = do                  -- 5
    tail <- new                         -- 6
    put var (Cons x tail)               -- 7
    loop xs tail                        -- 8
1

Creates the IVar that will be the Stream itself.

2

forks the loop that will create the Stream contents.

3

Returns the Stream to the caller. The Stream is now being created in parallel.

4

This loop traverses the input list, producing the IList as it goes. The first argument is the list, and the second argument is the IVar into which to store the IList. In the case of an empty list, we simply store an empty IList into the IVar.

5

In the case of a non-empty list,

6

we create a new IVar for the tail,

7

and store a Cons cell representing this element into the current IVar. Note that this fully evaluates the list element x, because put is strict.

8

Recurse to create the rest of the stream.

Next, we’ll write a consumer of Streams, streamFold:

streamFold :: (a -> b -> a) -> a -> Stream b -> Par a
streamFold fn !acc instrm = do
  ilst <- get instrm
  case ilst of
    Nil      -> return acc
    Cons h t -> streamFold fn (fn acc h) t

This is a left-fold over the Stream and is defined exactly as you would expect: recursing through the IList and accumulating the result until the end of the Stream is reached. If the streamFold consumes all the available stream elements and catches up with the producer, it will block in the get call waiting for the next element.

The final operation we’ll need is a map over Streams. This is both a producer and a consumer:

streamMap :: NFData b => (a -> b) -> Stream a -> Par (Stream b)
streamMap fn instrm = do
  outstrm <- new
  fork $ loop instrm outstrm
  return outstrm
 where
  loop instrm outstrm = do
    ilst <- get instrm
    case ilst of
      Nil -> put outstrm Nil
      Cons h t -> do
        newtl <- new
        put outstrm (Cons (fn h) newtl)
        loop t newtl

There’s nothing particularly surprising here—the pattern is a combination of the producer we saw in streamFromList and the consumer in streamFold.

To demonstrate that this works, I’ll construct an example using the RSA encryption code that we saw earlier in Parallelizing Lazy Streams with parBuffer. However, this time, in order to construct a nontrivial pipeline, I’ll compose together encryption and decryption; encryption will produce a stream that decryption consumes (admittedly this isn’t a realistic use case, but it does demonstrate pipeline parallelism).

Previously, encrypt and decrypt consumed and produced lazy ByteStrings. Now they work over Stream ByteString in the Par monad, and are expressed as a streamMap:

rsa-pipeline.hs

encrypt :: Integer -> Integer -> Stream ByteString -> Par (Stream ByteString)
encrypt n e s = streamMap (B.pack . show . power e n . code) s

decrypt :: Integer -> Integer -> Stream ByteString -> Par (Stream ByteString)
decrypt n d s = streamMap (B.pack . decode . power d n . integer) s

The following function composes these together and also adds a streamFromList to create the input Stream and a streamFold to consume the result:

pipeline :: Integer -> Integer -> Integer -> ByteString -> ByteString
pipeline n e d b = runPar $ do
  s0 <- streamFromList (chunk (size n) b)
  s1 <- encrypt n e s0
  s2 <- decrypt n d s1
  xs <- streamFold (\x y -> (y : x)) [] s2
  return (B.unlines (reverse xs))

Note that the streamFold produces a list of ByteStrings at the end, to which we apply unlines, and then the caller prints out the result.

This works rather nicely: I see a speedup of 1.45 running the program over a large text file. What’s the maximum speedup we can achieve here? Well, there are four independent pipeline stages: streamFromList, two streamMaps, and a streamFold, although only the two maps really involve any significant computation.[13] So the best we can hope for is to reduce the running time to the longer of the two maps. We can verify, by timing the rsa.hs program, that encryption takes approximately twice as long as decryption, which means that we can expect a speedup of about 1.5, which is close to the sample run here.

The ThreadScope profile of this program is quite revealing. Figure 4-2 is a typical section from it.

