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Organisational Change

Book Description

Business is changing at a break-neck speed, so managers must be increasingly active in reorganizing their firms to gain a competitive edge. This textbook provides a discussion of change in relation to the complexities of organizational life, offering comprehensive coverage of the significant ideas and issues associated with change at all levels of organizational activity from the strategic to the operational and at the individual, group, organizational and societal levels. Taking both a theoretical and a practical approach to the issues of organizational change, the text seeks to meet both the academic and applied aims of most business and management courses. The book is ideal for both MBA students and those studying for the more specialist degrees in organizational change. Its structure and content make it accessible to final-level undergraduate business studies students.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. About the Author
  5. Dedication
  6. Foreword
  7. Preface
  8. 1. Business Organisation: The Domain of Change
    1. 1.1 Introduction: Meaning of Business As a Domain for Change
    2. 1.2 Organisation: The Key Area for Change
    3. 1.3 Organisational Structure
      1. 1.3.1 Types of Organisational Structure
    4. 1.4 Forms of Business Organisation
      1. 1.4.1 Private Sector Business Organisations
      2. 1.4.2 Public Sector Business Organisations
      3. 1.4.3 Co-operative Sectors Business Organisation
    5. 1.5 Tools for Designing Sound Business Organisation
    6. 1.6 Organisation and Environment
    7. 1.7 Environmental Factors Leading to Change
      1. 1.7.1 External Forces of Change
      2. 1.7.2 Internal Forces for Change
    8. 1.8 Dimensions of Environment
      1. 1.8.1 Multidimensional Environment
      2. 1.8.2 Stable, Changing and Turbulent Environment
    9. 1.9 Nature of Organisation-Environment Interface for Change
    10. 1.10 Role of Three Basic Circles for Organisational Change
    11. Summary
    12. Case Study: A Container Leasing Company
    13. Review Questions
  9. 2. Organisational Culture and Change
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Sources of Culture
    3. 2.3 Types of Culture
      1. 2.3.1 Charismatic vs Self-sufficient Cultures
      2. 2.3.2 Paranoid vs Trusting Culture
      3. 2.3.3 Avoidant vs Achievement Cultures
      4. 2.3.4 Politicised vs Focused Cultures
      5. 2.3.5 Bureaucratic vs Creative Culture
    4. 2.4 Significance of Culture During Change
    5. 2.5 Concept of Global Organisational Culture
    6. 2.6 Organisational Climate
    7. 2.7 Functionalities and Dysfunctionalities of Cultures
      1. 2.7.1 Fatalism
      2. 2.7.2 Ambiguity Tolerance
      3. 2.7.3 Contextualism
      4. 2.7.4 Temporalness
      5. 2.7.5 Collectivism
      6. 2.7.6 Particularism
      7. 2.7.7 Other Directedness
      8. 2.7.8 Androgyny
      9. 2.7.9 Tolerance for Power Distance
    8. 2.8 Strengths and Weaknesses of Indian Culture
      1. 2.8.1 Extension Motivation
      2. 2.8.2 Synthesis
      3. 2.8.3 Dependency Motive
      4. 2.8.4 Fatalism
      5. 2.8.5 Non-involvement and Non-commitment
      6. 2.8.9 Individualism
      7. 2.8.10 Irreality Orientation
    9. 2.9 Top Management and Organisational Culture
      1. 2.9.1 Managing Organisational Culture
    10. 2.10 A Proactive Approach to Culture and Change
    11. Summary
    12. Case Study: A Fortune 500 Financial Services Company Supported by Offshore Services in India
    13. Case Study: ‘Globax’A High-tech Start-up Company
    14. Review Questions
  10. 3. Concept of Change
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Meaning of Organisational Change
    3. 3.3 Nature of Organisational Change
      1. 3.3.1 Evolutionary Change
      2. 3.3.2 Revolutionary Change
      3. 3.3.3 Proactive vs reactive Change
    4. 3.4 Pressure for Change
      1. 3.4.1 Nine Winds of Change
    5. 3.5 Planned Change
    6. 3.6 Types of Planned Change
    7. 3.7 Levels of Change
    8. 3.8 Change Cycle
      1. 3.8.1 Participative Change Cycle
      2. 3.8.2 Directive Change Cycle
      3. 3.8.3 Is There a ‘Best’ Strategy for Change?
