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Oracle in a Nutshell

Book Description

Introduced a quarter-century ago, the Oracle database remains theleading enterprise relational database management system (RDBMS) inthe world. Oracle is a complex system, offering a myriad ofproducts, languages, and tools. Frequent updates, releases, andeditions complicate the ability of Oracle users to keep up with thehuge amounts of frequently changing information about the databaseand its capabilities. The goal of Oracle in a Nutshell is topull together the most essential information on Oraclearchitecture, syntax, and user interfaces. The content and formatof this book, an admirable addition to O'Reilly's respectedIn-a-Nutshell line, combine to boil down vital Oracle commands,language constructs, parameters, and file formats in a succinct andhighly accessible desktop reference. Oracle in a Nutshellcovers the information that database administrators PL/SQL and Javadevelopers, and system, network, and security administrators needas they manage Oracle databases and write code for these databases.It includes:

  • Oracle Foundations--Overview of the Oracle architecture (memorystructures and fundamental concepts), Oracle's various editions andpackaging options, summary of the initialization file parametersand data dictionary views, and fundamentals of Oracle's concurrencyscheme, security mechanisms (privileges, profiles, roles), andnetworking files (TNSNAMES.ORA, SQLNET.ORA, LISTENER.ORA, DAP.ORA,NAMES.ORA, CMAN.ORA) and options.

  • Oracle Languages--Syntax summary for SQL language statements,SQL function calls PL/SQL language statements and characteristics,PL/SQL built-in package headers, and Java (JDBC and SQLJ)interfaces to the Oracle database.

  • Oracle Tools--Commands provided with SQLPlus, SQLLoader,Import and Export, Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN) and otherbackup/recovery methods, Oracle Enterprise Manager, and variousperformance tuning tools (Explain Plan, TKPROF, AUTOTRACE,UTLBSTAT, UTLESTAT, Statspack).

  • Appendixes--Summary of Oracle datatypes, operators,expressions, conditions, numeric and date formats, and resourcesfor additional reading.

  • Table of Contents