ThreadScope profile of rsa-pipeline
Figure 4-2. ThreadScope profile of rsa-pipeline

HEC 0 appears to be doing the encryption, and HEC 1 the decryption. Decryption is faster than encryption, so HEC 1 repeatedly gets stuck waiting for the next element of the encrypted stream; this accounts for the gaps in execution we see on HEC 1.

One interesting thing to note about this profile is that the pipeline stages tend to stay on the same core. This is because each pipeline stage is a single fork (a single node in the dataflow graph) and the Par scheduler will run a task to completion on the current core before starting on the next task. Keeping each pipeline stage running on a single core is good for locality.

Rate-Limiting the Producer

In our previous example, the consumer was faster than the producer. If, instead, the producer had been faster than the consumer, then there would be nothing to stop the producer from getting a long way ahead of the consumer and building up a long IList chain in memory. This is undesirable, because large heap data structures incur overhead due to garbage collection, so we might want to rate-limit the producer to avoid it getting too far ahead. There’s a trick that adds some automatic rate-limiting to the stream API. It entails adding another constructor to the IList type:

data IList a
  = Nil
  | Cons a (IVar (IList a))
  | Fork (Par ()) (IList a)  -- 1
1

The idea is that the creator of the IList produces a fixed amount of the list and inserts a Fork constructor containing another Par computation that will produce more of the list. The consumer, upon finding a Fork, calls fork to start production of the next chunk of the list. The Fork doesn’t have to be at the end; for example, the list might be produced in chunks of 200 elements, with the first Fork being at the 100 element mark, and every 200 elements thereafter. This would mean that at any time there would be at least 100 and up to 300 elements waiting to be consumed.

I’ll leave the rest of the implementation of this idea as an exercise for you to try on your own. See if you can modify streamFromList, streamFold, and streamMap to incorporate the Fork constructor. The chunk size and fork distance should be parameters to the producers (streamFromList and streamMap).

Limitations of Pipeline Parallelism

Pipeline parallelism is limited in that we can expose only as much parallelism as we have pipeline stages. It therefore tends to be less effective than data parallelism, which can expose a lot more parallelism. Still, pipeline parallelism is a useful tool to have in your toolbox.

The earlier example also exposes a limitation of the Par monad; we cannot produce a lazy stream from runPar itself. The call to streamFold accumulates the entire list before it returns. You can’t return an IList from runPar and consume it in another runPar, because returning an IVar from runPar is illegal and will probably result in an error. Besides, runPar always runs all the forked Par computations to completion before returning, because this is necessary to ensure deterministic results. There is an IO version of the Par monad that we’ll encounter in The ParIO monad, and you could use that for lazy streaming, although unlike the pure Par monad, determinism is not guaranteed when using the IO version.

Example: A Conference Timetable

In this section, we’ll look at a program that finds a valid timetable for a conference.[14] The outline of the problem is this:

  • The conference runs T parallel tracks, and each track has the same number of talk slots, S; hence there are T * S talk slots in total. For simplicity, we assume that the talk slots all start and finish at the same time across the tracks.
  • There are at most T * S talks to assign to tracks and slots (if there are fewer talks than slots, we can make up the difference with dummy talks that represent empty slots).
  • There are a number of attendees who have each expressed a preference for some talks they would like to see.
  • The goal is to assign talks to slots and tracks so that the attendees can attend all the talks they want to see; that is, we never schedule two talks that an attendee wanted to see on two different tracks in the same slot.

Here’s a small example. Suppose we have two tracks and two slots, and four talks named A, B, C, and D. There are four attendees—P, Q, R, and S—and each wants to go to two talks:

  • P wants to see A and B
  • Q wants to see B and C
  • R wants to see C and D
  • S wants to see A and D

One solution is:

Track Slot 1 Slot 2

1

B

C

2

D

A

There are other solutions, but they are symmetrical with this one (interchange either the tracks or the slots or both).

