You are previewing Organizational Behavior, Third Edition.
O'Reilly logo
Organizational Behavior, Third Edition

Book Description

Hitt's engaging book will help managers understand the linkage between managing behavior effectively and the organisation's ability to formulate and implement its strategy. It emphasises the relationship between management effectiveness and company performance. A case study on Whole Foods is integrated throughout the chapters and covers all major organisational behavior topics. It also underscores how people are important assets to organisations, and how application of their knowledge and skills is necessary for organisations to accomplish their goals. Managers will gain the skills to make a strategic impact within their organisations.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. about the authors
    1. Michael A. Hitt
    2. C. Chet Miller
    3. Adrienne Colella
  3. preface
    1. Purpose
    2. New to the Third Edition
    3. Value Provided by this Book
    4. Concluding Remarks
    5. FOCUS AND PEDAGOGY
      1. Exploring Behavior in Action
      2. The Strategic Importance of ...
      3. Experiencing Organizational Behavior
      4. Managerial Advice
      5. The Strategic Lens
      6. Thinking about Ethics
      7. Human Resource Management Applications
      8. Building Your Human Capital
      9. An Organizational Behavior Moment
      10. Team Exercise
    6. SUPPLEMENTS
      1. Instructor's Resource Guide
      2. Test Bank
      3. Power Point Presentations
      4. Lecture Notes
      5. Web Quizzes
      6. Prelecture and Postlecture Quizzes
      7. Personal Response System (PRS)
  4. OPENING CASE STUDY: WHOLE FOODS, Whole People
    1. MANAGING HUMAN CAPITAL
    2. SOCIAL AND COMMUNITY RESPONSIBILITIES
    3. SOME BUMPS IN THE ROAD
    4. FIRM PERFORMANCE AND THE FUTURE
    5. REFERENCES
    6. WHOLE FOODS CASE DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
      1. Chapter 1
      2. Chapter 2
      3. Chapter 3
      4. Chapter 4
      5. Chapter 5
      6. Chapter 6
      7. Chapter 7
      8. Chapter 8
      9. Chapter 9
      10. Chapter 10
      11. Chapter 11
      12. Chapter 12
      13. Chapter 13
      14. Chapter 14
  5. I. The Strategic Lens
    1. 1. A Strategic Approach to Organizational Behavior
      1. 1.1. exploring behavior in action: Strategic Use of Human Capital: A Key Element of Organizational Success
      2. 1.2. The Strategic Importance of Organizational Behavior
      3. 1.3. Basic Elements of Organizational Behavior
      4. 1.4. The Importance of Using a Strategic Lens
        1. 1.4.1. Foundations of a Strategic Approach to Organizational Behavior
        2. 1.4.2. Definition of an Organization
      5. 1.5. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: Creating Innovation: Leading and Managing the Human Capital at Apple
      6. 1.6. The Role of Human Capital in Creating Competitive Advantage
        1. 1.6.1. The Nature of Human Capital
        2. 1.6.2. The Concept of Competitive Advantage
        3. 1.6.3. Human Capital as a Source of Competitive Advantage
          1. 1.6.3.1. Value
          2. 1.6.3.2. Rareness
          3. 1.6.3.3. Imitability
          4. 1.6.3.4. Overall Potential for Competitive Advantage
      7. 1.7. MANAGERIAL ADVICE: Leveraging Human Capital with Twitter and Other Social Networking Tools: Managing the Tweets
      8. 1.8. Positive Organizational Behavior
      9. 1.9. High-Involvement Management
        1. 1.9.1. Key Characteristics of High-Involvement Management
        2. 1.9.2. Selective Hiring
        3. 1.9.3. Extensive Training
        4. 1.9.4. Decision Power
        5. 1.9.5. Information Sharing
        6. 1.9.6. Incentive Compensation
        7. 1.9.7. Evidence for the Effectiveness of High-Involvement Management
        8. 1.9.8. Demands on Managers
      10. 1.10. Organization of the Book
      11. 1.11. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: Pixar: An Organization of Happy, Innovative People
      12. 1.12. What This Chapter Adds to Your Knowledge Portfolio
      13. 1.13. Back to the Knowledge Objectives
      14. 1.14. Key Terms
      15. 1.15. Human Resource Management Applications
      16. 1.16. Building Your Human Capital: Career Style Inventory
        1. 1.16.1.
          1. 1.16.1.1. Instructions
          2. 1.16.1.2. Questionnaire
          3. 1.16.1.3. Descriptions of the Four Primary Career Orientations
      17. 1.17. An Organizational Behavior Moment: All in a Day's Work
        1. 1.17.1.
          1. 1.17.1.1. Discussion Questions
      18. 1.18. Team Exercise: McDonald's: A High-Involvement Organization?
