O'Reilly logo

Oracle PL/SQL Programming: A Developer's Workbook by Andrew Odewahn, Steven Feuerstein

Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required

Expert

Q:

20-21.

Use the FM (fill mode) format mask element to suppress padding and leading zeros. FM works like a toggle: the first occurrence in the format mask turns suppression on, the second turns it off, and so on. Here is an example:

DECLARE
   d DATE := TO_DATE ('01-MAY-1994', 'DD-MON-YYYY');
BEGIN
   -- Normal output
   DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line (TO_CHAR (d, 'Month DD, YYYY'));
   -- Suppress padding and leading zeros
   DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line (TO_CHAR (d, 'FMMonth DD, YYYY'));
   -- Suppress padding but display leading zeros (FM is a toggle)
   DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line (TO_CHAR (d, 'FMMonth FMDD, YYYY'));
END;

SQL> /
May       01, 1994
May 1, 1994
May 01, 1994

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL>

Q:

20-22.

You can use the FX (format exact) format mask element to require that a date have a specific format (i.e., that it use hyphens as delimiters); the TO_CHAR function raises an exception if the string is not in the required format. If the passed string doesn’t contain the correct literal characters (e.g., hypens, slashes), TO_DATE raises the exception:

ORA-01861: literal does not match format string

If the string doesn’t have the expected date format (e.g., two-digit year instead of four, one-digit month instead of two, MONTH format instead of MON), TO_DATE raises the exception:

ORA-01862: the numeric value does not match the length of the format item Testing exact match for FXDD-MON-YYYY 21-MAY-1999 => Format Okay 01/MAY/1999 => ORA-01861: literal does not match format string 01-MAY-99 => ORA-01862: the numeric ...

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, interactive tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required