      4. 3.8.4 Advantages/Disadvantages of Change Cycles
    9. 3.9 Organisational Barriers to Change
    10. 3.10 Performance-driven Organisational Change
    11. 3.11 Rate of Change
      1. 3.11.1 Organisational Efficiency and Effectiveness
    12. 3.12 Different States of Change
      1. 3.12.1 The Future State of Change
      2. 3.12.2 The Current State of Change
      3. 3.12.3 The Delta State of Change
    13. 3.13 Creating Change
    14. 3.14 Implementation of Change
      1. 3.14.1 Practical Tools to Understand Change
    15. 3.15 General Guidelines for Effective Change
    16. Summary
    17. Case Study: A Semiconductor Solutions Company with an Offshore Development Centre in India
    18. Review Questions
  11. 4. Organisational Resistance to Change
    1. 4.1 Introduction
      1. 4.1.1 Reactions to Change
    2. 4.2 Core Facts of Resistance to Change
    3. 4.3 Individual and Group Resistance to Change
      1. 4.3.1 Individual Resistance
      2. 4.3.2 Organisational Resistance
      3. 4.3.3 Consequences of Resistance to Change
    4. 4.4 Overcoming Resistance to Change
    5. 4.5 Strategies for Introducing Planned Change
      1. 4.5.1 Empirical-rational Strategy
      2. 4.5.2 Normative-reductive Strategy
      3. 4.5.3 Power-coercive Strategy
    6. 4.6 Techniques to Manage Resistance During Change
      1. 4.6.1 Education and Communication
      2. 4.6.2 Sense of Participation andInvolvement
      3. 4.6.3 Assistance and Support
      4. 4.6.4 Incentives
      5. 4.6.5 Negotiation
      6. 4.6.6 Manipulation and Co-optation
      7. 4.6.7 Coercion
      8. 4.6.8 Other Strategies for Introducing Change
    7. Summary
    8. Case Study: A Student Services Division of “National University”
    9. Review Questions
  12. 5. Organisational Change and Change Agents
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Change Agent: Definition and Meaning
    3. 5.3 Types of Change Agents
      1. 5.3.1 Internal Change Agent
      2. 5.3.2 Role of Internal Change Agent
      3. 5.3.3 External Change Agent
      4. 5.3.4 Need for an External Change Agent
    4. 5.4 Key Roles in Organisational Change
      1. 5.4.2 Consultant(s)
      2. 5.4.1 Corporate Management
      3. 5.4.3 Internal Resource Persons
      4. 5.4.4 Implementation Team
      5. 5.4.5 ChiefImplementor
      6. 5.4.6 Task forces
    5. 5.5 Differences Between Internal and External Change Agents
    6. 5.6 Characteristics of a Good Change Agent
    7. 5.7 Timing the Entry of the Agent/Consultant into the Organisation
      1. 5.7.1 How to Get the Best from the Consultant
      2. 5.7.2 How Do Consultants Work
      3. 5.7.3 Importance of the Consultant
    8. 5.8 What Can a Change Agent Change?
