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PACS and Imaging Informatics: Basic Principles and Applications, Second Edition by H. K. Huang, D.Sc., FRCR, FAIMBE

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CHAPTER 3

Two-Dimensional Medical Imaging

In this chapter two-dimensional (2-D) medical imaging are presented, including the following topics: conventional projection radiography, and computed and digital radiography; 2-D nuclear medicine and ultrasound imaging, and 2-D light imaging. The discussion emphasizes the digital aspect of these modalities and not the imaging physics. Interested readers should refer to proper references on the imaging physics of each modality.

3.1 PRINCIPLES OF CONVENTIONAL PROJECTION RADIOGRAPHY

Conventional projection radiography accounts for 60% to 70% of the total number of diagnostic imaging procedures. Therefore, to transform radiology from a film-based to a digital-based operation, we must understand (1) radiology workflow, (2) conventional projection radiographic procedures, (3) analog-to-digital conversion, and (4) digital radiography. This chapter discusses these four topics.

3.1.1 Radiology Workflow

Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is a system integration of both patient workflow and diagnostic components and procedures. A thorough understanding of radiology workflow should allow efficient system integration, and hence a better PACS design for the radiology department and the hospital operation. Radiology workflow can vary from department to department and hospital to hospital. For these reasons workflow analysis is the first step for PACS design and implementation. Figure 3.1 shows a generic radiology workflow before PACS. ...

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