Timetabling is an instance of a constraint satisfaction problem: we’re finding assignments for variables (talk slots) that satisfy the constraints (attendees’ preferences). The problem requires an exhaustive search, but we can be more clever than just generating all the possible assignments and testing each one. We can fill in the timetable incrementally: assign a talk to the first slot of the first track, then find a talk for the first slot of the second track that doesn’t introduce a conflict, and so on until we’ve filled up the first slot of all the tracks. Then we proceed to the second slot and so on until we’ve filled the whole timetable. This incremental approach prunes a lot of the search space because we avoid searching for solutions when the partial grid already contains a conflict.[15]

If at any point we cannot fill a slot without causing a conflict, we have to backtrack to the previous slot and choose a different talk instead. If we exhaust all the possibilities at the previous slot, then we have to backtrack further. So, in general, the search pattern is a tree. A fragment of the search tree for the example above is shown in Figure 4-3.

Tree-shaped search pattern for the timetabling problem
Figure 4-3. Tree-shaped search pattern for the timetabling problem

If we are interested in all the solutions (perhaps because we want to pick the best one according to some criteria), we have to explore the whole tree.

Algorithms that have this tree-shaped structure are often called divide and conquer. A divide-and-conquer algorithm is one in which the problem is recursively split into smaller subproblems that are solved separately, then combined to form the whole solution. In this case, starting from the empty timetable, we’re dividing the solution space according to which talk goes in the first slot, and then by which talk goes in the second slot, and so on recursively until we fill the timetable. Divide-and-conquer algorithms have some nice properties, not least of which is that they parallelize well because the branches are independent of one another.

So let’s look at how to code up a solution in Haskell. First, we need a type to represent talks; for simplicity, I’ll just number them:

timetable.hs

newtype Talk = Talk Int
  deriving (Eq,Ord)

instance NFData Talk

instance Show Talk where
  show (Talk t) = show t

An attendee is represented by her name and the talks she wants to attend:

data Person = Person
  { name  :: String
  , talks :: [Talk]
  }
  deriving (Show)

And the complete timetable is represented as a list of lists of Talk. Each list represents a single slot. So if there are four tracks and three slots, for example, the timetable will be three lists of four elements each.

type TimeTable = [[Talk]]

Here’s the top-level function: it takes a list of Person, a list of Talk, the number of tracks and slots, and returns a list of TimeTable:

timetable :: [Person] -> [Talk] -> Int -> Int -> [TimeTable]
timetable people allTalks maxTrack maxSlot =

First, I’m going to cache some information about which talks clash with each other. That is, for each talk, we want to know which other talks cannot be scheduled in the same slot, because one or more attendees want to see both of them. This information is collected in a Map called clashes, which is built from the [Person] passed to timetable:

  clashes :: Map Talk [Talk]
  clashes = Map.fromListWith union
     [ (t, ts)
     | s <- people
     , (t, ts) <- selects (talks s) ]

The auxiliary function selects takes a list and returns a list of pairs, one pair for each item in the input list. The first element of each pair is an element, and the second is the original list with that element removed. For efficient implementation, selects does not preserve the order of the elements. Example output:

*Main> selects [1..3]
[(1,[2,3]),(2,[1,3]),(3,[2,1])]

Now we can write the algorithm itself. Remember that the algorithm is recursive: at each stage, we start with a partially filled-in timetable, and we want to determine all the possible ways of filling in the next slot and recursively generate all the solutions from those. The recursive function is called generate. Here is its type:

  generate :: Int          -- current slot number
           -> Int          -- current track number
           -> [[Talk]]     -- slots allocated so far
           -> [Talk]       -- talks in this slot
           -> [Talk]       -- talks that can be allocated in this slot
           -> [Talk]       -- all talks remaining to be allocated
           -> [TimeTable]  -- all possible solutions

The first two arguments tell us where in the timetable we are, and the second two arguments are the partially complete timetable. In fact, we’re filling in the slots in reverse order, but the slots are independent of one another so it makes no difference. The last two arguments keep track of which talks remain to be assigned: the first is the list of talks that we can put in the current slot (taking into account clashes with other talks already in this slot), and the second is the complete list of talks still left to assign.

