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Outlooks and Opportunities in Blended and Distance Learning

Book Description

In a contemporary media-rich society, distance education is becoming increasingly indistinguishable from mainstream traditional methods. Contemporary students, too, have greater need than ever before for education that caters to their specific needs and hectic schedules. Outlooks and Opportunities in Blended and Distance Learning investigates the impact of the digital age on various methods of distance education, such as e-learning, virtual learning, online learning, and m-learning. Researchers, educators, and students currently engaged in or looking to implement distance education principles in their own practices will find a seminal reference collection exploring new methods of offering flexibility, accessibility, and freedom to students with a variety of educational backgrounds, situations, and needs.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Book Series
  5. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. List of Reviewers
  6. Foreword
  7. Preface
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. RESEARCH AREAS IN DISTANCE EDUCATION
    3. EXPLORING DISTANCE EDUCATION AT THE MICRO LEVEL OF RESEARCH
    4. STRUCTURE OF THIS VOLUME
  8. Acknowledgment
  9. Section 1: Instructional Design
    1. Chapter 1: Curriculum Design for Developing Capacity to Deal with Complex Issues
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BLACK SWANS IN OUR MIDST
      4. HUMAN LEARNING: A COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEM
      5. EPISTEMOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF CURRICULUM DESIGN
      6. TECHNICAL OR ADAPTIVE SOLUTIONS
      7. CONTENT OR PEDAGOGY
      8. SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTING KNOWLEDGE
      9. IMPACT OF SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT
      10. LEARNING ADAPTABILITY
      11. SUMMARY
    2. Chapter 2: Fact, Fiction, and Disruptive Pedagogies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE STUDY
      4. DATA SOURCES AND ANALYSIS METHODS
      5. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 3: Ten Rules of Thumb in Blended and Flexible Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SETTING THE SCENE
      4. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
      5. APPROACH TO THIS STUDY
      6. INITIAL ENGAGEMENT
      7. IMMERSION
      8. INCUBATION
      9. ILLUMINATION
      10. EXPLICATION
      11. CREATIVE SYNTHESIS/THE STORY
      12. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT
      13. DISCUSSION
      14. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 4: Giving Teaching Advice Meaning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ‘DISCIPLINE’ DEFINED
      4. DIFFERENCES IN OF THE DISCIPLINES
      5. THE IN THE DISCIPLINES
      6. DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO IN THE DISCIPLINES
      7. DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO IN THE DISCIPLINES
      8. DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO IN THE DISCIPLINES
      9. DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO IN THE DISCIPLINES
      10. IN THE DISCIPLINES
      11. CHALLENGES TO BE ADDRESSED
      12. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES AND PROBLEMS OF DISCIPLINARY DIFFERENCES FOR THE COURSE DEVELOPER
      13. THE CHALLENGE OF DISCIPLINARY ASSUMPTIONS
      14. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      15. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR DESIGNING ONLINE AND DISTANCE LEARNING
      16. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      17. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 5: Open Education Resources