      19. 1.19. Endnotes
    2. 2. Organizational Diversity
      1. 2.1. Exploring Behavior in Action: Diversity in the Los Angeles Fire Department
      2. 2.2. The Strategic Importance of Organizational Diversity
      3. 2.3. Diversity Defined
      4. 2.4. Forces of Change
        1. 2.4.1. Changing Population Demographics
        2. 2.4.2. Increase in the Service Economy
        3. 2.4.3. The Global Economy
        4. 2.4.4. Requirements for Teamwork
      5. 2.5. Diversity Management and High-Involvement Organizations
        1. 2.5.1. Individual Outcomes
        2. 2.5.2. Group Outcomes
        3. 2.5.3. Organizational Outcomes
        4. 2.5.4. Societal and Moral Outcomes
      6. 2.6. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: Diversity at the Top
      7. 2.7. Roadblocks to Diversity
        1. 2.7.1. Prejudice and Discrimination
        2. 2.7.2. Stereotyping
      8. 2.8. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: Women, Work, and Stereotypes
        1. 2.8.1. Differences in Social Identity
        2. 2.8.2. Power Differentials
        3. 2.8.3. Poor Structural Integration
        4. 2.8.4. Communication Problems
      9. 2.9. Effectively Creating and Managing Diversity
        1. 2.9.1. Commitment of the Organization's Leaders
        2. 2.9.2. Integration with the Strategic Plan
        3. 2.9.3. Associate Involvement
      10. 2.10. MANAGERIAL ADVICE: Promoting a Positive Diversity Environment
      11. 2.11. THE STRATEGIC LENS
      12. 2.12. What This Chapter Adds to Your Knowledge Portfolio
      13. 2.13. Back to the Knowledge Objectives
      14. 2.14. Thinking about Ethics
      15. 2.15. Key Terms
      16. 2.16. Human Resource Management Applications
      17. 2.17. Building Your Human Capital: What's Your DQ (Diversity Quotient)?
        1. 2.17.1.
          1. 2.17.1.1. In the last month, how often did you ...?
      18. 2.18. An Organizational Behavior Moment: Project "Blow Up"
        1. 2.18.1.
          1. 2.18.1.1. Discussion Questions
      19. 2.19. Team Exercise: What Is It Like to Be Different?
      20. 2.20. Endnotes
    3. 3. Organizational Behavior in a Global Context
      1. 3.1. Exploring Behavior in Action: McDonald's Thinks Globally and Acts Locally
      2. 3.2. The Strategic Importance of Organizational Behavior in a Global Context
      3. 3.3. Forces of Globalization
      4. 3.4. MANAGERIAL ADVICE: Multinational Corporations Achieving Glocalization
      5. 3.5. The Globalization Experience for Associates and Managers
        1. 3.5.1. Internationally Focused Jobs
        2. 3.5.2. Foreign Job Assignments
      6. 3.6. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: The Glass Ceiling, the Glass Floor, and the Glass Border: The Global Business Environment for Women
        1. 3.6.1. Foreign Nationals as Colleagues
      7. 3.7. Opportunities for International Participation
        1. 3.7.1. Multidomestic Firms
        2. 3.7.2. Global Firms
        3. 3.7.3. Transnational Firms
      8. 3.8. High-Involvement Management in the International Context
        1. 3.8.1. Dimensions of National Culture
      9. 3.9. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: Managing Diverse Cultures
        1. 3.9.1. National Culture and High-Involvement Management
          1. 3.9.1.1. Information Sharing
          2. 3.9.1.2. Decision Power and Individual Autonomy
          3. 3.9.1.3. Decision Power and Self-Managing Teams
      10. 3.10. Ethics in the International Context
      11. 3.11. THE STRATEGIC LENS
      12. 3.12. What This Chapter Adds to Your Knowledge Portfolio
      13. 3.13. Back to the Knowledge Objectives
      14. 3.14. Thinking about Ethics
      15. 3.15. Key Terms
      16. 3.16. Human Resource Management Applications
      17. 3.17. Building Your Human Capital: Assessment of Openness for International Work
        1. 3.17.1.
          1. 3.17.1.1. Instructions
      18. 3.18. An Organizational Behavior Moment: Managing in a Foreign Land
        1. 3.18.1.
          1. 3.18.1.1. Discussion Questions
      19. 3.19. Team Exercise: International Etiquette
      20. 3.20. Endnotes
  6. CASE STUDY: COOPERATING AND Communicating Across Cultures
    1. Americans and Germans Working in a Project Team
      1. 1. SITUATION: THE PROJECT IS DOMINATED BY GERMANS
        1. The American perspective
          1. Introduction
          2. Planning phase
          3. Working under the team leader
          4. Working with the team members
        2. The German perspective
          1. Introduction
          2. Planning phase
          3. Working under the team leader
          4. Working with the team members
      2. 2. SITUATION: THE PROJECT IS DOMINATED BY AMERICANS
        1. The German perspective
          1. Introduction
          2. Planning phase
          3. Working under the team leader
          4. Working with the team members
        2. The American perspective
          1. Introduction
          2. Planning phase
          3. Working under the team leader
          4. Working with the team members
  7. II. Individual Processes
    1. 4. Learning and Perception
      1. 4.1. Exploring Behavior in Action: The Strategic Importance of Learning and Perception
        1. 4.1.1. Fundamental Learning Principles
        2. 4.1.2. Operant Conditioning and Social Learning Theory
        3. 4.1.3. Contingencies of Reinforcement
          1. 4.1.3.1. Positive and Negative Reinforcement
          2. 4.1.3.2. Punishment
          3. 4.1.3.3. Extinction
      2. 4.2. MANAGERIAL ADVICE: Punishment Taken Too Far
        1. 4.2.1. Schedules of Reinforcement
        2. 4.2.2. Social Learning Theory
      3. 4.3. Other Conditions for Learning
      4. 4.4. Training and Enhancing the Performance of Associates
        1. 4.4.1. OB Mod
        2. 4.4.2. Simulations
        3. 4.4.3. Learning from Failure
      5. 4.5. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: "We Are Ladies and Gentlemen Serving Ladies and Gentlemen"
      6. 4.6. Perception
        1. 4.6.1. Perceptions of People
          1. 4.6.1.1. The Nature of the Perceiver
          2. 4.6.1.2. The Nature of the Situation
          3. 4.6.1.3. Problems in Person Perception
        2. 4.6.2. Self-Perception
        3. 4.6.3. Attributions of Causality
      7. 4.7. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: Great Bear Wilderness Crash
        1. 4.7.1.
