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Organizational and Technological Implications of Cognitive Machines

Book Description

Organizational and Technological Implications of Cognitive Machines: Designing Future Information Management Systems presents challenges and perspectives to the understanding of the participation of cognitive machines in organizations. Containing extensive research by an international collaboration of experts, this book addresses the possible implications of cognitive machines for current and future organizations.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Foreword
  3. Preface
  4. Acknowledgment
  5. I. Introduction to the Book Context
    1. I. General Introduction
      1. ORGANIZATIONS
        1. The Genesis of Organizations
        2. The Role of Organizations of Today
        3. The Importance of Organizations
      2. TECHNOLOGY
        1. The Genesis of Technology
        2. The Role of Technology in Organizations of Today
        3. The Importance of Technology for Organizations
      3. GENERAL SYSTEMS THEORY
        1. The Genesis of General Systems Theory
        2. The Role of General Systems Theory
        3. The Importance of General Systems Theory for Organizations
      4. THE NATURE OF THEORY OF ORGANIZATIONS
        1. The Domain of Theory of Organizations
        2. A Comparative Approach: Theories of Natural vs. Social Sciences
      5. RATIONALE FOR A NEW THEORY ON ORGANIZATIONS
      6. THE SCOPE OF THE BOOK
        1. The Domain of Organizational Cognition: Principles and Theory
        2. The Domain of Cognitive Machines: Principles and Design
        3. The Domain of Cognitive Machines in Organizations: Analysis
        4. The Domain of the Implications of Cognitive Machines
        5. The Domain of the New Organization
      7. MOTIVATIONS FOR THIS RESEARCH
        1. A Theory of Organizational Cognition
        2. Organizational Cognition and Organizational Learning
        3. Bringing Cognitive Machines Closer to Organizations
        4. Cognitive Machines and Conflict Resolution in Organizations
        5. Cognitive Machines, Bounded Rationality and Economic Decision-Making
        6. Cognitive Machines, Mental Models and Organizations
        7. Unification of Organizational and Technological Theories
        8. Application: An Industrial Case Study
        9. Measurements of Organizational Cognition
        10. Implications of Cognitive Machines and the New Organization
      8. SUMMARY
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
  6. II. Organizational Cognition
    1. II. Rationale for Organizational Cognition
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. PRELIMINARIES OF BOUNDED RATIONALITY AND CONTINGENCY FOR ORGANIZATIONS: COGNITION VS. UNCERTAINTY
        1. The Organization and the Environment
        2. Scope of the Environment
        3. Uncertainty: Lack of Information and Limits of Cognition
      3. THE ROLE OF ORGANIZATION DESIGN IN ORGANIZATIONAL COGNITION
        1. Strategies of Organization Design
        2. Methodology of Organization Design
      4. SUMMARY
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ENDNOTES
    2. III. A Theory of Organizational Cognition
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND, CRITICAL VIEW AND ADVANCEMENTS
      3. TEN PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATIONAL COGNITION
      4. HIERARCHIC LEVELS OF COGNITION IN ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEMS
      5. ATTRIBUTES OF THE ORGANIZATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT
        1. Organizational Intelligence
        2. Organizational Cognition
        3. Organizational Autonomy
        4. Organizational Complexity
        5. Environmental Complexity
      6. ORGANIZATIONAL COGNITION AND THE ENVIRONMENT
        1. On Cognition vs. Complexity (and Uncertainty)
      7. DEFINITIONS OF THE ORGANIZATION
        1. Organizations as Distributed Cognitive Agents
        2. Organizations as Hierarchic Cognitive Systems
        3. Organizations as Complex Systems with Cognition, Intelligence and Autonomy
      8. COGNITIVE DEFINITION OF THE ENVIRONMENT