The implementation of generate looks a little dense, but I’ll walk through it step by step:

  generate slotNo trackNo slots slot slotTalks talks
     | slotNo == maxSlot   = [slots]                                    -- 1
     | trackNo == maxTrack =
         generate (slotNo+1) 0 (slot:slots) [] talks talks              -- 2
     | otherwise = concat                                               -- 3
         [ generate slotNo (trackNo+1) slots (t:slot) slotTalks' talks' -- 4
         | (t, ts) <- selects slotTalks                                 -- 5
         , let clashesWithT = Map.findWithDefault [] t clashes          -- 6
         , let slotTalks' = filter (`notElem` clashesWithT) ts          -- 7
         , let talks' = filter (/= t) talks                             -- 8
         ]
1

If we’ve filled in all the slots, we’re done; the current list of slots is a solution.

2

If we’ve filled in all the tracks for the current slot, move on to the next slot.

3

Otherwise, we’re going to fill in the next talk in this slot. The result is the concatenation of all the solutions arising from the possibilities for filling in that talk.

5

Here we select all the possibilities for the next talk from slotTalks, binding the next talk to t.

6

Decide which other talks clash with t.

7

Remove from slotTalks the talks that clash with t.

8

Remove t from talks.

4

For each t, recursively call generate with the new partial solution.

Finally, we need to call generate with the empty timetable to start things off:

  generate 0 0 [] [] allTalks allTalks

The program is equipped with some machinery to generate test data, so we can see how long it takes with a variety of inputs. Unfortunately, it turns out to be hard to find some parameters that don’t either take forever or complete instantaneously, but here’s one set:

$ ./timetable 4 3 11 10 3 +RTS -s

The command-line arguments set the parameters for the search: 4 slots, 3 tracks, 11 total talks, and 10 participants who each want to go to 3 talks. This takes about 1 second to calculate the number of possible timetables (about 31,000).

Adding Parallelism

This code is already quite involved, and if we try to parallelize it directly, it is likely to get more complicated. We’d prefer to separate the parallelism as far as possible from the algorithm code. With Strategies (Chapter 3), we did this by generating a lazy data structure. But this application is an example where generating a lazy data structure doesn’t work very well, because we would have to return the entire search tree as a data structure.

Instead, I want to demonstrate another technique for separating the parallelism from the algorithm: building a parallel skeleton. A parallel skeleton is nothing more than a higher-order function that abstracts a pattern of computation. We’ve already seen one parallel skeleton: parMap, the function that describes data parallelism, abstracted over the function to apply in parallel. Here we need a different skeleton, which I’ll call the search skeleton (although it’s a variant of a more general divide-and-conquer skeleton).

I’ll start by refactoring the algorithm into a skeleton and its instantiation, and then add parallelism to the skeleton. The type of the search skeleton is as follows:

timetable1.hs

search :: ( partial -> Maybe solution )   -- 1
       -> ( partial -> [ partial ] )      -- 2
       -> partial                         -- 3
       -> [solution]                      -- 4

The search function is polymorphic in two types: partial is the type of partial solutions, and solution is the type of complete solutions. We’ll see how these are instantiated in our example shortly.

1

The first argument to search is a function that tells whether a particular partial solution corresponds to a complete solution, and if so, what the solution is.

2

The second argument takes a partial solution and refines it to a list of further partial solutions. It is expected that this process doesn’t continue forever!

3

To get things started, we need an initial, empty value of type partial.

4

The result is a list of solutions.