          1. 4.7.1.1. Internal–External Attribution
          2. 4.7.1.2. Attributions of Success and Failure
        2. 4.7.2. Task Perception
      8. 4.8. THE STRATEGIC LENS
      9. 4.9. What This Chapter Adds to Your Knowledge Portfolio
      10. 4.10. Back to the Knowledge Objectives
      11. 4.11. Thinking about Ethics
      12. 4.12. Key Terms
      13. 4.13. Human Resource Management Applications
      14. 4.14. Building Your Human Capital: Assessment of Approaches Used to Handle Difficult Learning Situations
        1. 4.14.1.
          1. 4.14.1.1. Instructions
          2. 4.14.1.2. Additional Task
      15. 4.15. An Organizational Behavior Moment: It's Just a Matter of Timing
        1. 4.15.1.
          1. 4.15.1.1. Discussion Questions
      16. 4.16. Team Exercise: Best Bet for Training
        1. 4.16.1.
          1. 4.16.1.1. High Tech International
      17. 4.17. Endnotes
    2. 5. Personality, Intelligence, Attitudes, and Emotions
      1. 5.1. Exploring Behavior in Action: I Know She's Smart and Accomplished ... But Does She Have "Personality"?
      2. 5.2. The Strategic Importance of Personality, Intelligence, Attitudes, and Emotions
      3. 5.3. Fundamentals of Personality
        1. 5.3.1. Determinants of Personality Development
          1. 5.3.1.1. Heredity
          2. 5.3.1.2. Environment
        2. 5.3.2. The Big Five Personality Traits
          1. 5.3.2.1. Extraversion
          2. 5.3.2.2. Conscientiousness
          3. 5.3.2.3. Agreeableness
          4. 5.3.2.4. Emotional Stability
          5. 5.3.2.5. Openness to Experience
        3. 5.3.3. The Big Five as a Tool for Selecting New Associates and Managers
        4. 5.3.4. The Big Five and High-Involvement Management
        5. 5.3.5. Cognitive and Motivational Properties of Personality
          1. 5.3.5.1. Cognitive Concepts
          2. 5.3.5.2. Motivational Concepts
        6. 5.3.6. Some Cautionary and Concluding Remarks
      4. 5.4. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: "I Have Ketchup in My Veins"
        1. 5.4.1. Intelligence
      5. 5.5. Attitudes
      6. 5.6. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: Intelligence and Intelligence Testing in the National Football League
        1. 5.6.1. Attitude Formation
          1. 5.6.1.1. Learning
          2. 5.6.1.2. Self-Perception
          3. 5.6.1.3. Need for Consistency
        2. 5.6.2. Two Important Attitudes in the Workplace
          1. 5.6.2.1. Job Satisfaction and Outcomes
          2. 5.6.2.2. Organizational Commitment and Outcomes in the Workplace
          3. 5.6.2.3. Causes of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment
        3. 5.6.3. Attitude Change
          1. 5.6.3.1. Persuasive Communication
          2. 5.6.3.2. Cognitive Dissonance
      7. 5.7. MANAGERIAL ADVICE: Job Satisfaction Takes a Dive!
      8. 5.8. Emotions
        1. 5.8.1. Direct Effects of Emotions on Behavior
        2. 5.8.2. Emotional Labor
        3. 5.8.3. Emotional Intelligence
      9. 5.9. THE STRATEGIC LENS
      10. 5.10. What This Chapter Adds to Your Knowledge Portfolio
      11. 5.11. Back to the Knowledge Objectives
      12. 5.12. Thinking about Ethics
      13. 5.13. Key Terms
      14. 5.14. Human Resource Management Applications
      15. 5.15. Building Your Human Capital: Big Five Personality Assessment
        1. 5.15.1.
          1. 5.15.1.1. Instructions
      16. 5.16. An Organizational Behavior Moment: Whatever Is Necessary!
        1. 5.16.1.
          1. 5.16.1.1. Discussion Questions
      17. 5.17. Team Exercise: Experiencing Emotional Labor
      18. 5.18. Endnotes
    3. 6. Work Motivation
      1. 6.1. Exploring Behavior in Action: Work Motivation at W.L. Gore & Associates
      2. 6.2. The Strategic Importance of Work Motivation
      3. 6.3. What Is Motivation?
      4. 6.4. Content Theories of Motivation
        1. 6.4.1. Hierarchy of Needs Theory
        2. 6.4.2. ERG Theory
        3. 6.4.3. Theory of Achievement, Affiliation, and Power
          1. 6.4.3.1. Need for Achievement
          2. 6.4.3.2. Need for Affiliation
          3. 6.4.3.3. Need for Power
      5. 6.5. MANAGERIAL ADVICE: Managers over the Edge
        1. 6.5.1. Two-Factor Theory
        2. 6.5.2. Conclusions Regarding Content Theories
      6. 6.6. Process Theories of Motivation
        1. 6.6.1. Expectancy Theory
        2. 6.6.2. Equity Theory
        3. 6.6.3. Goal-Setting Theory
          1. 6.6.3.1. Goal Difficulty
        4. 6.6.4. Goal Specificity
        5. 6.6.5. Goal Commitment
          1. 6.6.5.1. Participation in Setting Goals
          2. 6.6.5.2. Subconscious Goals
          3. 6.6.5.3. Feedback
      7. 6.7. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: Making Visible Changes
        1. 6.7.1. Conclusions Regarding Process Theories
      8. 6.8. Motivating Associates: An Integration of Motivation Theories
        1. 6.8.1. Find Meaningful Individual Rewards
        2. 6.8.2. Tie Rewards to Performance
        3. 6.8.3. Redesign Jobs
          1. 6.8.3.1. Job Enlargement
          2. 6.8.3.2. Job Enrichment
        4. 6.8.4. Provide Feedback
      9. 6.9. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: Connecting People in the Workplace
        1. 6.9.1. Clarify Expectations and Goals
      10. 6.10. THE STRATEGIC LENS
      11. 6.11. What This Chapter Adds to Your Knowledge Portfolio
      12. 6.12. Back to the Knowledge Objectives
      13. 6.13. Thinking about Ethics
      14. 6.14. Key Terms
      15. 6.15. Human Resource Management Applications
      16. 6.16. Building Your Human Capital: Assessing Your Needs
      17. 6.17. An Organizational Behavior Moment: The Motivation of a Rhodes Scholar
        1. 6.17.1.