    1. Oracle in a Nutshell
      1. Preface
        1. Which Platform and Version?
        2. Structure of This Book
        3. Conventions Used in This Book
        4. Comments and Questions
        5. Acknowledgments
          1. From Rick
          2. From Dave
      2. I. Foundations
        1. 1. Architecture and Packaging
          1. Oracle Instances and Databases
          2. The Components of a Database
            1. Tablespaces
            2. Physical Files in an Oracle Database
            3. Control Files
            4. Datafiles
              1. Datafile structure
              2. Extents and segments
            5. Redo Log Files
              1. Multiplexing redo log files
              2. How Oracle uses the redo logs
              3. Archived redo logs
          3. The Components of an Instance
            1. Memory Structures for an Instance
              1. Database buffer cache
              2. Shared pool
              3. Redo log buffer
              4. Large pool
            2. Background Processes for an Instance
          4. Oracle Versions
          5. Oracle Packaging
            1. Editions
            2. Options
        2. 2. Configuration
          1. Parameter Files and Types
            1. INIT.ORA: The Initialization File
            2. SPFILE: The Server Parameter File
            3. Dynamically Modifiable Parameters
          2. Initialization Parameters
            1. Auditing
              1. AUDIT_FILE_DEST
              2. AUDIT_TRAIL
              3. TRANSACTION_AUDITING
            2. Backup and Recovery
              1. BACKUP_DISK_IO_SLAVES
              2. BACKUP_TAPE_IO_SLAVES
              3. FAST_START_IO_TARGET
              4. FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET
              5. FAST_START_PARALLEL_ROLLBACK
              6. FREEZE_DB_FOR_FAST_INSTANCE_RECOVERY
              7. RECOVERY_PARALLELISM
            3. Clustered Databases
              1. CLUSTER_DATABASE
              2. CLUSTER_DATABASE_INSTANCES
              3. CLUSTER_INTERCONNECTS
              4. DELAYED_LOGGING_BLOCK_CLEANOUTS
              5. DRS_START
              6. GC_DEFER_TIME
              7. GC_FILES_TO_LOCKS
              8. GC_LCK_PROCS
              9. GC_RELEASABLE_LOCKS
              10. GC_ROLLBACK_LOCKS
              11. INSTANCE_GROUPS
              12. INSTANCE_NAME
              13. INSTANCE_NUMBER
              14. LM_LOCKS
              15. LM_PROCS
              16. LM_RESS
              17. LOG_FILE_NAME_CONVERT
              18. MAX_COMMIT_PROPAGATION_DELAY
              19. OPS_ADMIN_GROUP
              20. PARALLEL_SERVER
              21. PARALLEL_SERVER_IDLE_TIME
              22. PARALLEL_SERVER_INSTANCES
            4. Cursors
              1. CLOSE_CACHED_OPEN_CURSORS
              2. CURSOR_SHARING
              3. CURSOR_SPACE_FOR_TIME
              4. OPEN_CURSORS
              5. ROW_CACHE_CURSORS
              6. SERIAL_REUSE
              7. SESSION_CACHED_CURSORS
            5. Database Links
              1. DBLINK_ENCRYPT_LOGIN
              2. OPEN_LINKS
              3. OPEN_LINKS_PER_INSTANCE
            6. Distributed Operations and Heterogeneous Services
              1. COMMIT_POINT_STRENGTH
              2. DISTRIBUTED_LOCK_TIMEOUT
              3. DISTRIBUTED_RECOVERY_CONNECTION_HOLD_TIME
              4. DISTRIBUTED_TRANSACTIONS
              5. HS_AUTOREGISTER
              6. MAX_TRANSACTION_BRANCHES
            7. I/O and Space Management
              1. DB_BLOCK_CHECKING
              2. DB_BLOCK_SIZE
              3. DB_FILE_DIRECT_IO_COUNT
              4. DB_FILE_MULTIBLOCK_READ_COUNT
              5. DB_FILE_SIMULTANEOUS_WRITES
              6. DB_FILES
              7. DISK_ASYNCH_IO
              8. HASH_MULTIBLOCK_IO_COUNT
              9. LGWR_IO_SLAVES
            8. Java
              1. JAVA_MAX_SESSIONSPACE_SIZE
              2. JAVA_POOL_SIZE
              3. JAVA_SOFT_SESSIONSPACE_LIMIT
            9. Jobs
              1. JOB_QUEUE_INTERVAL
              2. JOB_QUEUE_KEEP_CONNECTIONS
              3. JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES
            10. Licenses
              1. LICENSE_MAX_SESSIONS
              2. LICENSE_MAX_USERS
              3. LICENSE_SESSIONS_WARNING
            11. Locking and Transactions
              1. DISCRETE_TRANSACTIONS_ENABLED
              2. DML_LOCKS
              3. ENQUEUE_RESOURCES
              4. ROW_LOCKING
              5. SPIN_COUNT
              6. TRANSACTIONS
              7. TRANSACTIONS_PER_ROLLBACK_SEGMENT
            12. Logging and Archiving
              1. ARCH_IO_SLAVES
              2. ARCHIVE_LAG_TARGET
              3. CPU_COUNT
              4. DB_CREATE_ONLINE_LOG_DEST_n
              5. FAL_CLIENT
              6. FAL_SERVER
              7. LOG_ARCHIVE_BUFFER_SIZE
              8. LOG_ARCHIVE_BUFFERS
              9. LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST
              10. LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n
              11. LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_STATE_n
              12. LOG_ARCHIVE_DUPLEX_DEST
              13. LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT
              14. LOG_ARCHIVE_MAX_PROCESSES
              15. LOG_ARCHIVE_MIN_SUCCEED_DEST
              16. LOG_ARCHIVE_START
              17. LOG_ARCHIVE_TRACE
              18. LOG_FILES
              19. REMOTE_ARCHIVE_ENABLE
              20. TAPE_ASYNCH_IO
            13. Memory Management
              1. BITMAP_MERGE_AREA_SIZE
              2. BUFFER_POOL_KEEP
              3. BUFFER_POOL_RECYCLE
              4. CACHE_SIZE_THRESHOLD
              5. CREATE_BITMAP_AREA_SIZE
              6. DB_CACHE_ADVICE
              7. DB_nK_CACHE_SIZE
              8. DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS
              9. DB_CACHE_SIZE
              10. DB_KEEP_CACHE_SIZE
              11. DB_RECYCLE_CACHE_SIZE
              12. HASH_AREA_SIZE
              13. HI_SHARED_MEMORY_ADDRESS
              14. LARGE_POOL_MIN_ALLOC
              15. LARGE_POOL_SIZE
              16. LOCK_SGA
              17. OBJECT_CACHE_MAX_SIZE_PERCENT
              18. OBJECT_CACHE_OPTIMAL_SIZE
              19. PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET
              20. PRE_PAGE_SGA
              21. SEQUENCE_CACHE_ENTRIES
              22. SGA_MAX_SIZE
              23. SHARED_MEMORY_ADDRESS
              24. SHARED_POOL_RESERVED_MIN_ALLOC
              25. SHARED_POOL_RESERVED_SIZE
              26. SHARED_POOL_SIZE
              27. SORT_AREA_RETAINED_SIZE
              28. SORT_AREA_SIZE
              29. USE_INDIRECT_DATA_BUFFERS
              30. WORKAREA_SIZE_POLICY
            14. Names
              1. DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST
              2. DB_DOMAIN
              3. DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT
              4. DB_NAME
              5. ENT_DOMAIN_NAME
              6. GLOBAL_NAMES
              7. SERVICE_NAMES
            15. National Language Support (NLS)
              1. NLS_CALENDAR
              2. NLS_COMP
              3. NLS_CURRENCY
              4. NLS_DATE_FORMAT
              5. NLS_DATE_LANGUAGE
              6. NLS_DUAL_CURRENCY
              7. NLS_ISO_CURRENCY
              8. NLS_LANGUAGE
              9. NLS_LENGTH_SEMANTICS