The definition of search is quite straightforward. It’s one of those functions that is almost impossible to get wrong, because the type describes exactly what it does:

search finished refine emptysoln = generate emptysoln
  where
    generate partial
       | Just soln <- finished partial = [soln]
       | otherwise  = concat (map generate (refine partial))

Now to refactor timetable to use search. The basic idea is that the arguments to generate constitute the partial solution, so we’ll just package them up:

type Partial = (Int, Int, [[Talk]], [Talk], [Talk], [Talk])

The rest of the refactoring is mechanical, so I won’t describe it in detail. The result is:

timetable :: [Person] -> [Talk] -> Int -> Int -> [TimeTable]
timetable people allTalks maxTrack maxSlot =
  search finished refine emptysoln
 where
  emptysoln = (0, 0, [], [], allTalks, allTalks)

  finished (slotNo, trackNo, slots, slot, slotTalks, talks)
     | slotNo == maxSlot = Just slots
     | otherwise         = Nothing

  clashes :: Map Talk [Talk]
  clashes = Map.fromListWith union
     [ (t, ts)
     | s <- people
     , (t, ts) <- selects (talks s) ]

  refine (slotNo, trackNo, slots, slot, slotTalks, talks)
     | trackNo == maxTrack = [(slotNo+1, 0, slot:slots, [], talks, talks)]
     | otherwise =
         [ (slotNo, trackNo+1, slots, t:slot, slotTalks', talks')
         | (t, ts) <- selects slotTalks
         , let clashesWithT = Map.findWithDefault [] t clashes
         , let slotTalks' = filter (`notElem` clashesWithT) ts
         , let talks' = filter (/= t) talks
         ]

The algorithm works exactly as before. All we did was pull out the search pattern as a higher-order function and call it.

Now to parallelize the search skeleton. As you might expect, the basic idea is that at each stage, we’ll spawn off the recursive calls in parallel and then collect the results. Here’s how to express that using the Par monad:

timetable2.hs

parsearch :: NFData solution
      => ( partial -> Maybe solution )
      -> ( partial -> [ partial ] )
      -> partial
      -> [solution]

parsearch finished refine emptysoln
  = runPar $ generate emptysoln
  where
    generate partial
       | Just soln <- finished partial = return [soln]
       | otherwise  = do
           solnss <- parMapM generate (refine partial)
           return (concat solnss)

We’re using parMapM to call generate in parallel on the list of partial solutions returned by refine, and then concatenating the results. However, this doesn’t work out too well; on the parameter set we used before, it adds a factor of five overhead. The problem is that as we get near the leaves of the search tree, the granularity is too fine in relation to the overhead of spawning the calls in parallel.

So we need a way to make the granularity coarser. We can’t use chunking, because we don’t have a flat list here; we have a tree. For tree-shaped parallelism we need to use a different technique: a depth threshold. The basic idea is quite simple: spawn recursive calls in parallel down to a certain depth, and below that depth use the original sequential algorithm.

Our parsearch function needs an extra parameter, namely the depth to parallelize to:

timetable3.hs

parsearch :: NFData solution
      => Int
      -> ( partial -> Maybe solution )   -- finished?
      -> ( partial -> [ partial ] )      -- refine a solution
      -> partial                         -- initial solution
      -> [solution]

parsearch maxdepth finished refine emptysoln
  = runPar $ generate 0 emptysoln
  where
    generate d partial | d >= maxdepth               -- 1
       = return (search finished refine partial)
    generate d partial
       | Just soln <- finished partial = return [soln]
       | otherwise  = do
           solnss <- parMapM (generate (d+1)) (refine partial)
           return (concat solnss)
1

The depth argument d increases by one each time we make a recursive call to generate. If it reaches the maxdepth passed as an argument to parsearch, then we call search (the sequential algorithm) to do the rest of the search below this point.

Using a depth of three in this case works reasonably well and gets us a speedup of about three on four cores relative to the original sequential version. Adding the skeleton unfortunately incurs some overhead, but in return it gains us some worthwhile modularity: it would have been difficult to add the depth threshold without first abstracting the skeleton.