          1. 6.17.1.1. Discussion Questions
      18. 6.18. Team Exercise: Workplace Needs and Gender
      19. 6.19. Endnotes
    4. 7. Stress And Well-Being
      1. 7.1. Exploring Behavior in Action: Striking for Stress at Verizon
      2. 7.2. The Strategic Importance of Workplace Stress
      3. 7.3. Workplace Stress Defined
      4. 7.4. Two Models of Workplace Stress
        1. 7.4.1. Demand–Control Model
        2. 7.4.2. Effort–Reward Imbalance Model
      5. 7.5. Organizational and Work-Related Stressors
        1. 7.5.1. Role Conflict
        2. 7.5.2. Role Ambiguity
        3. 7.5.3. Work Overload
      6. 7.6. MANAGERIAL ADVICE: Restoring and Maintaining Work–Life Balance
        1. 7.6.1. Occupation
        2. 7.6.2. Resource Inadequacy
        3. 7.6.3. Working Conditions
        4. 7.6.4. Management Style
        5. 7.6.5. Monitoring
        6. 7.6.6. Job Insecurity
        7. 7.6.7. Incivility in the Workplace
      7. 7.7. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: Incivility on the Job: The Cost of Being Nasty
      8. 7.8. Individual Influences on Experiencing Stress
        1. 7.8.1. Type A versus Type B Personality
        2. 7.8.2. Self-Esteem
        3. 7.8.3. Hardiness
        4. 7.8.4. Gender
      9. 7.9. Individual and Organizational Consequences of Stress
        1. 7.9.1. Individual Consequences
          1. 7.9.1.1. Psychological Consequences
          2. 7.9.1.2. Behavioral Consequences
          3. 7.9.1.3. Physiological Consequences
        2. 7.9.2. Organizational Consequences
      10. 7.10. Managing Workplace Stress
        1. 7.10.1. Individual Stress Management
        2. 7.10.2. Organizational Stress Management
      11. 7.11. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: Incentives for Participating in Wellness Programs
      12. 7.12. THE STRATEGIC LENS
      13. 7.13. What This Chapter Adds to Your Knowledge Portfolio
      14. 7.14. Back to the Knowledge Objectives
      15. 7.15. Thinking about Ethics
      16. 7.16. Key Terms
      17. 7.17. Human Resource Management Applications
      18. 7.18. Building Your Human Capital: How Well Do You Handle Stress?
      19. 7.19. An Organizational Behavior Moment: Friend or Associate?
        1. 7.19.1.
          1. 7.19.1.1. Discussion Questions
      20. 7.20. Team Exercise: Dealing with Stress
      21. 7.21. Endnotes
  8. CASE STUDY: BRUSSELS AND Bradshaw
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BRIEF HISTORY OF INVESTMENT BANKING
    3. INVESTMENT BANKING
      1. Organizational Structure
      2. Project Teams
      3. Profit Generation
      4. Compensation
    4. BRUSSELS AND BRADSHAW
      1. The Summer Internship Position
      2. The Toronto Office
      3. Corporate Culture
    5. KELLY RICHARDS
    6. AUDREY LOCKE
    7. CHRISTINE PAGE
    8. TROUBLE BREWING
    9. THE FINAL REVIEW
  9. III. groups, teams, and social processes
    1. 8. Leadership
      1. 8.1. Exploring Behavior in Action: Maria Yee and the Green Furniture Revolution
      2. 8.2. The Strategic Importance of Leadership
      3. 8.3. The Nature of Leadership
      4. 8.4. Trait Theory of Leadership
      5. 8.5. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: Reforming a Rotten Apple and an Evil City
      6. 8.6. Behavioral Theories of Leadership
        1. 8.6.1. University of Michigan Studies
        2. 8.6.2. Ohio State University Studies
      7. 8.7. Contingency Theories of Leadership
        1. 8.7.1. Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
          1. 8.7.1.1. Leader Style
          2. 8.7.1.2. Situational Characteristics
          3. 8.7.1.3. Situational Favorableness
          4. 8.7.1.4. Leadership Effectiveness
        2. 8.7.2. The Path–Goal Leadership Theory
          1. 8.7.2.1. Leader Behavior and Situational Factors
          2. 8.7.2.2. Interaction of Leader Behavior and Situational Factors
      8. 8.8. MANAGERIAL ADVICE: Phil Jackson and Leadership Success
        1. 8.8.1. Conclusions Regarding Contingency Theories
      9. 8.9. Transformational Leadership
      10. 8.10. Additional Topics of Current Relevance
      11. 8.11. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: Ethical Leadership? Authentic Leadership!
