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Organization 21C: Someday All Organizations Will Lead This Way by Subir Chowdhury

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Toward a Normative Model

Our effort to develop a normative model began with a search of the relevant research evidence on the effects of participation. We identified four outcomes of participation, each relevant to its organizational impact. Two of these, the quality of decisions and the effectiveness with which they are implemented, are components of the effectiveness of the decision. The remaining two outcomes are byproducts of the decision-making process. Any decision-making process incurs costs (principally the time of organization members) and may have benefits (principally the development of organization members).

The nature of these four outcomes and the principal evidence concerning the effects of leadership styles on each has been reviewed ...

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