      1. 5.8.1 Structure
      2. 5.8.2 Technology
      3. 5.8.3 Physical Setting
      4. 5.8.4 People
      5. 5.8.5 Workplace
      6. 5.8.6 Flexible Work Options
      7. 5.8.7 Telecommuting
      8. 5.8.8 Flex-time
      9. 5.8.9 CompressedWorkWeeks
      10. 5.8.10 Job Sharing
      11. 5.8.11 New Rules for Managers
    9. Summary
    10. Case Study: “Taj Mahal Group of Hotels” A Hospitality Company
    11. Review Questions
  13. 6. Strategic Management of Change
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Three Basic Definitions
      1. 6.2.1 The TaskofManaging Change
      2. 6.2.2 An Area of Professional Practice
      3. 6.2.3 A Body of Knowledge
    3. 6.3 Strategic Management of Change
      1. 6.3.1 Strategic Management Process
    4. 6.4 Sequential Process of Change
    5. 6.5 Change Process As a Problem-solving and Problem-finding Approach
      1. 6.5.1 The Change Problem
      2. 6.5.2 Change As a ‘How’ Problem
      3. 6.5.3 Change As a ‘What’ Problem
      4. 6.5.4 Change As a ‘Why’ Problem
      5. 6.5.5 Change Process As Unfreezing, Changing, and Refreezing
    6. 6.6 Change Management: Skill Requirements
      1. 6.6.1 Political Skills
      2. 6.6.2 Analytical Skills
      3. 6.6.3 People Skills
      4. 6.6.4 System Skills
      5. 6.6.5 Business Skills
    7. 6.7 Change Management: Four Basic Strategies
    8. 6.8 Factors in Selecting Change Strategy
    9. 6.9 Change Strategy Formulation and Implementation
    10. 6.10 Evaluation in the Strategic Change Process
      1. 6.10.1 Components of Evaluation
    11. 6.11 Process of Transformational Change
    12. 6.12 Guidelines to Management of Effective Change
      1. 6.12.1 Twelve Principles for Managing Change
    13. Summary
    14. Case Study: A Multi-department Academic Division of a University
    15. Case Study: “MAX” A Health Care Improvement Organisation
    16. Review Questions
  14. 7. Organisational Diagnosis
    1. 7.1 Introduction
      1. 7.1.1 Meaning of Diagnosis
    2. 7.2 Concept of Organisational Diagnosis
      1. 7.2.1 Diagnocube: The Areas of Diagnosis
      2. 7.2.2 Theory in Action: Framework of Organisational Diagnosis
      3. 7.2.3 Normative Approach
    3. 7.3 Methodological Planning
    4. 7.4 Collection of Data
      1. 7.4.1 Overview of Methods
      2. 7.4.2 Instruments of Data Collection
      3. 7.4.3 Methods of Data Collection
    5. 7.5 Selection of Appropriate Method for Data Collection
    6. Summary
    7. Case Study: An Academic Department in a Public University
    8. Case Study: ‘Ma Foi’An IT Staffing Company
    9. Review Questions
  15. 8. Organisational Development
    1. 8.1 Introduction
      1. 8.1.1 Objectives ofOD Programmes
      2. 8.1.2 Basic OD Assumptions
    2. 8.2 OD Interventions and Their Classification
    3. 8.3 OD Interventions Techniques
      1. 8.3.1 Sensitivity Training
      2. 8.3.2 Team Building
      3. 8.3.3 Survey Feedback
      4. 8.3.4 Grid Training
      5. 8.3.5 Process Consultation
      6. 8.3.6 Management by Objectives (MBO)
      7. 8.3.7 Role Analysis Technique (RAT)
      8. 8.3.8 Role Negotiation Technique
      9. 8.3.9 Force-field Analysis
    4. 8.4 Prerequisites for Effective Use of OD
      1. 8.4.1 Criticism
      2. 8.4.2 Conclusion
    5. Summary
    6. Case Study: An Electronic Imaging Technology Company
    7. Review Questions
  16. 9. Manager as Catalyst of Change
    1. 9.1 Introduction: Role of a Manager
    2. 9.2 Developmental Supervision
      1. 9.2.1 Hierarchy and Responsibility
      2. 9.2.2 Task and Personal Growth
      3. 9.2.3 Individual and Team
      4. 9.2.4 Task Accomplishment and Boundary Management
    3. 9.3 Responsibilities of a Manager
      1. 9.3.1 Managers and Appraisal System
      2. 9.3.2 Managers and Career Planning
      3. 9.3.3 Managers and Training System
      4. 9.3.4 Managers and WorkSystem
      5. 9.3.5 Managers and Cultural System
      6. 9.3.6 Managers and Self-renewal System
      7. 9.3.7 Managers and Organisational Learning
      8. 9.3.8 Managers and Stress Management
      9. 9.3.9 Managers and Research
    4. 9.4 Motivation As the Soul of a Manager
      1. 9.4.1 Aspects of Role Efficacy
    5. 9.5 Manager As Motivator of Employees
      1. 9.5.1 Self-role Integration
      2. 9.5.2 Productivity
      3. 9.5.3 Creativity
      4. 9.5.4 Confrontation
      5. 9.5.5 Centrality
      6. 9.5.6 Influence
      7. 9.5.7 Growth
      8. 9.5.8 Inter-role Linkage
      9. 9.5.9 Helping
      10. 9.5.10 Super-ordination
    6. 9.6 Using Power and Empowering Employees
    7. 9.7 Managerial Control
    8. 9.8 Coping Behaviour of a Manager
      1. 9.8.1 Managing Frustration and Stress
    9. 9.9 Consultant Support During Change
    10. 9.10 Manager and Group Dynamics
      1. 9.10.1 Three Uses of Groups in Idea Generation
      2. 9.10.2 Managerial Communication
    11. 9.11 Obstacles in the Middle of Change and Howto Overcome Them
    12. 9.12 Classic Skills for An Effective Change Manager
    13. Summary
    14. Case Study: “Genesis” A National Scientific Laboratory
    15. Review Questions
  17. 10. Learning Organisation: The Ultimate Objective of Management of Change
    1. 10.1 Introduction
      1. 10.1.1 What is a Learning Organisation?