Here are the main points to take away from this example:

  • Tree-shaped (divide and conquer) computations parallelize well.
  • You can abstract the parallel pattern as a skeleton using higher-order functions.
  • To control the granularity in a tree-shaped computation, add a depth threshold, and use the sequential version of the algorithm below a certain depth.

Example: A Parallel Type Inferencer

In this section, we will parallelize a type inference engine, such as you might find in a compiler for a functional language. The purpose of this example is to demonstrate two things: one, that parallelism can be readily applied to program analysis problems, and two, that the dataflow model works well even when the structure of the parallelism is entirely dependent on the input and cannot be predicted beforehand.

The outline of the problem is as follows: given a list of bindings of the form x = e for a variable x and expression e, infer the types for each of the variables. Expressions consist of integers, variables, application, lambda expressions, let expressions, and arithmetic operators (+, -, *, /).

We can test the type inference engine on a few simple examples. Load it in GHCi (from the directory parinfer in the sample code):

$ ghci parinfer.hs

The function test typechecks an expression. Simple arithmetic expressions have type Int:

*Main> test "1 + 2"
Int

We can use lambda expressions, let expressions, and higher-order functions, just like in Haskell:

*Main> test "\\x -> x"
a0 -> a0
*Main> test "\\x -> x + 1"
Int -> Int
*Main> test "\\g -> \\h -> g (h 3)"
(a2 -> a3) -> (Int -> a2) -> a3

(Note that in order to get the backslash character in a Haskell String, we need to use "\\".)

When the type inferencer is run as a standalone program, it typechecks a file of bindings, and infers a type for each one. For simplicity, we assume the list of bindings is ordered and nonrecursive; any variable used in an expression has to be defined earlier in the list. Later bindings may also shadow earlier ones.

For example, consider the following set of bindings for which we want to infer types:

  f = ...
  g = ... f ...
  h = ... f ...
  j = ... g ... h ...

I’m using the notation "... f ..." to stand for an expression involving f. The specific expression isn’t important here, only that it mentions f.

We could proceed in a linear fashion through the list of bindings: first inferring the type for f, then the type for g, then the type for h, and so on. However, if we look at the dataflow graph for this set of bindings (Figure 4-4), we can see that there is some parallelism.

Flow of types between f, g, h, j
Figure 4-4. Flow of types between f, g, h, j

Clearly we can infer the types of g and h in parallel, once the type of f is known. When viewed this way, we can see that type inference is a natural fit for the dataflow model; we can consider each binding to be a node in the graph, and the edges of the graph carry inferred types from bindings to usage sites in the program.

Building a dataflow graph for the type inference problem allows parallelism to be automatically extracted from the type inference process. The actual amount of parallelism present depends entirely on the structure of the input program, however. An input program in which every binding depends on the previous one in the list would have no parallelism to extract. Fortunately, most programs aren’t like that—usually there is a decent amount of parallelism implicit in the dependency structure.

Note that we’re not necessarily exploiting all the available parallelism here. There might be parallelism available within the inference of individual bindings. However, to try to parallelize too deeply might cause granularity problems, and parallelizing the outer level is likely to gain the most reward.

The type inference engine that I’m using for this example is a rather ancient piece of code that I modified to add parallelism.[16] The changes to add parallelism were quite modest.[17]

The types from the inference engine that we will need to work with are as follows:

type VarId = String -- Variables
data Term     -- Terms in the input program
data Env      -- Environment, mapping VarId to PolyType
data PolyType -- Polymorphic types

In programming language terminology, an environment is a mapping that assigns some meaning to the variables of an expression. A type inference engine uses an environment to assign types to variables; this is the purpose of the Env type. When we typecheck an expression, we must supply an Env that gives the types of the variables that the expression mentions. An Env is created using makeEnv:

makeEnv :: [(VarId,PolyType)] -> Env

To determine which variables we need to populate the Env with, we need a way to extract the free (unbound) variables of an expression; this is what the freeVars function does:

freeVars :: Term -> [VarId]