        1. 8.11.1. Leader–Member Exchange
        2. 8.11.2. Servant Leadership
        3. 8.11.3. Gender Effects on Leadership
        4. 8.11.4. Global Differences in Leadership
      12. 8.12. THE STRATEGIC LENS
      13. 8.13. What This Chapter Adds to Your Knowledge Portfolio
      14. 8.14. Back to the Knowledge Objectives
      15. 8.15. Thinking about Ethics
      16. 8.16. Key Terms
      17. 8.17. Human Resource Management Applications
      18. 8.18. Building Your Human Capital: Are You a Transformational Leader?
        1. 8.18.1.
          1. 8.18.1.1. Instructions
      19. 8.19. An Organizational Behavior Moment: The Two Presidents
        1. 8.19.1.
          1. 8.19.1.1. Discussion Questions
      20. 8.20. Team Exercise: Coping with People Problems
        1. 8.20.1.
          1. 8.20.1.1. Procedure
          2. 8.20.1.2. Role for Don Martinez
          3. 8.20.1.3. Role for John Williams
          4. 8.20.1.4. Role for Observer
      21. 8.21. Endnotes
    2. 9. Communication
      1. 9.1. Exploring Behavior in Action: IBM and Virtual Social Worlds
      2. 9.2. The Strategic Importance of Communication
      3. 9.3. The Communication Process
      4. 9.4. Organizational Communication
        1. 9.4.1. Communication Networks
        2. 9.4.2. Direction of Organizational Communication
          1. 9.4.2.1. Downward Communication
          2. 9.4.2.2. Upward Communication
      5. 9.5. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: Communication at J. Crew: Mickey Drexler
        1. 9.5.1.
          1. 9.5.1.1. Horizontal Communication
      6. 9.6. Interpersonal Communication
        1. 9.6.1. Formal versus Informal Communication
        2. 9.6.2. Communication Media
        3. 9.6.3. Communication Technology
      7. 9.7. MANAGERIAL ADVICE: Surfing for Applicants
        1. 9.7.1. Nonverbal Communication
      8. 9.8. Barriers to Effective Communication
        1. 9.8.1. Organizational Barriers
          1. 9.8.1.1. Information Overload
          2. 9.8.1.2. Information Distortion
          3. 9.8.1.3. Specialty Area Jargon
          4. 9.8.1.4. Time Pressures
          5. 9.8.1.5. Cross-Cultural Barriers
          6. 9.8.1.6. Network Breakdowns
      9. 9.9. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: Communication Casualties
        1. 9.9.1. Individual Barriers
          1. 9.9.1.1. Differing Perceptions
          2. 9.9.1.2. Semantic Differences
          3. 9.9.1.3. Status Differences
          4. 9.9.1.4. Consideration of Self-Interest
          5. 9.9.1.5. Personal Space
          6. 9.9.1.6. Poor Listening Skills
      10. 9.10. Overcoming Communication Barriers
        1. 9.10.1. Conduct Communication Audits
        2. 9.10.2. Improve Communication Climates
        3. 9.10.3. Encourage Individual Actions
          1. 9.10.3.1. Know Your Audience
          2. 9.10.3.2. Select an Appropriate Communication Medium
          3. 9.10.3.3. Regulate Information Flow and Timing
          4. 9.10.3.4. Encourage Feedback Related to Understanding
          5. 9.10.3.5. Listen Actively
      11. 9.11. THE STRATEGIC LENS
      12. 9.12. What This Chapter Adds to Your Knowledge Portfolio
      13. 9.13. Back to the Knowledge Objectives
      14. 9.14. Thinking about Ethics
      15. 9.15. Key Terms
      16. 9.16. Human Resource Management Applications
      17. 9.17. Building Your Human Capital: Presentation Dos and Don'ts
        1. 9.17.1.
          1. 9.17.1.1. Presentation "Dos"
          2. 9.17.1.2. Presentation "Don'ts"
          3. 9.17.1.3. Explanation of Section Topics
      18. 9.18. An Organizational Behavior Moment: Going North
        1. 9.18.1.
          1. 9.18.1.1. Discussion Questions
      19. 9.19. Team Exercise: Communication Barriers
        1. 9.19.1.
          1. 9.19.1.1. Procedure
      20. 9.20. Endnotes
    3. 10. Decision Making by Individuals and Groups
      1. 10.1. Exploring Behavior in Action: Dawn Ostroff's Decision Making at the CW Television Network
      2. 10.2. The Strategic Importance of Decision Making
      3. 10.3. Fundamentals of Decision Making
        1. 10.3.1. Basic Steps in Decision Making
        2. 10.3.2. Optimal versus Satisfactory Decisions
      4. 10.4. Individual Decision Making
        1. 10.4.1. Decision-Making Styles
          1. 10.4.1.1. Gathering Information
          2. 10.4.1.2. Evaluating Alternatives
          3. 10.4.1.3. Using Decision Styles
      5. 10.5. MANAGERIAL ADVICE: Nurturing Alternative Decision Styles
        1. 10.5.1. Degree of Acceptable Risk
        2. 10.5.2. Cognitive Biases
        3. 10.5.3. Moods and Emotions
      6. 10.6. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: Anger and Fear in Recent U.S. Elections
      7. 10.7. Group Decision Making
        1. 10.7.1. Group Decision-Making Pitfalls
          1. 10.7.1.1. Groupthink
          2. 10.7.1.2. Common Information Bias
          3. 10.7.1.3. Diversity-based Infighting
          4. 10.7.1.4. Risky Shift
        2. 10.7.2. Group Decision-Making Techniques
          1. 10.7.2.1. Brainstorming
          2. 10.7.2.2. Nominal Group Technique
          3. 10.7.2.3. Delphi Technique
          4. 10.7.2.4. Dialectical Inquiry and Devil's Advocacy
      8. 10.8. Who Should Decide? Individual versus Group Decision Making
        1. 10.8.1. Associate Involvement in Managerial Decisions
        2. 10.8.2. Value of Individual versus Group Decision Making
      9. 10.9. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: The Vroom–Yetton Model and Military Decisions during the U.S. Civil War
        1. 10.9.1.