      9. COGNITIVE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE ORGANIZATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT
      10. COGNITIVE NETWORKS OF ORGANIZATIONS
      11. SUMMARY
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ENDNOTES
  7. III. Cognitive Machines
    1. IV. Rationale for Cognitive Machines
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. UNIFICATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL THEORIES
        1. The Herbert Simon and Lotfi Zadeh's Theories
        2. Bounded Rationality Theory
        3. Fuzzy Systems Theory
        4. Connection Between the Theories
        5. Core Rationale
        6. Results of the Unification
      3. SUMMARY
      4. REFERENCES
      5. ENDNOTES
    2. V. Principles of Cognitive Machines
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. HUMANS, COGNITION AND MACHINES
        1. Evolution of Cognition
        2. Designing Cognition: From Humans to Machines
      3. DEFINITIONS OF MACHINE INTELLIGENCE, COGNITION, AUTONOMY AND COMPLEXITY
        1. Machine Intelligence
        2. Machine Cognition
        3. Machine Autonomy
        4. Machine Complexity
      4. DEFINITION OF COGNITIVE MACHINES
      5. CONTINGENCY FOR COGNITIVE MACHINES
      6. THEORIES AND TECHNOLOGIES BEHIND COGNITIVE MACHINES
        1. Information Processing Theory: A Cognitive Approach
        2. The Scope of Design
        3. On Machine Learning and Problem-Solving
        4. Machines are Amodal-Symbolic-Processing Systems
        5. Technological Scope of Cognitive Machines
      7. SUMMARY
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTE
    3. VI. Design of Cognitive Machines
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. A GENERAL STRUCTURE OF INFORMATION-PROCESSING MACHINES
      3. A FRAMEWORK OF COGNITIVE MACHINES
      4. LEVELS OF SYMBOLIC-PROCESSING
      5. PROCESSES WITHIN THE COGNITIVE MACHINE FRAMEWORK
        1. Sensory Processing and Attention
        2. Transduction: From Sensations to Fuzzy-Perceptual Symbols
        3. Fuzzy-Perceptual Symbols
        4. Short-Term Memory
        5. Categorization
        6. Concept Identification
        7. Long-Term Memory
        8. Decision-Making Process
        9. Transduction: From Perceptual-Fuzzy Symbols to Signals
      6. SUMMARY
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
  8. IV. Cognitive Machines in Organizations
    1. VII. Analysis of Cognitive Machines in Organizations
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. CAPABILITY BOUNDARIES OF COGNITIVE MACHINES
        1. Bounded Rationality and Economic Decision-Making
        2. Extending the Boundaries of Human Cognition with Machines
        3. Conditions in the Design of The Cognitive Machine
      3. THE ROLE OF COGNITIVE MACHINES IN CONFLICT RESOLUTION
        1. Decision Processes in Organizations
        2. Conflicts in Organizations
        3. Cognitive Machines in Conflict Resolution of Decisions
      4. THEOREM FOR COGNITIVE MACHINES, ORGANIZATIONS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
      5. COGNITIVE MACHINES, DESIGNERS AND ORGANIZATIONS: RELATIONSHIPS
        1. On Designers of Cognitive Machines
        2. On Consciousness of Cognitive Machines in Organizations
        3. On Responsibility: The Designer, the Machine and the Organization
      6. SUMMARY
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
  9. V. Industrial Case Study
    1. VIII. The Organization of Study
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF THE ORGANIZATION
        1. Participant Observation
        2. Computational Modeling
        3. Qualitative and Quantitative Research
      3. THE ORGANIZATION: NEC / NOB
        1. Characteristics
        2. Structure of the Organization
        3. The Core Unit of Study in the Organization
        4. Period and Data of Study
      4. THE PURSUIT OF EXCELLENCE IN THE ORGANIZATION
      5. SCOPE, PURPOSE, AND MOTIVATIONS FOR THE STUDY
      6. STRATEGY AND EXPECTED FINDINGS
      7. SUMMARY
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    2. IX. Organizational Cognition in the Industrial Case Study
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. THE CAPABILITY MATURITY MODEL: OVERVIEW
      3. ORGANIZATION PROCESS CAPABILITY, MATURITY AND PERFORMANCE