The underlying type inference engine for expressions takes a Term and an Env that supplies the types for the free variables of the Term and delivers a PolyType:

inferTopRhs :: Env -> Term -> PolyType

While the sequential part of the inference engine uses an Env that maps VarIds to PolyTypes, the parallel part of the inference engine will use an environment that maps VarIds to IVar PolyType, so that we can fork the inference engine for a given binding, and then wait for its result later.[18] The environment for the parallel type inferencer is called TopEnv:

type TopEnv = Map VarId (IVar PolyType)

All that remains is to write the top-level loop. We’ll do this in two stages. First, a function to infer the type of a single binding:

inferBind :: TopEnv -> (VarId,Term) -> Par TopEnv
inferBind topenv (x,u) = do
  vu <- new                                                     -- 1
  fork $ do                                                     -- 2
    let fu = Set.toList (freeVars u)                            -- 3
    tfu <- mapM (get . fromJust . flip Map.lookup topenv) fu    -- 4
    let aa = makeEnv (zip fu tfu)                               -- 5
    put vu (inferTopRhs aa u)                                   -- 6
  return (Map.insert x vu topenv)                               -- 7
1

Create an IVar, vu, to hold the type of this binding.

2

Fork the computation that does the type inference.

3

The inputs to this type inference are the types of the variables mentioned in the expression u. Hence we call freeVars to get those variables.

4

For each of the free variables, look up its IVar in the topenv, and then call get on it. Hence this step will wait until the types of all the free variables are available before proceeding.

5

Build an Env from the free variables and their types.

6

Infer the type of the expression u, and put the result in the IVar we created at the beginning.

7

Back in the parent, return topenv extended with x mapped to the new IVar vu.

Next we use inferBind to define inferTop, which infers types for a list of bindings:

inferTop :: TopEnv -> [(VarId,Term)] -> Par [(VarId,PolyType)]
inferTop topenv0 binds = do
  topenv1 <- foldM inferBind topenv0 binds                          -- 1
  mapM (\(v,i) -> do t <- get i; return (v,t)) (Map.toList topenv1) -- 2
1

Use foldM (from Control.Monad) to perform inferBind over each binding, accumulating a TopEnv that will contain a mapping for each of the variables.

2

Wait for all the type inference to happen, and collect the results. Hence we turn the TopEnv back into a list and call get on all of the IVars.

This parallel implementation works quite nicely. To demonstrate it, I’ve constructed a synthetic input for the type checker, a fragment of which is given below (the full version is in the file parinfer/benchmark.in).

id = \x->x ;

a = \f -> f id id ;
a = \f -> f a a ;
a = \f -> f a a ;
...
a = let f = a in \x -> x ;

b = \f -> f id id ;
b = \f -> f b b ;
b = \f -> f b b ;
...
b = let f = b in \x -> x ;

c = \f -> f id id ;
c = \f -> f c c ;
c = \f -> f c c ;
...
c = let f = c in \x -> x ;

d = \f -> f id id ;
d = \f -> f d d ;
d = \f -> f d d ;
...
d = let f = d in \x -> x ;

There are four sequences of bindings that can be inferred in parallel. The first sequence is the set of bindings for a (each successive binding for a shadows the previous one), then identical sequences named b, c, and d. Each binding in a sequence depends on the previous one, but the sequences are independent of one another. This means that our parallel typechecking algorithm should automatically infer types for the a, b, c, and d bindings in parallel, giving a maximum speedup of 4.