          1. 10.9.1.1. Time
          2. 10.9.1.2. Cost
          3. 10.9.1.3. Nature of the Problem
          4. 10.9.1.4. Satisfaction and Commitment
          5. 10.9.1.5. Personal Growth
      10. 10.10. What This Chapter Adds to Your Knowledge Portfolio
      11. 10.11. THE STRATEGIC LENS
      12. 10.12. Back to the Knowledge Objectives
      13. 10.13. Thinking about Ethics
      14. 10.14. Key Terms
      15. 10.15. Human Resource Management Applications
      16. 10.16. Building Your Human Capital: Decision Style Assessment
        1. 10.16.1.
          1. 10.16.1.1. Instructions
      17. 10.17. An Organizational Behavior Moment: Decision Making at a Nuclear Power Facility
        1. 10.17.1.
          1. 10.17.1.1. Part A. Harry, the Reluctant Maintenance Man
          2. 10.17.1.2. Part B. System Breakdown
          3. 10.17.1.3. Discussion Questions
      18. 10.18. Team Exercise: Group Decision Making in Practice
        1. 10.18.1.
          1. 10.18.1.1. Procedure
      19. 10.19. Endnotes
    4. 11. Groups and Teams
      1. 11.1. Exploring Behavior in Action: Teamwork at Starbucks
      2. 11.2. The Strategic Importance of Groups and Teams
      3. 11.3. The Nature of Groups and Teams
        1. 11.3.1. Groups and Teams Defined
        2. 11.3.2. Formal and Informal Groups
        3. 11.3.3. Identity Groups
        4. 11.3.4. Virtual Teams
        5. 11.3.5. Functional Teams
        6. 11.3.6. Self-Managing Teams
      4. 11.4. Team Effectiveness
      5. 11.5. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: Teams at McKinsey & Company
        1. 11.5.1. Knowledge Criteria
        2. 11.5.2. Affective Criteria
        3. 11.5.3. Outcome Criteria
        4. 11.5.4. Is the Team Needed?
      6. 11.6. Factors Affecting Team Effectiveness
        1. 11.6.1. Team Composition
          1. 11.6.1.1. Diversity
          2. 11.6.1.2. Personality
          3. 11.6.1.3. Team Orientation
          4. 11.6.1.4. Size
        2. 11.6.2. Team Structure
          1. 11.6.2.1. Team Member Roles
          2. 11.6.2.2. Norms
          3. 11.6.2.3. Task Structure
        3. 11.6.3. Team Processes
          1. 11.6.3.1. Cohesion
          2. 11.6.3.2. Conflict
      7. 11.7. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: Backup at Cirque Du Soleil
        1. 11.7.1.
          1. 11.7.1.1. Social Facilitation
          2. 11.7.1.2. Social Loafing
          3. 11.7.1.3. Communication
      8. 11.8. Team Development
      9. 11.9. Managing for Effective Teams
        1. 11.9.1. Top Management Support
        2. 11.9.2. Support Systems
          1. 11.9.2.1. Technology
          2. 11.9.2.2. Information Systems
          3. 11.9.2.3. Selection of Team Members
          4. 11.9.2.4. Rewards
          5. 11.9.2.5. Leadership
      10. 11.10. MANAGERIAL ADVICE: The Pros and Cons of Experiential Teambuilding
        1. 11.10.1.
          1. 11.10.1.1. Training
      11. 11.11. THE STRATEGIC LENS
      12. 11.12. What This Chapter Adds to Your Knowledge Portfolio
      13. 11.13. Back to the Knowledge Objectives
      14. 11.14. Thinking about Ethics
      15. 11.15. Key Terms
      16. 11.16. Human Resource Management Applications
      17. 11.17. Building Your Human Capital: Do You Have a Team?
      18. 11.18. An Organizational Behavior Moment: The New Quota
        1. 11.18.1.
          1. 11.18.1.1. Discussion Questions
      19. 11.19. Team Exercise: Virtual versus Real Teams
        1. 11.19.1.
          1. 11.19.1.1. Procedure
      20. 11.20. Endnotes
    5. 12. Conflict, Negotiation, Power, and Politics
      1. 12.1. Exploring Behavior in Action: Green Conflict
      2. 12.2. The Strategic Importance of Conflict, Negotiation, Power, and Politics
      3. 12.3. The Nature of Conflict
        1. 12.3.1. Dysfunctional and Functional Conflict
        2. 12.3.2. Types of Conflict
      4. 12.4. Causes of Conflict
        1. 12.4.1. Structural Factors
          1. 12.4.1.1. Increased Specialization
          2. 12.4.1.2. Interdependency
          3. 12.4.1.3. Centralization Versus Decentralization
          4. 12.4.1.4. Physical Layout
        2. 12.4.2. Communication
      5. 12.5. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: Herman Miller, Designing for Teamwork
        1. 12.5.1. Cognitive Factors
          1. 12.5.1.1. Differing Expectations
          2. 12.5.1.2. Perceptions of the Other Party
        2. 12.5.2. Individual Characteristics
          1. 12.5.2.1. Personality
          2. 12.5.2.2. Differences Across People in the Perceived Value of Conflict
          3. 12.5.2.3. Goals
        3. 12.5.3. History
          1. 12.5.3.1. Past Performance
          2. 12.5.3.2. Previous Interactions
      6. 12.6. Conflict Escalation and Outcomes
        1. 12.6.1. Conflict Escalation
        2. 12.6.2. Conflict Outcomes
          1. 12.6.2.1. Lose–Lose
          2. 12.6.2.2. Win–Lose or Lose–Win
          3. 12.6.2.3. Compromise
      7. 12.7. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: Workplace Aggression
        1. 12.7.1.