        1. Organization Process Capability
        2. Organization Process Maturity
        3. Organization Process Performance
      4. MATURE VS. IMMATURE ORGANIZATIONS
        1. Immature Organizations
        2. Mature Organizations
      5. ORGANIZATIONAL COGNITION VS. ORGANIZATION PROCESS MATURITY
      6. ORGANIZATIONAL COGNITION VS. ORGANIZATION PROCESS CAPABILITY AND PERFORMANCE
      7. ORGANIZATIONAL COGNITION VS. ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING
      8. THE CMM IN NEC / NOB
        1. Motivations
        2. Strategy
        3. Assessment
      9. SUMMARY
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTES
    3. X. A Cognitive Machine in the Organization of Study
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. OBJECTIVES
      3. SCOPE OF THE APPLICATION
      4. THE PURSUIT OF INNOVATION IN THE ORGANIZATION
      5. MANAGEMENT CONTROL IN THE ORGANIZATION
      6. COGNITIVE MACHINES IN MANAGEMENT CONTROL
        1. Motivations
        2. Challenges
        3. Solution
      7. THE MANAGEMENT CONTROL SYSTEM
      8. DESIGN OF THE COGNITIVE MACHINE
        1. Structure
        2. Criteria of Design
        3. Description of Percepts via Words and Linguistic Variables
        4. Representation of Concepts via Membership Functions of Fuzzy Sets
        5. Representation of Mental Models via Fuzzy Conditional Statements
        6. Decision-Making via the Compositional Rule of Inference
      9. ANALYSIS OF THE COGNITIVE MACHINE
        1. Qualitative Analysis
        2. Quantitative Analysis
      10. SUMMARY
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ENDNOTES
    4. XI. Findings for the Industrial Case Study
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. THE ORGANIZATION PROCESS
        1. The TMN Section's Software Process
        2. Large-Scale Software Projects
        3. Participants in the Software Projects
        4. Source of Data of Software Projects
      3. DATA OF THE ORGANIZATION PROCESS
      4. DATA ANALYSIS
      5. ORGANIZATIONAL FINDINGS
        1. Levels of Analysis of the CMM in the NOB
        2. The Bottom-Up Strategy for Process Improvement
        3. Effects of a Stationary Environment
        4. Effects of a Dynamic Environment
      6. SUMMARY
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTE
  10. VI. Implications and the New Organization
    1. XII. Implications of Cognitive Machines for Organizations
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH OF ORGANIZATIONS
      3. ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COGNITIVE MACHINES
      4. ON COGNITIVE MACHINES IN ORGANIZATIONS
        1. Herbert A. Simon's Statement on Computers in Organizations
        2. Organization Design
        3. Goals
        4. Social Structure
        5. Participants
        6. Inducements (Rewards and incentives) and Contracts
        7. Technology
        8. Cognition as an Agent of Organization Change
        9. The New Enterprise of Telecommunications Management Networks
      5. SUMMARY
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ENDNOTE
    2. XIII. Beyond the Thresholds of Manufacturing Organizations
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. MOTIVATIONS
      3. A REVIEW OF MANUFACTURING ORGANIZATIONS
      4. CUSTOMER-CENTRIC SYSTEMS
      5. MANAGEMENT PERSPECTIVES
        1. Historical Transition
        2. The Management Threshold Principle
        3. Level of Customization vs. Level of Environmental Complexity
        4. New Management Perspectives of Customer-Centric Systems
      6. SOCIO-TECHNOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES
        1. Historical Transition
        2. The Socio-Technological Threshold Principle
        3. Level of Customization vs. Degree of Machine Cognition
        4. New Socio-Technological Perspectives of Customer-Centric Systems
      7. ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEMS THEORY PERSPECTIVES
        1. Historical Transition
        2. The Organizational Threshold Principle
        3. Level of Customization vs. Degree of Organizational Cognition
        4. New Organizational Perspectives of Customer-Centric Systems
      8. SUMMARY