With one processor, the result should be something like this:

$ ./parinfer <benchmark.in +RTS -s
...
  Total   time    4.71s  (  4.72s elapsed)

The result with two processors represents a speedup of 1.96:

$ ./parinfer <benchmark.in +RTS -s -N2
...
  Total   time    4.79s  (  2.41s elapsed)

With three processors, the result is:

$ ./parinfer <benchmark.in +RTS -s -N3
...
  Total   time    4.92s  (  2.42s elapsed)

This is almost exactly the same as with two processors! But this is to be expected: there are four independent problems, so the best we can do is to overlap the first three and then run the final one. Thus the program will take the same amount of time as with two processors, where we could overlap two problems at a time. Adding the fourth processor allows all four problems to be overlapped, resulting in a speedup of 3.66:

$ ./parinfer <benchmark.in +RTS -s -N4
...
  Total   time    5.10s  (  1.29s elapsed)

Using Different Schedulers

The Par monad is implemented as a library in Haskell, so aspects of its behavior can be changed without changing GHC or its runtime system. One way in which this is useful is in changing the scheduling strategy; certain scheduling strategies are better suited to certain patterns of execution.

The monad-par library comes with two schedulers: the “Trace” scheduler and the “Direct” scheduler, where the latter is the default. In general the Trace scheduler performs slightly worse than the Direct scheduler, but not always; it’s worth trying both with your code to see which gives the better results.

To choose one or the other, just import the appropriate module. For example, to use the Trace scheduler instead of the Direct scheduler:

import Control.Monad.Par.Scheds.Trace
   -- instead of Control.Monad.Par

Remember that you need to make this change in all the modules of your program that import Control.Monad.Par.

The Par Monad Compared to Strategies

I’ve presented two different parallel programming models, each with advantages and disadvantages. In reality, though, both approaches are suitable for a wide range of tasks; most Parallel Haskell benchmarks achieve broadly similar results when coded with either Strategies or the Par monad. So which to choose is to some extent a matter of personal preference. However, there are a number of trade-offs that are worth bearing in mind, as these might tip the balance one way or the other for your code:

  • As a general rule of thumb, if your algorithm naturally produces a lazy data structure, then writing a Strategy to evaluate it in parallel will probably work well. If not, then it can be more straightforward to use the Par monad to express the parallelism.
  • The runPar function itself is relatively expensive, whereas runEval is free. So when using the Par monad, you should usually try to thread the Par monad around to all the places that need parallelism to avoid needing multiple runPar calls. If this is inconvenient, then Eval or Strategies might be a better choice. In particular, nested calls to runPar (where a runPar is evaluated during the course of executing another Par computation) usually give poor results.
  • Strategies allow a separation between algorithm and parallelism, which can allow more reuse and a cleaner specification of parallelism. However, using a parallel skeleton works with both approaches.
  • The Par monad has more overhead than the Eval monad. At the present time, Eval tends to perform better at finer granularities, due to the direct runtime system support for sparks. At larger granularities, Par and Eval perform approximately the same.
  • The Par monad is implemented entirely in a Haskell library (the monad-par package), and is thus easily modified. There is a choice of scheduling strategies (see Using Different Schedulers).
  • The Eval monad has more diagnostics in ThreadScope. There are graphs that show different aspects of sparks: creation rate, conversion rate, and so on. The Par monad is not currently integrated with ThreadScope.
  • The Par monad does not support speculative parallelism in the sense that rpar does (GC’d Sparks and Speculative Parallelism); parallelism in the Par monad is always executed.


[11] IVar has this name because it is an implementation of I-Structures, a concept from an early Parallel Haskell variant called pH.

[12] For more details, see the documentation for Control.Monad.Applicative.

[13] You can verify this for yourself by profiling the rsa.hs program. Most of the execution time is spent in power.

[14] I’m avoiding the term “schedule” here because we already use it a lot in concurrent programming.

[15] I should mention that even with some pruning, an exhaustive search will be impractical beyond a small number of slots. Real-world solutions to this kind of problem use heuristics.

[16] This code was authored by Philip Wadler and found in the nofib benchmark suite of Haskell programs.

[17] I did, however, take the liberty of modernizing the code in various ways, although that wasn’t strictly necessary.

[18] We are ignoring the possibility of type errors here; in a real implementation, the IVar would probably contain an Either type representing either the inferred type or an error.

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