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE EXAMPLES
      4. EXTENDING OERS TO ENHANCE OPEN EDUCATION
      5. FIT FOR MULTIPLE PURPOSES?
      6. THE CAPE TOWN DECLARATION
      7. MAKING THE CASE FOR CONTEXT
      8. BARRIERS IN THE OPEN EDUCATION ONLINE ENVIRONMENT
      9. ACTIVATING ENGAGEMENT WITH PEER MENTORING
      10. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 6: Six Practical Principles for Inclusive Curriculum Design
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOCIAL INCLUSION AND THE AUSTRALIAN HIGHER EDUCATION CONTEXT
      4. INCLUSIVE CURRICULUM AND UNIVERSAL INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN
      5. SIX PRACTICAL PRINCIPLES FOR INCLUSIVENESS
      6. CONCLUSION
  10. Section 2: Interaction and Communication in Learning Communities
    1. Chapter 7: Social Exclusion or Inclusion
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOCIAL AND PARTICIPATORY MEDIA
      4. KEY QUESTIONS
      5. TECHNOLOGY TRENDS
      6. HARNESSING NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND MAPPING TO GOOD PEDAGOGY
      7. POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ASPECTS
      8. SOCIAL INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION
      9. PROMOTING COMMUNICATION AND DISCUSSION
      10. LEARNING DESIGN
      11. RECOMMENDATIONS
      12. ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGES OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION/INCLUSION
      13. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 8: mLearn
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. MODELS FOR MOBILE LEARNING
      4. 3. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
      5. 4. LEARNING THROUGH
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 9: The Pedagogical Suitability of Using Cell Phones to Support Distance Education Students
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LEARNING THEORIES
      4. SOCIAL INTERACTION FRAMEWORK
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. USERS’ CHARACTERISTICS
      7. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      8. MOBILE LEARNING COMMUNITIES
      9. INTERACTION
      10. COLLABORATIVE LEARNING
      11. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE
      12. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 10: Rethinking Reusability
      1. RATIONALE AND BACKGROUND
      2. AFFORDANCES TO REUSE OF ONLINE ROLE-PLAY IN AUSTRALIAN HIGHER EDUCATION
      3. CASE STUDY ANALYSIS OF REUSE OF FOUR ONLINE ROLE-PLAYS
      4. NUANCES OF REUSE
      5. FIFTEEN FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DESIGN OF REUSABLE E-LEARNING ACTIVITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION
      6. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 11: Using an Online Simulation to Address Equity Issues for Off-Campus Students
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE MIDDLE EAST POLITICS SIMULATION
      4. HISTORY OF THE MEPS
      5. THE MECHANICS OF MEPS
      6. PROVISION OF CHOICE & EQUITY
      7. EVALUATING THE MEPS
      8. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      9. LEARNING DEPTH
      10. STUDENT OPINIONS
      11. WHAT CAN BE IMPROVED?
      12. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 12: A Preliminary Evaluation of the iPad as a Tool for Learning and Teaching
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. HISTORY OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
      5. STUDY CONTEXT
      6. STUDY AIM
      7. METHODOLOGY
      8. LECTURER’S PERSPECTIVE
      9. STUDENT’S PERSPECTIVE
      10. INSIDER PERSPECTIVE
      11. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 13: How Are Australian and New Zealand Higher Educators Using 3D Immersive Virtual Worlds in Their Teaching?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. OVERVIEW OF THE SCOPING STUDY
      5. RESULTS AND FINDINGS
      6. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 14: Facilitating Immersion in Virtual Worlds
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHY VIRTUAL WORLDS?
      4. WHY IMMERSION IS IMPORTANT
      5. FACTORS AFFECTING IMMERSION
      6. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 15: Second Life
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ROLE-PLAY WORKSHOPS IN
      5. TEACHING IN : A TALE THROUGH TWO LENSES
      6. THE TALES THROUGH A REFLECTIVE LENS
      7. THE TANDEM TALE
      8. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 16: Learning and Teaching in Second Life
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TECHNOLOGICALLY MEDIATED OFF-CAMPUS LEARNING APPROACHES
      4. WHAT IS
      5. CASE STUDIES
      6. BRINGING ALL THE INSTITUTIONS TOGETHER
      7. CONCLUSION
  11. Section 3: Learner Characteristics
    1. Chapter 17: Acknowledging the Distance Learner
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. E-LEARNING AND DISTANCE LEARNING
      4. DEFINING THE DISTANCE LEARNER
      5. THE PROMISE VERSUS REALITY OF ICT USAGE FOR DISTANCE TEACHING AND LEARNING
      6. DIVERSITY OF ICT SKILLS AMONGST LEARNERS
      7. OVERLOOKING THE DISTINCTIVENESS OF THE DISTANCE LEARNER
      8. QUALITY PROCESSES IN DISTANCE LEARNING
      9. THE ROLE OF THE STUDENT VOICE IN QUALITY ACTIVITIES
      10. METHODOLOGIES FOR EXPLORING THE STUDENT VOICE
      11. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 18: Learning Relationships
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHOD
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 19: E-Learning and M-Learning for Students with Special Learning Needs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: ICT AND BLENDED LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS FOR THE INCLUSION OF SPECIAL LEARNING NEEDS
      3. COMPETENCES IN FOCUS IN THE DESIGN OF INNOVATIVE BLENDED LEARNING CONTEXTS
      4. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 20: Attrition in the Digital Age
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DISTANCE EDUCATION BACKGROUND
      4. ATTRITION IN DISTANCE EDUCATION
      5. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ATTRITION
      6. MODELS OF ATTRITION
      7. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO ATTRITION
      8. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      9. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 21: Distance Learners’ Study-Related Interactions with Other People in their Life-Contexts
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. DISTANCE LEARNERS’ LIFE-CONTEXTS: AN UNEXAMINED SOURCE OF INTERACTION?