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    3. XIV. The New Organization: Towards Computational Organization Management Networks
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. THE SCOPE OF THE NEW ORGANIZATION
      3. COGNITIVE INFORMATION SYSTEMS (CIS)
      4. PARTICIPATION OF CIS IN THE ORGANIZATION
      5. ORGANIZATION FUNCTIONAL LAYERS: THE NEW ORGANIZATION
        1. CIS in the Element Layer of the Organization – The Operational Level
        2. CIS in the Network Management Layer of the Organization – The primary Managerial Level
        3. CIS in the Service Management Layer of the Organization – The Secondary Managerial Level
        4. CIS in the Business Management Layer of the Organization – The Institutional Level
        5. The Concept of Immersiveness
      6. DEFINITION OF COMPUTATIONAL ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT NETWORKS (COMN)
      7. STRUCTURE AND PROCESSES OF COMPUTATIONAL ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT NETWORKS (COMN)
      8. SUMMARY
      9. REFERENCES
  11. VII. General Conclusions
    1. XV. Contributions and Extensions
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. ON THE UNIFICATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL THEORIES
      3. ON ORGANIZATIONAL COGNITION
      4. ON THE DESIGN OF COGNITIVE MACHINES
      5. ON COGNITIVE MACHINES AND ORGANIZATIONAL COGNITION
      6. ON COGNITIVE MACHINES IN CONFLICT RESOLUTION: ANALYSIS
      7. ON ORGANIZATIONAL COGNITION AND ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLEXITY
      8. ON COGNITIVE MACHINES, ORGANIZATIONS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
      9. ON THE PARTICIPATION OF COGNITIVE MACHINES IN ORGANIZATIONS
      10. ON THE INDUSTRIAL CASE
        1. On Organizational Cognition and Organization Process Maturity
        2. On Organizational Cognition, Organization Process Capability and Performance
        3. On Organizational Cognition and Organizational Learning
        4. On Measurements of Organizational Cognition
        5. On the Participation of a Cognitive Machine in the Organization NOB
        6. On the Analysis of the Technical, Managerial and Institutional Levels of NOB
        7. On Organizational Cognition and the Environmental Complexity of NOB
      11. ON THE IMPLICATIONS OF COGNITIVE MACHINES FOR ORGANIZATIONS
      12. ON THE THRESHOLDS OF MANUFACTURING ORGANIZATIONS
      13. ON THE COMPUTATIONAL ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT NETWORKS
      14. FURTHER EXTENSIONS
        1. On Cognitive Machines and Learning
        2. On Cognitive Machines and Emotions
        3. On Cognitive Machines vs. Humans in Organizations
      15. ON THE FUTURE OF ORGANIZATIONS
      16. SUMMARY
      17. REFERENCES
      18. ENDNOTE
  12. VIII. Appendix Section
    1. 1. APPENDIX A: ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF THEORY
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. NATURE OF THEORY
      3. COMPONENTS OF THEORY
        1. On Hypothesis and Inductive Reasoning
        2. On Axioms, Postulates, Theorems and Deductive Reasoning
      4. A PROCESS OF THEORIZING
      5. APPROACHES TO ORGANIZATION STUDIES
        1. Case Studies
        2. Field Studies
        3. Participant Observation
        4. Questionnaire Survey
        5. Field Experiment
        6. Literature Review
        7. Information Survey
        8. Analytical Research
        9. Computational Modelling and Simulation
      6. CRITERIA OF CHOICE OF RESEARCH METHODS
      7. SELECTED APPROACHES TO ORGANIZATION STUDIES WITHIN THIS BOOK
        1. Literature Review
        2. Analytical Research
        3. Participant Observation
        4. Computational Modelling and Simulation
        5. Information Survey
      8. SUMMARY
      9. REFERENCES
    2. 2. APPENDIX B: ORGANIZATION THEORY
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. ORGANIZATIONS IN HISTORY
        1. Old Organizations: Ancient Civilizations and the Middle Ages
        2. Pre-Industrial Organizations: The Renaissance and the Enlightenment Age
        3. Modern Organizations: Post-Industrial Revolution
      3. ORGANIZATIONS OF TODAY
      4. SCHOOLS OF ORGANIZATIONS: THE 20TH CENTURY
        1. Organizations like Instruments