              10. NLS_NUMERIC_CHARACTERS
              11. NLS_SORT
              12. NLS_TERRITORY
              13. NLS_TIMESTAMP_FORMAT
              14. NLS_TIMESTAMP_TZ_FORMAT
            16. Optimization and Performance
              1. B_TREE_BITMAP_PLANS
              2. BLANK_TRIMMING
              3. FAST_FULL_SCAN_ENABLED
              4. HASH_JOIN_ENABLED
              5. OPTIMIZER_FEATURES_ENABLE
              6. OPTIMIZER_INDEX_CACHING
              7. OPTIMIZER_INDEX_COST_ADJ
              8. OPTIMIZER_MAX_PERMUTATIONS
              9. OPTIMIZER_MODE
              10. OPTIMIZER_PERCENT_PARALLEL
              11. OPTIMIZER_SEARCH_LIMIT
              12. PARTITION_VIEW_ENABLED
              13. QUERY_REWRITE_ENABLED
              14. QUERY_REWRITE_INTEGRITY
              15. READ_ONLY_OPEN_DELAYED
              16. SEQUENCE_CACHE_HASH_BUCKET
              17. STAR_TRANSFORMATION_ENABLED
              18. TIMED_OS_STATISTICS
              19. TIMED_STATISTICS
            17. Parallel Execution
              1. PARALLEL_ADAPTIVE_MULTI_USER
              2. PARALLEL_AUTOMATIC_TUNING
              3. PARALLEL_BROADCAST_ENABLED
              4. PARALLEL_DEFAULT_MAX_INSTANCES
              5. PARALLEL_EXECUTION_MESSAGE_SIZE
              6. PARALLEL_INSTANCE_GROUP
              7. PARALLEL_MAX_SERVERS
              8. PARALLEL_MIN_MESSAGE_POOL
              9. PARALLEL_MIN_PERCENT
              10. PARALLEL_MIN_SERVERS
              11. PARALLEL_THREADS_PER_CPU
              12. PARALLEL_TRANSACTION_RESOURCE_TIMEOUT
            18. Parameters
              1. IFILE
              2. SPFILE
            19. PL/SQL
              1. PLSQL_COMPILER_FLAGS
              2. PLSQL_LOAD_WITHOUT_COMPILE
              3. PLSQL_NATIVE_C_COMPILER
              4. PLSQL_NATIVE_LIBRARY_DIR
              5. PLSQL_NATIVE_LIBRARY_SUBDIR_COUNT
              6. PLSQL_NATIVE_LINKER
              7. PLSQL_NATIVE_MAKE_UTILITY
              8. PLSQL_V2_COMPATIBILITY
              9. UTL_FILE_DIR
            20. Remote Sites
              1. REMOTE_DEPENDENCIES_MODE
              2. REMOTE_LISTENER
              3. REMOTE_OS_AUTHENT
              4. REMOTE_OS_ROLES
            21. Rollback (Undo/Redo) Management
              1. CLEANUP_ROLLBACK_ENTRIES
              2. LOG_BLOCK_CHECKSUM
              3. LOG_BUFFER
              4. LOG_CHECKPOINT_INTERVAL
              5. LOG_CHECKPOINT_TIMEOUT
              6. LOG_CHECKPOINTS_TO_ALERT
              7. LOG_SIMULTANEOUS_COPIES
              8. LOG_SMALL_ENTRY_MAX_SIZE
              9. MAX_ROLLBACK_SEGMENTS
              10. ROLLBACK_SEGMENTS
              11. UNDO_MANAGEMENT
              12. UNDO_RETENTION
              13. UNDO_SUPPRESS_ERRORS
              14. UNDO_TABLESPACE
            22. Security
              1. MAX_ENABLED_ROLES
              2. O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY
              3. OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX
              4. OS_ROLES
              5. RDBMS_SERVER_DN
              6. REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE
              7. SQL92_SECURITY
            23. Shared Server/Multi-Threaded Server
              1. CIRCUITS
              2. DISPATCHERS
              3. MAX_DISPATCHERS
              4. MAX_SHARED_SERVERS
              5. MTS_CIRCUITS
              6. MTS_DISPATCHERS
              7. MTS_LISTENER_ADDRESS
              8. MTS_MAX_DISPATCHERS
              9. MTS_MAX_SERVERS
              10. MTS_MULTIPLE_LISTENERS
              11. MTS_RATE_LOG_SIZE
              12. MTS_RATE_SCALE
              13. MTS_SERVERS
              14. MTS_SERVICE
              15. SHARED_SERVER_SESSIONS
            24. Sorts
              1. SORT_DIRECT_WRITES
              2. SORT_READ_FAC
              3. SORT_SPACEMAP_SIZE
              4. SORT_WRITE_BUFFER_SIZE
              5. SORT_WRITE_BUFFERS
            25. Standby Databases
              1. ACTIVE_INSTANCE_COUNT
              2. LOCK_NAME_SPACE
              3. STANDBY_ARCHIVE_DEST
              4. STANDBY_FILE_MANAGEMENT
              5. STANDBY_PRESERVES_NAMES
            26. System Operations
              1. BACKGROUND_CORE_DUMP
              2. BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST
              3. CONTROL_FILE_RECORD_KEEP_TIME
              4. CONTROL_FILES
              5. CORE_DUMP_DEST
              6. DB_BLOCK_CHECKPOINT_BATCH
              7. DB_BLOCK_CHECKSUM
              8. DB_BLOCK_LRU_EXTENDED_STATISTICS
              9. DB_BLOCK_LRU_LATCHES
              10. DB_BLOCK_LRU_STATISTICS
              11. DB_BLOCK_MAX_DIRTY_TARGET
              12. DB_WRITER_PROCESSES
              13. DBWR_IO_SLAVES
              14. MAX_DUMP_FILE_SIZE
              15. PROCESSES
              16. RESOURCE_LIMIT
              17. RESOURCE_MANAGER_PLAN
              18. SESSION_MAX_OPEN_FILES
              19. SESSIONS
              20. SHADOW_CORE_DUMP
              21. TEMPORARY_TABLE_LOCKS
              22. THREAD
              23. USE_ISM
            27. Oracle Trace
              1. ORACLE_TRACE_COLLECTION_NAME
              2. ORACLE_TRACE_COLLECTION_PATH
              3. ORACLE_TRACE_COLLECTION_SIZE
              4. ORACLE_TRACE_ENABLE
              5. ORACLE_TRACE_FACILITY_NAME
              6. ORACLE_TRACE_FACILITY_PATH
              7. SQL_TRACE
              8. TRACE_ENABLED
              9. TRACEFILE_IDENTIFIER
              10. USER_DUMP_DEST
            28. Miscellaneous Parameters
              1. ALWAYS_ANTI_JOIN
              2. AQ_TM_PROCESSES
              3. COMPATIBLE
              4. COMPATIBLE_NO_RECOVERY
              5. COMPLEX_VIEW_MERGING
              6. EVENT
              7. FIXED_DATE
              8. LOCAL_LISTENER
              9. LOGMNR_MAX_PERSISTENT_SESSIONS
              10. REPLICATION_DEPENDENCY_TRACKING
        3. 3. Concurrency
          1. Concurrency Concepts
            1. Transactions
            2. Locks
            3. Concurrency and Contention
            4. Integrity Problems
            5. Serialization
          2. Oracle and Concurrent User Access
            1. MVRC Implementation Features
            2. MVRC Syntax
              1. ALTER SESSION
              2. SET TRANSACTION
        4. 4. Security
          1. Authentication
            1. System Users
            2. Creating Users
              1. CREATE USER
              2. ALTER USER
          2. Profiles
            1. CREATE PROFILE
            2. ALTER PROFILE
            3. DROP PROFILE
          3. Privileges
            1. System Privileges
              1. AUDIT
              2. CLUSTER
              3. CONTEXT
              4. DATABASE
              5. DATABASE LINKS
              6. DEBUG
              7. DIMENSION
              8. DIRECTORY
              9. INDEX
              10. INDEXTYPE
              11. LIBRARY
              12. MATERIALIZED VIEW
              13. OPERATOR
              14. OUTLINE
              15. PROCEDURE
              16. PROFILE
              17. RESOURCE COST
              18. ROLE
              19. ROLLBACK SEGMENT
              20. SEQUENCE
              21. SESSION
              22. SNAPSHOT
              23. SYNONYM
              24. SYSTEM
              25. TABLE
              26. TABLESPACES
              27. TRIGGER
              28. TYPES
              29. USER