          1. 12.7.1.1. Win–Win
        2. 12.7.2. Responses to Conflict
      8. 12.8. Negotiation
        1. 12.8.1. Negotiation Strategies
        2. 12.8.2. The Negotiation Process
      9. 12.9. MANAGERIAL ADVICE: A Costly Conflict Resolution: The Importance of Negotiation
      10. 12.10. Power
        1. 12.10.1. Bases of Individual Power
          1. 12.10.1.1. Legitimate Power
          2. 12.10.1.2. Reward Power
          3. 12.10.1.3. Coercive Power
          4. 12.10.1.4. Expert Power
          5. 12.10.1.5. Referent Power
        2. 12.10.2. An Example of Power
        3. 12.10.3. Strategic Contingencies Model of Power
      11. 12.11. Organizational Politics
      12. 12.12. THE STRATEGIC LENS
      13. 12.13. What This Chapter Adds to Your Knowledge Portfolio
      14. 12.14. Back to the Knowledge Objectives
      15. 12.15. Thinking about Ethics
      16. 12.16. Key Terms
      17. 12.17. Human Resource Management Applications
      18. 12.18. Building Your Human Capital: Are You Ready to Manage with Power?
      19. 12.19. An Organizational Behavior Moment: The Making of the Brooklyn Bluebirds
        1. 12.19.1.
          1. 12.19.1.1. Discussion Questions
      20. 12.20. Team Exercise: Managing Conflict
        1. 12.20.1.
          1. 12.20.1.1. Procedure
          2. 12.20.1.2. Case Incident 1
          3. 12.20.1.3. Case Incident 2
          4. 12.20.1.4. Case Incident 3
      21. 12.21. Endnotes
  10. CASE STUDY: BRIGHT AND DEDICATED: What More Do You Want?
    1. MARCO PICTURES, INC.
      1. Anita Lockwood
      2. Susan Reynolds
    2. THE CURRENT SITUATION AT MARCO
      1. Susan's Reflections
      2. Bill Mayer
    3. THREE MONTHS LATER
    4. ANITA'S REFLECTIONS AND THE ANNUAL PERFORMANCE REVIEW
      1. Susan's Reaction
    5. APPENDIX I: SUSAN REYNOLDS' EMPLOYEE EVALUATION REPORT
    6. APPENDIX II: ATTACHMENT TO SUSAN REYNOLDS' ANNUAL EVALUATION OF 1/22
  11. IV. The Organizational Context
    1. 13. Organizational Structure and Culture
      1. 13.1. Exploring Behavior in Action: Growth and Structure Provide an Integrated Portfolio of Services at FedEx
      2. 13.2. The Strategic Importance of Organizational Structure and Culture
      3. 13.3. Fundamental Elements of Organizational Structure
        1. 13.3.1. Structural Characteristics
        2. 13.3.2. Structuring Characteristics
        3. 13.3.3. The Modern Organization
      4. 13.4. Factors Affecting Organizational Structure
        1. 13.4.1. The Role of Strategy
          1. 13.4.1.1. Corporate Strategy
          2. 13.4.1.2. Business Strategy
        2. 13.4.2. The Role of the Environment
          1. 13.4.2.1. Environment and Basic Structure
      5. 13.5. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: IDEO and the Differentiation Strategy
        1. 13.5.1.
          1. 13.5.1.1. Environment and Integration
        2. 13.5.2. The Role of Technology
          1. 13.5.2.1. Technology and Structure: A Manufacturing Framework
          2. 13.5.2.2. Technology and Structure: A Broader Framework
        3. 13.5.3. The Role of Organizational Size
        4. 13.5.4. Summary Comments on Structure
      6. 13.6. Organizational Culture
      7. 13.7. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: Google Culture Attracts High-Quality Associates
        1. 13.7.1. Competing Values Model of Culture
        2. 13.7.2. Cultural Socialization
        3. 13.7.3. Cultural Audits
          1. 13.7.3.1. Subcultures
      8. 13.8. MANAGERIAL ADVICE: Finding a Fit at Home Depot
      9. 13.9. Person–Organization Fit
      10. 13.10. THE STRATEGIC LENS
      11. 13.11. What This Chapter Adds to Your Knowledge Portfolio
      12. 13.12. Back to the Knowledge Objectives
      13. 13.13. Thinking about Ethics
      14. 13.14. Key Terms
      15. 13.15. Human Resource Management Applications
      16. 13.16. Building Your Human Capital: An Assessment of Creativity
        1. 13.16.1.
          1. 13.16.1.1. Instructions
      17. 13.17. An Organizational Behavior Moment: How Effective Is Hillwood Medical Center?
        1. 13.17.1.