        2. Organizations like Behavioural and Cognitive Processes
        3. Organizations like Systems: Analysis and Design
      5. SUMMARY
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ENDNOTES
    3. 3. APPENDIX C: PERSPECTIVES ON ORGANIZATIONS
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. ELEMENTS OF ORGANIZATIONS
        1. Participants
        2. Social Structure
        3. Goals
        4. Technology
        5. Environment
      3. ORGANIZATIONS AS RATIONAL, NATURAL AND OPEN SYSTEMS
        1. Rational Systems
        2. Natural Systems
        3. Open Systems
        4. Open-Rational Systems
        5. Open-Natural Systems
      4. RATIONALE FOR ORGANIZING: POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONTEXTS
        1. Political Facet
        2. Economic Facet
        3. Social Facet
      5. BENEFITS OF ORGANIZATIONS
        1. Cognitive Limitation
        2. Physical Limitation
        3. Temporal Limitation
        4. Institutional Limitation
        5. Spatial Limitation
      6. THE DISCIPLINE OF ORGANIZATION THEORY
      7. NATURE AND DIVERSITY OF ORGANIZATIONS
      8. FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS
        1. Degree of Formality
      9. SUMMARY
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTE
    4. 4. APPENDIX D: DISCIPLINES OF ORGANIZATION THEORY
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. ECONOMICS
        1. Organizations as the Whole Economy
        2. Agency Theory and Organizations
        3. Transaction Costs Theory and Organizations
      3. POLITICAL SCIENCE
        1. Philosophical Approach
        2. Institutional Approach
        3. Contemporary Approach
        4. Political Science and Organizations
      4. SOCIOLOGY
        1. Sociological Perspectives
        2. Social Processes
        3. Sociology and Organizations
      5. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
        1. From Introspection and Behaviourism to Cognition
        2. Psychology and Its Social Context
        3. Social Psychology and Organizations
      6. ENGINEERING
      7. COMPUTER SCIENCE
      8. SUMMARY
      9. REFERENCES
    5. 5. APPENDIX E: TECHNOLOGY
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. A PERSPECTIVE ON THE GENESIS OF TECHNOLOGY
      3. A DEFINITION OF TECHNOLOGY
      4. BENEFITS OF TECHNOLOGY TO ORGANIZATIONS
      5. RATIONALES FOR TECHNOLOGY: POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONTEXTS
        1. Political Context
        2. Economic Context
        3. Social Context
      6. THE SCOPE OF TECHNOLOGY IN ORGANIZATIONS
      7. A CHALLENGE FOR TODAY: COGNITIVE MACHINES IN ORGANIZATIONS
      8. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: FROM ENERGY TO INFORMATION
      9. SUMMARY
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTES
    6. 6. APPENDIX F: DEFINITION OF THE PERFORMANCE FACTORS
      1. INTRODUCTION
        1. Project Schedule (T)
        2. Planning Schedule (To)
        3. Actual Schedule (TA)
      2. PROJECT COST (C)
        1. Planning Cost (Co)
        2. Actual Cost (CA)
      3. PROJECT REQUIREMENTS COMPLETENESS (R)
        1. Planning Requirements Completeness (Ro)
        2. Actual Requirements Completeness (RA)
      4. SUMMARY
    7. 7. APPENDIX G: MENTAL MODELS OF THE COGNITIVE MACHINE
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. LINGUISTIC STATEMENTS ABOUT CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
      3. LINGUISTIC STATEMENTS ABOUT PROJECT MANAGEMENT QUALITY
      4. SUMMARY
    8. 8. APPENDIX H: BOUNDARIES AND CONVERGENCE OF THE COGNITIVE MACHINE
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. REGIONS OF OPERATION OF THE COGNITIVE MACHINE
        1. State Space of (R → CS)
        2. State Space of (C AND R → PPQ)
      3. MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS
      4. SUMMARY
    9. 9. APPENDIX I: THE CMM MATURITY LEVELS
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. MATURITY LEVELS OF THE CMM
        1. Level 1: The Initial Level
        2. Level 2: The Repeatable Level
        3. Level 3: The Defined Level
        4. Level 4: The Managed Level
        5. Level 5: The Optimizing Level
      3. SUMMARY
      4. REFERENCES
  13. Glossary
  14. About the Authors