              30. VIEWS
              31. Miscellaneous Privileges
              32. Special System Privileges
            2. Schema Object Privileges
              1. Varieties of schema object privileges
              2. Schema objects and their privileges
                1. Directories
                2. External Tables
                3. Indextypes
                4. Libraries
                5. Materialized Views
                6. Operators
                7. Procedures, Functions, and Packages
                8. Sequences
                9. Tables
                10. User-defined Types
                11. Views
          4. Privileges and Users
            1. Common Keywords and Clauses
              1. GRANT
              2. REVOKE
          5. Roles
            1. System Roles
            2. Defining Roles
              1. CREATE ROLE
              2. ALTER ROLE
              3. DROP ROLE
              4. SET ROLE
          6. Auditing
            1. Auditing of System Actions
            2. Using Auditing
              1. AUDIT
              2. NOAUDIT
          7. Other Security Features
            1. Views and Stored Procedures
            2. Fine-grained Access Control and Security Policy
            3. Virtual Private Databases
            4. Label Security and Policy Manager
            5. Application Context
            6. Fine-grained Auditing
            7. LogMiner
            8. Oracle Advanced Security
            9. Oracle Internet Directory
            10. Invoker Rights
        5. 5. Networking
          1. Oracle Networking Fundamentals
            1. Making the Connection
            2. Failover
            3. Load Balancing
            4. Shared Servers
            5. Connection Manager
          2. Configuration Files
            1. SQLNET.ORA
              1. Keywords and syntax
            2. TNSNAMES.ORA
              1. Syntax
                1. description_information
                2. connect_information
            3. LDAP.ORA
              1. Keywords and clauses
            4. LISTENER.ORA
              1. Syntax
              2. Keywords and clauses
          3. Networking Management Utilities
            1. Listener Control Utility
              1. Calling the utility
              2. Listener Control utility commands
                1. CHANGE_PASSWORD
                2. EXIT
                3. HELP
                4. QUIT
                5. RELOAD
                6. SAVE_CONFIG
                7. SERVICES
                8. SET
                9. TNSPing
            2. Oracle Net Manager
            3. Oracle Net Configuration Assistant
        6. 6. Data Dictionary
          1. Static Data Dictionary Views
            1. Families of Views
            2. Commonly Used Static Data Dictionary Views
              1. Advanced Queuing
              2. Audit trail
              3. Change Data Capture
              4. Constraints
              5. Data dictionary
              6. External tables
              7. Indexes
              8. Jobs
              9. Large objects (LOBs)
              10. Locks
              11. Log groups
              12. Materialized views
              13. Networking and distributed transactions
              14. Objects Option
              15. Partitioning
              16. PL/SQL
              17. Replication
              18. Security
              19. Sequences
              20. Server management
              21. SQLJ
              22. Storage
              23. Synonyms
              24. Tables, clusters, and views
              25. Others
            3. Other Static Data Dictionary Views
              1. Export
              2. Gateways
              3. Oracle Parallel Server/Real Application Clusters
              4. Remote procedure calls
              5. Snapshots
              6. SQL*Loader
              7. Tablespace point-in-time recovery
          2. Dynamic Data Dictionary Views
            1. Availability of Dynamic Data Dictionary Views
            2. How Dynamic Data Dictionary Views Are Built
            3. Global Dynamic Performance Views (GV$ Views)
            4. Dynamic Views
              1. Advanced Queuing
              2. Configuration
              3. Data dictionary cache
              4. Database
              5. Instance
              6. Locks and latches
              7. Multi-Threaded Server/Shared Server
              8. Oracle Parallel Server/Real Application Clusters
              9. Parallel Query
              10. Recovery
              11. Replication
              12. Resource allocation
              13. Security
              14. Session
              15. SGA
              16. SQL
              17. SQL*Loader direct path
              18. System environment
      3. II. Languages
        1. 7. SQL
          1. Common Keywords and Identifiers
          2. Common SQL Clauses
            1. Autoextend_Clause
            2. Column_Constraint_Clause
            3. Constraint_State_Clause
            4. Index_Attributes_Clause
            5. LOB_Parameter_Clause
            6. LOB_Storage_Clause
            7. Partition_Clause
            8. Partition_Description_Clause
            9. Physical_Attributes_Clause
            10. Storage_Clause
            11. Table_Constraint_Clause
            12. Varray_Storage Clause
          3. Data Definition Statements
            1. ALTER RESOURCE COST
            2. ALTER SYSTEM
            3. ASSOCIATE STATISTICS
            4. AUDIT (Schema Objects)
            5. AUDIT (SQL Statements)
            6. CALL
            7. COMMENT
            8. CREATE/ALTER/DROP CLUSTER
            9. CREATE/DROP CONTEXT
            10. CREATE CONTROLFILE
            11. CREATE/ALTER DATABASE
            12. CREATE/DROP DATABASE LINK
            13. CREATE/DROP DIMENSION
            14. CREATE/DROP DIRECTORY
            15. CREATE/ALTER/DROP FUNCTION
            16. CREATE/ALTER/DROP INDEX
            17. CREATE/DROP INDEXTYPE
            18. CREATE/ALTER/DROP JAVA
            19. CREATE/DROP LIBRARY
            20. CREATE/ALTER/DROP MATERIALIZED VIEW
            21. CREATE/ALTER/DROP MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG
            22. CREATE/ALTER/DROP OPERATOR
            23. CREATE/ALTER/DROP OUTLINE
            24. CREATE/ALTER/DROP PACKAGE
            25. CREATE/ALTER/DROP PACKAGE BODY
            26. CREATE/ALTER/DROP PROCEDURE
            27. CREATE PFILE
            28. CREATE/ALTER/DROP PROFILE
            29. CREATE/ALTER/DROP ROLE
            30. CREATE/ALTER/DROP ROLLBACK SEGMENT
            31. CREATE SCHEMA
            32. CREATE/ALTER/DROP SEQUENCE
            33. CREATE/ALTER/DROP SNAPSHOT
            34. CREATE/ALTER/DROP SNAPSHOT LOG
            35. CREATE SPFILE
            36. CREATE/DROP SYNONYM
            37. CREATE/ALTER/DROP TABLE (Relational Syntax)
            38. CREATE/ALTER/DROP TABLE (Object Syntax)
            39. CREATE/ALTER/DROP TABLE (XML Syntax)
            40. CREATE/ALTER/DROP TABLESPACE
            41. CREATE TEMPORARY TABLESPACE
            42. CREATE/ALTER/DROP TRIGGER
            43. CREATE/ALTER/DROP TYPE
            44. CREATE/DROP TYPE BODY
            45. CREATE/ALTER/DROP USER
            46. CREATE/ALTER/DROP VIEW
            47. DISASSOCIATE STATISTICS
            48. GRANT (Object Privileges)
            49. GRANT (System Privilege or Role)