    2. 10.2 Nature of Learning Enterprises
      1. 10.2.1 Adaptive and Generative Learning
      2. 10.2.2 Knowledge-intensive Organisation
      3. 10.2.3 Levels of Knowledge-creation Process
    3. 10.3 Building a Learning Organisation
    4. 10.4 Features of a Learning Organisation
    5. 10.5 Total Quality Management and Learning Organisation
      1. 10.5.1 Top Management’s Commitment
      2. 10.5.2 Customer Focus
      3. 10.5.3 Measurement
      4. 10.5.4 Continuous Improvement
      5. 10.5.5 Supplier Teaming
      6. 10.5.6 Teams
      7. 10.5.7 Benchmarking
      8. 10.5.8 Employee Involvement and Empowerment
      9. 10.5.9 Inventory Management
      10. 10.5.10 Quality Costs
      11. 10.5.11 Communication
      12. 10.5.12 Training
    6. 10.6 Blueprint of a Learning Organisation
    7. 10.7 Managing and Sustaining Change in a Learning Organisation
      1. 10.7.1 The Change Imperative
    8. 10.8 Basis of Learning Approach in an Organisation
      1. 10.8.1 Creativity and Innovation
      2. 10.8.2 The Ultimate Requirement
    9. Summary
    10. Case Study: A Software Development Company
    11. Review Questions
  18. 11. Some Models of Organisational Change
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Individualistic Model
      1. 11.2.1 Adoption Diffusion Model
      2. 11.2.2 Feedback Model
      3. 11.2.3 Motivation Model
    3. 11.3 Role-oriented Model
    4. 11.4 Group (team)-oriented Model
      1. 11.4.1 Organisation Development
      2. 11.4.2 Process Consultation Model
      3. 11.4.3 Work Redesigning Model for Group
    5. 11.5 Organisation-oriented Model
    6. 11.6 Lewin’s three-step Model
      1. 11.6.1 Unfreezing
      2. 11.6.2 Changing or Moving
      3. 11.6.3 Refreezing
    7. 11.7 Equation Model of Organisational Behaviour and Performance
    8. 11.8 Satellite Model of Organisational Performance
    9. 11.9 Achieve Model of Performance
    10. 11.10 Johari’s Window Model
    11. 11.11 Managerial Grid/9:9 Grid Model
    12. 11.12 3-D Model of Leadership for Change
    13. 11.13 S. P S. T. Model of Organisational Culture
    14. 11.14 Rover’s Learning Process Model
    15. Summary
    16. Review Questions
  19. 12. Case Study: “21-Milestone”
    1. Case 1 It Smells Like Money
    2. Case 2 Nainital Crisis
    3. Case 3 Organising the President’s Administration
    4. Case 4 Samarth Rao and His ‘Alcoa’ Project
    5. Case 5 The Performance Rating
    6. Case 6 Magic Kingdom
    7. Case 7 The High-priced OD Consultant
    8. Case 8 Scenarios for Dealing with Change
    9. Case 9 Mr Krishna Rao’s Confusion
    10. Case 10 India in Diagnosis
    11. Case 11 Is It Workload or Motivation?
    12. Case 12 Training Programme in Hindustan
    13. Case 13 Doing My Own Thing
    14. Case 14 Bad Brakes
    15. Case 15 Rama and His Changing Plan
    16. Case 16 The Case Against ‘Vision’
    17. Case 17 A Combat Zone
    18. Case 18 Love It or Leave It
    19. Case 19 Rama Swami and the Rumour
    20. Case 20 Seeing the Forest and the Trees
  20. References and Selected Bibliography
  21. Acknowledgement
  22. Copyright