          1. 13.17.1.1. Discussion Questions
      18. 13.18. Team Exercise: Words-in-Sentences Company
        1. 13.18.1.
          1. 13.18.1.1. Step 1: 5 Minutes
          2. 13.18.1.2. Step 2: 10 Minutes
          3. 13.18.1.3. Step 3: 15 Minutes
          4. 13.18.1.4. Step 4: 10 Minutes—Production Run 1
          5. 13.18.1.5. Step 5: 10 Minutes
          6. 13.18.1.6. Step 6: 5 Minutes
          7. 13.18.1.7. Step 7: 10 Minutes—Production Run 2
          8. 13.18.1.8. Step 8: 10 Minutes
          9. 13.18.1.9. Step 9: 10 Minutes
      19. 13.19. Endnotes
    2. 14. Organizational Change and Development
      1. 14.1. Exploring Behavior in Action: Reinventing the Dream at Starbucks
      2. 14.2. The Strategic Importance of Organizational Change and Development
      3. 14.3. Pressures for Organizational Change
        1. 14.3.1. Internal Pressures for Change
          1. 14.3.1.1. Aspiration–Performance Discrepancies
          2. 14.3.1.2. Life-Cycle Forces
          3. 14.3.1.3. Changes in Top Management
        2. 14.3.2. External Pressures for Change
          1. 14.3.2.1. Technological Advances
          2. 14.3.2.2. Changes in Government Regulations and Other Institutions
          3. 14.3.2.3. Changes in Societal Values
          4. 14.3.2.4. Shifting Political Dynamics
      4. 14.4. MANAGERIAL ADVICE: Social Pressures for "Green" Policies and Practices: The War against Carbon Emissions
        1. 14.4.1.
          1. 14.4.1.1. Changes in Demographics
          2. 14.4.1.2. Growing International Interdependence
      5. 14.5. Planned Change
        1. 14.5.1. Process of Planned Change
        2. 14.5.2. Unfreezing
          1. 14.5.2.1. Transforming
          2. 14.5.2.2. Refreezing
      6. 14.6. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: The Radical Transformation of Novartis
        1. 14.6.1. Important Tactical Choices
          1. 14.6.1.1. Speed of Change
          2. 14.6.1.2. Style of Change
        2. 14.6.2. Resistance to Change
          1. 14.6.2.1. Lack of Understanding
          2. 14.6.2.2. Different Assessments
          3. 14.6.2.3. Self-Interest
          4. 14.6.2.4. Low Tolerance for Change
        3. 14.6.3. The DADA Syndrome
      7. 14.7. EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: Transforming Cisco into a Recession-Proof Growth Machine
      8. 14.8. Organization Development
        1. 14.8.1. The Basic OD Model
          1. 14.8.1.1. Diagnosis
          2. 14.8.1.2. Interventions
          3. 14.8.1.3. Progress Monitoring
        2. 14.8.2. Organization Development Interventions
          1. 14.8.2.1. Relationship Techniques
          2. 14.8.2.2. Structural Techniques
        3. 14.8.3. Organizational Learning
        4. 14.8.4. Organization Development across Cultures
      9. 14.9. THE STRATEGIC LENS
      10. 14.10. What This Chapter Adds to Your Knowledge Portfolio
      11. 14.11. Back to the Knowledge Objectives
      12. 14.12. Thinking about Ethics
      13. 14.13. Key Terms
      14. 14.14. Human Resource Management Applications
      15. 14.15. Building Your Human Capital: An Assessment of Low Tolerance for Change
        1. 14.15.1.
          1. 14.15.1.1. Instructions
      16. 14.16. An Organizational Behavior Moment: Organization Development at KBTZ
        1. 14.16.1.
          1. 14.16.1.1. Interviews with Department Heads
          2. 14.16.1.2. Survey of Departments
          3. 14.16.1.3. Discussion Questions
      17. 14.17. Team Exercise: Identifying Change Pressures and Their Effects
        1. 14.17.1.
          1. 14.17.1.1. Procedure
      18. 14.18. Endnotes
  12. CASE STUDY: A SEA CHANGE IN STAFFING AT Leapfrog Innovations, Inc.
    1. THE TEAM BUILDING AND LEADERSHIP TRAINING INDUSTRY
    2. LEAPFROG INNOVATIONS, INC.
    3. LEAPFROG'S REMAINING FOUNDER: DICK EATON
    4. THE EMERGENCE OF DIFFERENTIATED ROLES AT LEAPFROG
    5. CHANGES AND GROWTH IN STAFFING, SERVICES, AND WORK ROLES
    6. UNCERTAIN FUTURE OF LFI
    7. NOTE
    8. APPENDIX 1: OVERVIEW OF PROGRAMS OFFERED BY LEAPFROG INNOVATIONS, INC.
    9. CORPORATE CULTURE BUILDING
    10. LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT SIMULATIONS
    11. MULTI-PHASED, IMPROVEMENT INITIATIVES
    12. APPENDIX 2: LEAPFROG'S SERVICE MODEL
    13. APPENDIX 3: FULL-TIME EMPLOYEE TENURE AT LEAPFROG
  13. CONCLUDING CASE STUDY: CENTURION MEDIA: Doing the Right Thing
    1. THE CABLE TELEVISION INDUSTRY
      1. Cable Television Revenues
    2. TELEVISION ADVERTISING
    3. CENTURION MEDIA
    4. CENTURION CABLE DIVISION
    5. NORTHPARK MEDIA
    6. JOSEPH FOWLER
    7. THE CONTRACT REVIEW MEETING
    8. NOTES
    9. REFERENCES
  14. Glossary