            50. NOAUDIT (Schema Objects)
            51. NOAUDIT (SQL Statements)
            52. RENAME
            53. REVOKE (Object Privileges)
            54. REVOKE (System Privilege or Role)
          4. Data Manipulation Statements
            1. ALTER SESSION
            2. ANALYZE
            3. DELETE
            4. EXPLAIN PLAN
            5. INSERT
            6. MERGE
            7. SAVEPOINT
            8. SELECT
            9. SET CONSTRAINT
            10. SET ROLE
            11. SET TRANSACTION
            12. TRUNCATE
            13. UPDATE
        2. 8. Functions
          1. Common Keywords and Clauses
          2. Aggregate and Analytic Functions
            1. GROUP BY
            2. DISTINCT and ALL
            3. Analytic Clause
            4. Parameters
              1. AVG
              2. CORR
              3. COUNT
              4. COVAR_POP
              5. COVAR_SAMP
              6. CUME_DIST
                1. Parameters
              7. DENSE_RANK
              8. FIRST_VALUE
              9. GROUP_ID
              10. GROUPING
              11. GROUPING_ID
              12. KEEP
                1. Parameters
              13. LAG
                1. Parameters
              14. LAST_VALUE
              15. LEAD
                1. Parameters
              16. MAX
              17. MIN
              18. NTILE
                1. Parameters
              19. PERCENT_RANK
                1. Parameters
              20. PERCENTILE_CONT
                1. Parameters
              21. PERCENTILE_DISC
                1. Parameters
              22. RANK
                1. Parameters
              23. RATIO_TO_REPORT
                1. Parameters
              24. REGR . . .
                1. Parameters
              25. ROW_NUMBER
              26. STDDEV
              27. STDDEV_POP
              28. STDDEV_SAMP
              29. SUM
              30. VAR_POP
              31. VAR_SAMP
              32. VARIANCE
          3. Numeric Functions
            1. ABS
            2. ACOS
            3. ASIN
            4. ATAN
            5. ATAN2
            6. BITAN
            7. CEIL
            8. COS
            9. COSH
            10. EXP
            11. FLOOR
            12. GREATEST
            13. LEAST
            14. LN
            15. LOG
            16. MOD
            17. POWER
              1. Parameters
            18. ROUND
            19. SIGN
            20. SIN
            21. SINH
            22. SQRT
            23. TAN
            24. TANH
            25. TRUNC
            26. WIDTH_BUCKET
              1. Parameters
          4. Character Functions
            1. ASCII
            2. CHR
              1. Parameters
            3. CONCAT
            4. INITCAP
            5. INSTR . . .
              1. Parameters
            6. LENGTH . . .
            7. LOWER
            8. LPAD
              1. Parameters
            9. LTRIM
              1. Parameters
            10. NLS_INITCAP
              1. Parameters
            11. NLS_LOWER
              1. Parameters
            12. NLS_UPPER
              1. Parameters
            13. NLSSORT
              1. Parameters
            14. REPLACE
              1. Parameters
            15. RPAD
              1. Parameters
            16. RTRIM
              1. Parameters
            17. SOUNDEX
            18. SUBSTR . . .
              1. Parameters
            19. TRANSLATE
              1. Parameters
            20. TREAT
              1. Parameters
            21. TRIM
              1. Parameters
            22. UPPER
          5. Date and Time Functions
            1. ADD_MONTHS
              1. Parameter
            2. CURRENT_DATE
            3. CURRENT_TIMESTAMP
            4. DBTIMEZONE
            5. EXTRACT
              1. Parameters
            6. FROM_TZ
              1. Parameters
            7. INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND
              1. Parameters
              2. Examples
            8. INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH
              1. Parameters
            9. LAST_DAY
            10. LOCAL_TIMESTAMP
            11. MONTHS_BETWEEN
            12. NEW_TIME
            13. NEXT_DAY
              1. Parameters
            14. NUMTODSINTERVAL
              1. Parameters
            15. NUMTOYMINTERVAL
              1. Parameters
            16. ROUND
            17. SESSIONTIMEZONE
            18. SYS_EXTRACT_UTC
              1. Parameter
            19. SYSDATE
            20. SYSTIMESTAMP
            21. TO_DSINTERVAL
              1. Parameters
            22. TO_TIMESTAMP
              1. Parameters
            23. TO_TIMESTAMP_TZ
              1. Parameters
            24. TO_YMINTERVAL
            25. TRUNC
            26. TZ_OFFSET
              1. Parameters
          6. Conversion Functions
            1. ASCIISTR
            2. BIN_TO_NUM
            3. CAST
              1. Parameters
            4. CHARTOROWID
            5. COMPOSE
            6. CONVERT
              1. Parameters
            7. DECOMPOSE
            8. HEXTORAW
            9. NUMTODSINTERVAL
              1. Parameters
            10. NUMTOYMINTERVAL
              1. Parameters
            11. RAWTOHEX
            12. RAWTONHEX
            13. ROWIDTOCHAR
            14. ROWIDTONCHAR
            15. TO_CHAR (character)
            16. TO_CHAR(datetime)
              1. Parameter
            17. TO_CHAR (number)
              1. Parameter
            18. TO_CLOB
              1. Parameters
            19. TO_DATE
              1. Parameters
            20. TO_DSINTERVAL
              1. Parameters
            21. TO_LOB
            22. TO_MULTI_BYTE
            23. TO_NCHAR (character)
            24. TO_NCHAR (datetime)
              1. Parameters
            25. TO_NCHAR (number)
            26. TO_NCLOB
            27. TO_NUMBER
              1. Parameters
            28. TO_SINGLE_BYTE
            29. TO_YMINTERVAL
            30. TRANSLATE . . . USING
              1. Parameters
            31. UNISTR
          7. Object Functions
            1. DEREF
            2. MAKE_REF
            3. REF
            4. REFTOHEX
            5. VALUE
          8. XML Functions
            1. EXISTSNODE
              1. Parameters
            2. EXTRACT (XML)
              1. Parameters
            3. EXTRACTVALUE
              1. Parameters
            4. SYS_XMLAGG
            5. SYS_XMLGEN
            6. UPDATEXML
              1. Parameters
            7. XMLAGG
              1. Parameters
            8. XMLCOLATTVAL
            9. XMLCONCAT
              1. Parameters
            10. XMLELEMENT
            11. XMLFOREST
            12. XMLSEQUENCE
              1. Parameters
            13. XMLTRANSFORM
              1. Parameters
          9. Miscellaneous Functions
            1. BFILENAME
              1. Parameters
            2. COALESCE
            3. DECODE
              1. Parameters
            4. DEPTH
            5. DUMP
              1. Parameters
            6. EMPTY_BLOB
            7. EMPTY_CLOB
            8. NLS_CHARSET_DECL_LEN
              1. Parameters
            9. NLS_CHARSET_ID
            10. NLS_CHARSET_NAME
            11. NULLIF
            12. NVL
            13. NVL2
            14. PATH
            15. SYS_CONNECT_BY_PATH
            16. SYS_CONTEXT
