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Panoramic Imaging: Sensor-Line Cameras and Laser Range-Finders

Book Description

Panoramic imaging is a progressive application and research area. This technology has applications in digital photography, robotics, film productions for panoramic screens, architecture, environmental studies, remote sensing and GIS technology. Applications demand different levels of accuracy for 3D documentation or visualizations.

This book describes two modern technologies for capturing high-accuracy panoramic images and range data, namely the use of sensor-line cameras and laser range-finders. It provides mathematically accurate descriptions of the geometry of these sensing technologies and the necessary information required to apply them to 3D scene visualization or 3D representation. The book is divided into three parts:

  • Part One contains a full introduction to panoramic cameras and laser range-finders, including a discussion of calibration to aid preparation of equipment ready for use.

  • Part Two explains the concept of stereo panoramic imaging, looking at epipolar geometry, spatial sampling, image quality control and camera analysis and design.

  • Part Three looks at surface modelling and rendering based on panoramic input data, starting with the basics and taking the reader through to more advanced techniques such as the optimization of surface meshes and data fusion.

  • There is also an accompanying website containing high-resolution visual samples and animations, illustrating techniques discussed in the text.

Panoramic Imaging is primarily aimed at researchers and students in engineering or computer science involved in using imaging technologies for 3D visualization or 3D scene reconstruction. It is also of significant use as an advanced manual to practising engineers in panoramic imaging. In brief, the book is of value to all those interested in current developments in multimedia imaging technology

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Contents
  5. Preface
  6. Series Preface
  7. Website and Exercises
  8. List of Symbols
  9. 1: Introduction
    1. 1.1 Panoramas
    2. 1.2 Panoramic Paintings
    3. 1.3 Panoramic or Wide-Angle Photographs
    4. 1.4 Digital Panoramas
    5. 1.5 Striving for Accuracy
    6. 1.6 Exercises
    7. 1.7 Further Reading
  10. 2: Cameras and Sensors
    1. 2.1 Camera Models
    2. 2.2 Optics
    3. 2.3 Sensor Models
    4. 2.4 Examples and Challenges
    5. 2.5 Exercises
    6. 2.6 Further Reading
  11. 3: Spatial Alignments
    1. 3.1 Mathematical Fundamentals
    2. 3.2 Central Projection: World into Image Plane
    3. 3.3 Classification of Panoramas
    4. 3.4 Coordinate Systems for Panoramas
    5. 3.5 Geometric Projection Formula for Cylindrical Panorama
    6. 3.6 Rotating Cameras
    7. 3.7 Mappings between Different Image Surfaces
    8. 3.8 Laser Range-Finder
    9. 3.9 Exercises
    10. 3.10 Further Reading
  12. 4: Epipolar Geometry
    1. 4.1 General Epipolar Curve Equation
    2. 4.2 Constrained Poses of Cameras
    3. 4.3 Exercises
    4. 4.4 Further Reading
  13. 5: Sensor Calibration
    1. 5.1 Basics
    2. 5.2 Preprocesses for a Rotating Sensor-Line Camera
    3. 5.3 A Least-Square Error Optimization Calibration Procedure
    4. 5.4 Geometric Dependencies of R and ω
    5. 5.5 Error Components in LRF Data
    6. 5.6 Exercises
    7. 5.7 Further Reading
  14. 6: Spatial Sampling
    1. 6.1 Stereo Panoramas
    2. 6.2 Sampling Structure
    3. 6.3 Spatial Resolution
    4. 6.4 Distances between Spatial Samples
    5. 6.5 Exercises
    6. 6.6 Further Reading
  15. 7: Image Quality Control
    1. 7.1 Two Requirements
    2. 7.2 Terminology
    3. 7.3 Parameter Optimization
    4. 7.4 Error Analysis
    5. 7.5 Exercises
    6. 7.6 Further Reading
  16. 8: Sensor Analysis and Design
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Scene Composition Analysis
    3. 8.3 Stereoacuity Analysis
    4. 8.4 Specification of Camera Parameters
    5. 8.5 Exercises
    6. 8.6 Further Reading
  17. 9: 3D Meshing and Visualization
    1. 9.1 3D Graphics
    2. 9.2 Surface Modeling
    3. 9.3 More Techniques for Dealing with Digital Surfaces
    4. 9.4 Exercises
    5. 9.5 Further Reading
  18. 10: Data Fusion
    1. 10.1 Determination of Camera Image Coordinates
    2. 10.2 Texture Mapping
    3. 10.3 High Resolution Orthophotos
    4. 10.4 Fusion of Panoramic Images and Airborne Data
    5. 10.5 Exercises
    6. 10.6 Further Reading
  19. References
  20. Index