      3. EXPLAINING THE DISINTEREST IN DISTANCE LEARNERS’ LIFE-CONTEXTS
      4. THE EMERGENCE OF POSTGRADUATE LIFELONG LEARNERS
      5. RESEARCH BEGINNINGS
    6. Chapter 22: Reshaping Distance Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESEARCH PROBLEM AND QUESTION
      4. THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
      5. CONTEXT OF THE STUDY
      6. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
      7. THE PEDAGOGY OF POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION
      8. THE NATURE OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
      9. BARRIERS TO DISTANCE EDUCATION
      10. POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS’ NEEDS AND EXPECTATIONS
      11. DEVELOPMENT OF THE DELPHE FRAMEWORK OF GUIDING PRINCIPLES
      12. RECOMMENDATIONS FLOWING FROM THE GUIDELINES
      13. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 23: Connectedness Needs of External Doctoral Students
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. LEARNING SUPPORT AND CONNECTEDNESS
      5. NEED FOR CONNECTEDNESS
      6. METHOD
      7. DEVELOPING AN ONLINE SURVEY FOR EXTERNAL DOCTORAL STUDENTS
      8. RESULTS
      9. DISCUSSION
      10. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 24: Resilience and the Distance Higher Degree by Research Candidate
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE DISTANCE EDUCATION HIGHER DEGREE BY RESEARCH (DE HDR) CANDIDATE
      4. RESILIENCE
      5. THE DE HDR CANDIDATE AND SELF-CONNECTEDNESS
      6. THE DE HDR CANDIDATE AND SUPERVISOR/EDUCATOR CONNECTEDNESS
      7. THE DE HDR CANDIDATE AND COMMUNITY CONNECTEDNESS
      8. THE DE HDR CANDIDATE AND INSTITUTIONAL CONNECTEDNESS
      9. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 25: Communities of Practice for Distance Research Students in Australia
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BEST PRACTICE SUPERVISION AND COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE
      4. JOINING COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE: TRADITIONAL METHODS
      5. JOINING COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE: CHALLENGES FOR DISTANCE STUDENTS
      6. AN ANALYSIS OF TWO UNSUCCESSFUL ATTEMPTS TO BUILD HDR COMMUNITIES ONLINE
      7. ONLINE GRADUATE COMMUNITY BUILDING IN THE LITERATURE
      8. WHAT MIGHT BE DONE MORE SUCCESSFULLY IN THE AUSTRALIAN CONTEXT?
      9. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 26: The Challenges and Opportunities of Online Postgraduate Coursework Programs in a Traditional University Context
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SETTING THE SCENE: TRADITIONAL UNIVERSITIES AND POSTGRADUATE COURSEWORK AT A DISTANCE
      4. COURSE SNAPSHOTS: PROFESSIONAL COURSEWORK MASTERS
      5. UNPACKING THE ISSUES: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES
      6. THE COURSE PERSPECTIVE
      7. THE UNIVERSITY CONTEXT
      8. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 27: Supervising Higher Degree Research (HDR) Candidates at a Distance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MEDIA, MUVES, SECOND LIFE AND DISTANCE HDR SUPERVISIONS
      4. EARLY ADOPTER CASE STUDIES ON DISTANCE HDR SUPERVISIONS IN VIRTUAL WORLDS
      5. THEMATIC ANALYSIS OF THE CASE STUDIES
      6. INDICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      7. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 28: Lecturers’ Social Presence and Personality in the Online Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY OF THE EXPLORATORY STUDY
      5. RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 29: Epilogue and Directions for Future Research
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MICRO LEVEL RESEARCH IN FLEXIBLE AND DISTANCE EDUCATION
      4. INTERACTION AND COMMUNICATION IN FLEXIBLE AND DISTANCE LEARNING COMMUNITIES
      5. LEARNER CHARACTERISTICS AND FLEXIBLE AND DISTANCE LEARNING
      6. CONCLUSION
  12. Compilation of References
  13. About the Contributors