              1. Parameters
            17. SYS_DBURIGEN
            18. SYS_EXTRACT_UTC
            19. SYS_GUID
            20. SYS_TYPEID
            21. UID
            22. USER
            23. USERENV
              1. Parameters
            24. VSIZE
        3. 9. PL/SQL
          1. PL/SQL Fundamentals
            1. Character Set
            2. Identifiers
            3. Literals
              1. Numeric, string, and Boolean literals
              2. Datetime interval literals
            4. Delimiters
            5. Block Structure
          2. Header Section
            1. Types of Blocks
            2. Parameters
              1. Syntax
              2. Keywords
            3. Parameter-Passing Notation
          3. Declaration Section
            1. Datatypes
              1. Constrained/unconstrained declarations
            2. Variables
              1. Default values
              2. NOT NULL
            3. Constants
            4. Cursor Variables
              1. Declaring explicit cursors
              2. Restrictions on cursor variables
            5. REF CURSOR Variables
            6. Anchored Declarations
            7. Programmer-Defined Subtypes
            8. Records
              1. Types of records
              2. Nested records
            9. Collections
              1. Associative Array
                1. Keywords
              2. Nested Table
                1. Keywords
              3. VARRAY
                1. Keywords
            10. Creating Collections
            11. Exceptions
            12. Forward Declarations
          4. Execution Section
            1. Statements
            2. Conditional Control Statements
              1. IF-THEN-ELSE
              2. CASE (Statement)
              3. CASE (Expression)
            3. Sequential Control Statements
              1. GOTO
                1. Restrictions
              2. NULL
            4. Loop Statements
              1. Simple Loop
              2. Numeric FOR Loop
              3. Cursor FOR Loop
              4. WHILE Loop
            5. Explicit Cursors
              1. OPEN
                1. Keywords
              2. FETCH
                1. Keyword
              3. CLOSE
                1. Keyword
              4. Explicit Cursor Attributes
                1. Keywords
            6. Implicit Cursors
              1. Syntax
              2. Keywords
            7. Dynamic Cursors and SQL
              1. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE
                1. Keywords
            8. Using Cursor Variables
              1. OPEN. . .FOR
            9. Using Cursor Expressions
              1. CURSOR
            10. Using Records
            11. Using Collections
              1. Collection functions and methods
              2. Initializing collections
              3. Adding and removing elements
              4. Privileges
              5. Nested collections
            12. Bulk Binds
              1. FOR ALL
                1. Keywords
              2. BULK COLLECT INTO
                1. Keywords
            13. Transaction Management
              1. COMMIT
                1. Keywords
              2. ROLLBACK
                1. Keyword
              3. SAVEPOINT
                1. Keyword
              4. SET TRANSACTION
                1. Keyword
              5. LOCK TABLE
                1. Keywords
            14. Autonomous Transactions
          5. Exception Section
            1. Raising Exceptions
              1. RAISE
                1. Keyword
              2. RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR
                1. Keywords
            2. Exception Scope
            3. Exception Propagation
              1. WHEN OTHERS Clause
              2. SQLCODE
              3. SQLERRM
          6. Pragmas
          7. Program Units
            1. Common Attributes
              1. Procedures
              2. Functions
              3. Table Functions
              4. Local Programs
            2. Program Overloading
          8. Packages
            1. Package Structure
              1. Package Specification
              2. Package Body
            2. Referencing Package Elements
            3. Package Data
            4. SERIALLY_REUSABLE Pragma
            5. Package Initialization
          9. Triggers
            1. Trigger Statements
              1. CREATE TRIGGER
                1. Keywords
            2. Event Sequences
              1. DML events
              2. DDL events
              3. Database events
            3. Trigger Predicates
          10. Calling PL/SQL Functions in SQL
            1. Specifying the Function
              1. Syntax
              2. Keywords
              3. Requirements and restrictions
            2. RESTRICT_REFERENCES Pragma
            3. Caveats on Calling PL/SQL Functions From SQL
          11. Native Compilation of PL/SQL
          12. External Procedures
            1. CREATE PROCEDURE
              1. Keywords
          13. Java and PL/SQL
        4. 10. PL/SQL Packages
          1. DBMS_ALERT
            1. Calls
          2. DBMS_APPLICATION_INFO
            1. Calls
          3. DBMS_APPLY_ADM
            1. Calls
          4. DBMS_AQ
            1. Calls
          5. DBMS_AQADM
            1. Calls
          6. DBMS_AQELM
            1. Calls
          7. DBMS_CAPTURE_ADM
            1. Calls
          8. DBMS_DDL
            1. Calls
          9. DBMS_DEBUG
            1. Calls
          10. DBMS_DEFER
            1. Calls
          11. DBMS_DEFER_QUERY
          12. DBMS_DEFER_SYS
            1. Calls
          13. DBMS_DESCRIBE
            1. Call
          14. DBMS_DISTRIBUTED_TRUST_ADMIN
            1. Calls
          15. DBMS_FGA
            1. Calls
          16. DBMS_FLASHBACK
            1. Calls
          17. DBMS_HS
            1. Calls
          18. DBMS_HS_PASSTHROUGH
            1. Calls
          19. DBMS_IOT
            1. Calls
          20. DBMS_JOB
            1. Calls
          21. DBMS_LDAP
            1. Calls
          22. DBMS_LIBCACHE
            1. Call
          23. DBMS_LOB
            1. Calls
          24. DBMS_LOCK
            1. Calls
          25. DBMS_LOGMNR
            1. Calls
          26. DBMS_LOGMNR_CDC_PUBLISH
            1. Calls
          27. DBMS_LOGMNR_CDC_SUBSCRIBE
            1. Calls
          28. DBMS_LOGMNR_D
            1. Calls
          29. DBMS_LOGSTNDBY
            1. Calls
          30. DBMS_METADATA
            1. Calls
          31. DBMS_MGWADM
            1. Calls
          32. DBMA_MGWMSG
            1. Calls
          33. DBMS_MVIEW
            1. Calls
          34. DBMS_OBFUSCATION_TOOLKIT
            1. Calls
          35. DBMS_ODCI
            1. Call
          36. DBMS_OFFLINE_OG
            1. Calls
          37. DBMS_OFFLINE_SNAPSHOT
            1. Calls
          38. DBMS_OLAP
            1. Calls
          39. DBMS_ORACLE_TRACE_AGENT
            1. Call
          40. DBMS_ORACLE_TRACE_USER
            1. Call
          41. DBMS_OUTLN
            1. Calls
          42. DBMS_OUTLN_EDIT
            1. Calls
          43. DBMS_OUTPUT
            1. Calls
          44. DBMS_PCLXUTIL
            1. Call
          45. DBMS_PIPE
            1. Calls
          46. DBMS_PROFILER
            1. Calls
          47. DBMS_PROPAGATION_ADM
            1. Calls
          48. DBMS_RANDOM
