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Packet Guide to Core Network Protocols

Book Description

Take an in-depth tour of core Internet protocols and learn how they work together to move data packets from one network to another. With this updated edition, you’ll dive into the aspects of each protocol, including operation basics and security risks, and learn the function of network hardware such as switches and routers. New chapters examine the transmission control protocol (TCP) and user datagram protocol in detail.

Table of Contents

  1. Dedication
  2. Special Upgrade Offer
  3. Preface
    1. Audience
    2. Contents of This Book
    3. Conventions Used in This Book
    4. Using Code Examples
    5. Safari® Books Online
    6. How to Contact Us
    7. Content Updates
      1. September 28, 2012
    8. Acknowledgments
  4. 1. Networking Models
    1. What Is a Model?
    2. Why Use a Model?
    3. OSI Model
      1. OSI—Beyond the Layers
      2. OSI/ITU-T Protocols
    4. Introducing TCP/IP
      1. TCP/IP and the RFCs
      2. The Practical Side of TCP/IP
      3. Encapsulation
      4. Addressing
      5. Equipment
    5. Reading
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
    8. Review Answers
    9. Lab Exercises
      1. Activity 1—Examining Encapsulation
      2. Activity 2—Protocol Distribution
      3. Activity 3—Developing a Protocol/Architecture
  5. 2. Ethernet
    1. Remember the Models
    2. Structure
      1. Preamble
      2. Source and Destination MAC Addresses
      3. Control Field (Type)
      4. Data Field
      5. Frame Check Sequence
    3. Ethernet Type II vs. 802.3
    4. MAC Addresses—Another Look
    5. Ethernet Operation
    6. Shared Media
    7. Physical Layer
      1. Cabling
    8. Encoding
      1. 10Base-T
      2. 100Base-T
      3. 1000Base-T
    9. Other Types of Signaling
      1. Link Pulse
      2. Autonegotiation
    10. Topologies
    11. Final Thoughts on Ethernet
    12. Reading
    13. Summary
    14. Review Questions
    15. Review Answers
    16. Lab Exercises
      1. Activity 1—Basic Framing
      2. Activity 2—Control Field Values
      3. Activity 3—Addressing
      4. Activity 4—Destination Addresses
      5. Activity 5—Logical Link Control
  6. 3. Internet Protocol
    1. Protocol Description
    2. Structure
    3. Addressing
      1. Sample Host Configuration
    4. Operation
    5. Digging a Little Deeper...What Addressing is Sufficient?
    6. Security Warning
    7. Organizations for Assigning Addresses and Names
    8. Standards and RFCs
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
      1. Review Answers
    11. Lab Exercises
      1. Activity 1—Determining IP Address Components
      2. Activity 2—IP Packet Capture
      3. Activity 3—Header Checksum
      4. Activity 4—Fragmentation
      5. Activity 5—Special Address Capture
  7. 4. Address Resolution Protocol
    1. The Problem
    2. Techniques
    3. Protocol Description
    4. Structure
    5. Addressing in the ARP Request
    6. Addressing in the ARP Reply
    7. Operation
      1. Example 1—Sender and Target on the Same LAN
      2. Example 2—Sender and Target on Separate LANs
    8. Additional Operations
      1. The Return ARP
      2. Gratuitous ARP
    9. Security Warning
    10. IPv6
    11. Digging a Little Deeper
    12. Standards and RFCs
    13. Summary
    14. Review Questions
    15. Review Answers
    16. Lab Activities
      1. Activity 1—Determining Your IP Address and Your Default Gateway
      2. Activity 2—Examining the ARP Table
      3. Activity 3—Packet Capture
      4. Activity 4—Gratuitous ARP
      5. Activity 5—How Long Does an ARP Table Entry Live?
  8. 5. Network Equipment
    1. Tables and Hosts
    2. Hubs or Repeaters
    3. Switches and Bridges
    4. Access Points
    5. Routers
      1. Another Gateway
    6. Multilayer Switches and Home Gateways
    7. Security
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Review Answers
    11. Lab Activities
      1. Activity 1—Traffic Comparison
      2. Activity 2—Layer-2 Trace
      3. Activity 3—Tables
      4. Activity 4—Layer-3 Trace
      5. Activity 5—Traffic Comparison
  9. 6. Internet Control Message Protocol
    1. Structure
    2. Operations and Types
      1. Echo Request (Type 0) and Echo Reply (Type 8)
        1. Echo fun
      2. Redirect (Type 5)
      3. Time to Live Exceeded (Type 11)
      4. Tracing a Route
      5. Destination Unreachable (Type 3)
        1. Operating system vs. ICMP
      6. Router Solicitation (Type 10) and Router Advertisements (Type 9)
    3. Digging a Little Deeper—the One’s Complement
    4. IPv6
    5. Summary
    6. Additional Reading
    7. Review Questions
    8. Review Answers
    9. Lab Activities
      1. Activity 1—Ping
      2. Activity 2—Tracert
      3. Activity 3—Start Up Packet Capture
      4. Activity 4—Destination Unreachable From the OS
      5. Activity 5—Destination Unreachable From the Router
  10. 7. Subnetting and Other Masking Acrobatics
    1. How Do We Use the Mask?
    2. What Is a Subnet?
    3. Subnet Patterns
    4. Subnet IP Addressing
    5. A Shorthand Technique
    6. The Effect on Address Space
    7. Theory vs. Reality
    8. Supernetting
    9. The Supernetted Network
    10. Classless Inter-Domain Routing
    11. CIDR and Aggregation Implementation
      1. RFC 4632
    12. Summary
    13. RFCs and Reading
    14. Review Questions
    15. Review Answers
    16. Lab Activities
      1. Activity 1—What Is My Network?
      2. Activity 2—Change Your Network
      3. Activity 3—What Is the Address Given to You by Your ISP?
      4. Activity 4—Subnet Calculator
  11. Internet Protocol Version 6
    1. Protocol Description
    2. Structure
      1. IPv6 Fields
      2. Hexadecimal Decode
    3. Extensions
    4. Addressing
      1. Global Assignments
      2. Zero Suppression and Special Addressing
      3. Unicast Address Discussion
        1. Link-local Unicast
        2. Unique Local
        3. Global Unicast
        4. Site Local Unicast
    5. IPv4 and IPv6
      1. MAC addresses and IPv6
      2. Autoconfig and EUI-64
    6. Multicast
    7. MAC Addressing
    8. Anycast
    9. Unspecified
    10. Required Addresses
    11. Auto-configuration
      1. Internet Control Message Protocol Version 6
    12. Tunneling
    13. Current Status and IPv6 Day
    14. Summary
    15. Reading
    16. Review Questions
    17. Review Answers
    18. Lab Activities
      1. Activity 1—Build the topology shown
      2. Activity 2—Configure the router IPv6 addresses
      3. Activity 3—Configure the hosts with global unicast IPv6 addresses
      4. Activity 4—Explain the neighbor discovery process
      5. Activity 5—EUI-64
  12. About the Author
  13. Colophon
  14. Special Upgrade Offer
  15. Copyright