            1. Calls
          49. DBMS_RECTIFIER_DIFF
            1. Calls
          50. DBMS_REDEFINITION
            1. Calls
          51. DBMS_REFRESH
            1. Calls
          52. DBMS_REPAIR
            1. Calls
          53. DBMS_REPCAT
            1. Calls
          54. DBMS_REPCAT_ADMIN
            1. Calls
          55. DBMS_REPCAT_AUTH
            1. Calls
          56. DBMS_REPCAT_INSTANTIATE
            1. Calls
          57. DBMS_REPCAT_RGT
            1. Calls
          58. DBMS_REPUTIL
            1. Calls
          59. DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER
            1. Calls
          60. DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER_PRIVS
            1. Calls
          61. DBMS_RESUMABLE
            1. Calls
          62. DBMS_RLS
            1. Calls
          63. DBMS_ROWID
            1. Calls
          64. DBMS_RULE
            1. Call
          65. DBMS_RULE_ADMIN
            1. Calls
          66. DBMS_SESSION
            1. Calls
          67. DBMS_SHARED_POOL
            1. Calls
          68. DBMS_SNAPSHOT
          69. DBMS_SPACE
            1. Calls
          70. DBMS_SPACE_ADMIN
            1. Calls
          71. DBMS_SQL
            1. Calls
          72. DBMS_STATS
            1. Calls
          73. DBMS_STORAGE_MAP
            1. Calls
          74. DBMS_STREAM_ADM
            1. Calls
          75. DBMS_STREAMS
            1. Calls
          76. DBMS_SYSTEM
            1. Calls
          77. DBMS_TRACE
            1. Calls
          78. DBMS_TRANSACTION
            1. Calls
          79. DBMS_TRANSFORM
            1. Calls
          80. DBMS_TTS
            1. Calls
          81. DBMS_TYPES
          82. DBMS_UTILITY
            1. Calls
          83. DBMS_WM
            1. Calls
          84. DBMS_XDB
            1. Calls
          85. DBMS_XDBT
            1. Calls
          86. DBMS_XDB_VERSION
            1. Calls
          87. DBMS_XMLDOM
            1. Calls
              1. General calls
              2. DOM node methods
              3. DOM named node map methods
              4. DOM node list methods
              5. DOM attribute methods
              6. DOM character data methods
              7. DOM Implementation methods
              8. DOM Document Type methods
              9. DOM Element methods
              10. DOM Entity methods
              11. DOM Notation methods
              12. DOM Processing Instruction methods
              13. DOM Text methods
              14. DOM Document methods
          88. DBMS_XMLGEN
            1. Calls
          89. DBMS_XMLPARSER
            1. Calls
          90. DBMS_XMLQUERY
            1. Calls
          91. DBMS_XMLSAVE
            1. Calls
          92. DBMS_XMLSCHEMA
            1. Calls
          93. DBMS_XPLAN
            1. Call
          94. DBMS_XSLPROCESSOR
            1. Calls
          95. DEBUG_EXTPROC
            1. Call
          96. OUTLN_PKG
          97. UTL_COLL
            1. Call
          98. UTL_ENCODE
            1. Calls
          99. UTL_FILE
            1. Calls
          100. UTL_HTTP
            1. Calls
              1. Simple HTTP fetches
              2. HTTP session settings
              3. HTTP requests
              4. HTTP responses
              5. HTTP cookies
              6. HTTP persistent connections
              7. HTTP error conditions
          101. UTL_INADDR
            1. Calls
          102. UTL_RAW
            1. Calls
          103. UTL_REF
            1. Calls
          104. UTL_SMTP
            1. Calls
          105. UTL_TCP
            1. Calls
          106. UTL_URL
            1. Calls
        5. 11. Java and Oracle
          1. Java Drivers
          2. Java in the Oracle Database
            1. Compiling and Loading Java
              1. loadjava
              2. dropjava
            2. Creating a PL/SQL Wrapper
          3. Data Mapping
          4. SQLJ
            1. Imports
            2. Compiling SQLJ Code
            3. Using SQL with SQLJ
            4. SQL Iterators
              1. Named iterators
              2. Positional iterators
            5. PL/SQL in SQLJ
            6. Database Objects and JPublish
            7. SQLJ Methods
              1. connect
                1. Variables
              2. close
                1. Variables
              3. getConnection
                1. Variables
              4. setDefaultRowPrefetch
                1. Variables
              5. setFetchSize
              6. getDefaultRowPrefetch
                1. Variables
              7. getFetchSize
              8. setDefaultContext
                1. Variables
              9. getExecutionContext
                1. Variables
              10. getMaxRows
                1. Variables
              11. setMaxRows
                1. Variables
              12. getQueryTimeout
                1. Variables
              13. setQueryTimeout
                1. Variables
              14. getResultSet
              15. getSQLState
              16. getUpdateCount
                1. Variables
              17. getWarnings
                1. Variables
              18. setBatching
              19. isBatching
              20. executeBatch
                1. Variables
              21. setBatchLimits
                1. Keywords
          5. JDBC
            1. oracle.jdbc
            2. oracle.jdbc Interfaces
              1. OracleCallableStatement
                1. Inherited fields
                2. Methods
                3. Inherited methods
              2. OracleConnection
                1. Fields
                2. Inherited fields
                3. Methods
                4. Inherited methods
              3. OracleJdbc2SQLInput
                1. Methods
                2. Inherited methods
              4. OracleOCIFailover
                1. Fields
                2. Method
              5. OracleParameterMetaData
                1. Fields
                2. Methods
              6. OraclePreparedStatement
                1. Fields
                2. Inherited fields
                3. Methods
                4. Inherited methods
              7. OracleResultSet
                1. Inherited fields
                2. Methods
                3. Inherited methods
              8. OracleResultSetCache
                1. Methods
              9. OracleResultSetMetaData
                1. Inherited fields
                2. Method
                3. Inherited methods
              10. OracleSavepoint
                1. Methods
              11. OracleStatement
                1. Fields
                2. Methods
                3. Inherited methods
              12. StructMetaData
                1. Inherited fields
                2. Methods
                3. Inherited methods
            3. oracle.jdbc Classes
              1. OracleConnectionWrapper
                1. Methods
                2. Inherited methods
              2. OracleDatabaseMetaData
                1. Methods
                2. Inherited methods
              3. OracleDriver
                1. Inherited fields
                2. Inherited methods
              4. OracleTypes
                1. Fields
                2. Inherited methods
            4. oracle.sql
            5. oracle.jdbc Interfaces
              1. CustomDatum
                1. Method
              2. CustomDatumFactory
                1. Method
              3. Mutable
                1. Method
              4. ORAData
                1. Method
              5. ORADataFactory
                1. Method
            6. oracle.sql Classes
              1. ARRAY
                1. Fields
                2. Methods
                3. Inherited methods
              2. ArrayDescriptor
                1. Fields
                2. Inherited fields
                3. Methods
                4. Inherited methods
              3. BFILE
                1. Fields
                2. Methods
                3. Inherited methods
              4. BLOB
                1. Fields
                2. Methods
                3. Inherited methods
              5. CHAR
                1. Field
                2. Methods
                3. Inherited methods
              6. CharacterSet
                1. Fields
                2. Methods
                3. Inherited methods
              7. CLOB
                1. Fields
                2. Methods
                3. Inherited methods
              8. DATE
                1. Fields
                2. Methods
                3. Inherited methods
              9. Datum
                1. Methods
                2. Inherited methods
              10. DatumWithConnection
                1. Methods
                2. Inherited methods
              11. INTERVALYM
                1. Methods
                2. Inherited methods
              12. JAVA_STRUCT
                1. Methods
                2. Inherited methods
              13. NUMBER
                1. Methods
                2. Inherited methods
              14. OPAQUE
                1. Methods
                2. Inherited methods
              15. OpaqueDescriptor
                1. Inherited fields
                2. Methods
                3. Inherited methods
              16. OracleSQLOutput
                1. Methods
                2. Inherited methods
              17. RAW
                1. Methods
                2. Inherited methods
              18. REF
                1. Methods
                2. Inherited methods
              19. ROWID
                1. Methods
                2. Inherited methods
              20. STRUCT
                1. Methods
                2. Inherited methods
              21. StructDescriptor
                1. Inherited fields
                2. Methods
                3. Inherited methods
              22. TIMESTAMP
                1. Methods
                2. Inherited methods
              23. TIMESTAMPLTZ
                1. Methods
                2. Inherited methods
              24. TIMESTAMPTZ
                1. Methods
                2. Inherited methods
              25. TypeDescriptor
                1. Field
                2. Methods
                3. Inherited methods
      4. III. Tools and Utilities
        1. 12. SQL*Plus
          1. Running SQL*Plus
            1. Entering SQL*Plus Commands
              1. Entering SQL*Plus commands
              2. Entering SQL statements
              3. Entering PL /SQL blocks
            2. Strings in SQL*Plus Commands
            3. Specifying Filenames
            4. Naming Variables
          2. Formatting Text Reports
            1. Column Headings
            2. Column Formats
            3. Page Width and Length
            4. Page Headers and Footers
              1. Defining a title
              2. Getting the date into a title
            5. Page Breaks
            6. Report Breaks
              1. BREAK command
              2. COMPUTE command
          3. SQL*Plus Format Elements
            1. Formatting Numbers
            2. Formatting Character Strings
            3. Formatting Dates
          4. Commands
            1. /*...*/
            2. -- (Double Hyphen)
            3. @ (At Sign)
              1. Parameters
            4. @@ (Double At Sign)
            5. / (Forward Slash)
            6. ACCEPT
              1. Parameters
            7. APPEND
            8. ARCHIVE LOG
              1. Parameters
            9. ATTRIBUTE
              1. Parameters
            10. BREAK
              1. Parameters
            11. BTITLE
            12. CHANGE
              1. Parameters
            13. CLEAR
              1. Parameters
            14. COLUMN
              1. Parameters
            15. COMPUTE
              1. Parameters
            16. CONNECT
              1. Parameters
            17. COPY
              1. Parameters
            18. DEFINE
              1. Parameters
            19. DEL
              1. Parameters
            20. DESCRIBE
              1. Parameters
            21. DISCONNECT
            22. EDIT
            23. EXECUTE
            24. EXIT
              1. Parameters
            25. GET
              1. Parameters
            26. HELP
              1. Parameters
            27. HOST
            28. INPUT
            29. LIST
              1. Parameters
            30. PASSWORD
              1. Parameter
            31. PAUSE
            32. PRINT
              1. Parameters
            33. PROMPT
              1. Parameters
            34. QUIT
            35. RECOVER
              1. Parameters
            36. REMARK
            37. REPFOOTER
            38. REPHEADER
            39. RUN
            40. SAVE
              1. Parameters
            41. SET
              1. SET commands
            42. SHOW
              1. Parameters
            43. SHUTDOWN
              1. Parameters
            44. SPOOL
              1. Parameters
            45. START
            46. STARTUP
              1. Parameters
            47. STORE
              1. Parameters
            48. TIMING
              1. Parameters
            49. TTITLE
              1. Parameters
            50. UNDEFINE
              1. Parameter
            51. VARIABLE
              1. Parameters
            52. WHENEVER
              1. Parameters
        2. 13. Export and Import
          1. Export/Import Fundamentals
            1. Interactive Operation
              1. Export prompts
              2. Import prompts
            2. Command-Line Operation
          2. Common Parameters
          3. Export-Only Parameters
          4. Import-Only Parameters
        3. 14. SQL*Loader
          1. Running SQL*Loader
          2. Command-Line Parameters
          3. Control File
            1. LOAD
              1. Keywords
            2. INFILE CLAUSE
              1. Keywords
            3. INTO TABLE Clause
              1. Keywords
            4. Field Clause
              1. Keywords
            5. LOB, BFILE, Object, and Collection Clauses
              1. LOB Data Syntax
              2. BFILE Data Syntax
              3. Object Data Syntax
              4. Collection Data Syntax
            6. Datatype Clause
              1. Keywords
            7. Concatenation Clauses
        4. 15. Backup and Recovery
          1. Backup and Recovery Fundamentals
          2. User-Managed Backup and Recovery
            1. How to Perform User-Managed Backup
              1. Determining the files to back up
              2. Backing up datafiles
              3. Backing up log files
              4. Backing up the control file
              5. Backing up miscellaneous files
            2. How to Perform User-Managed Recovery
              1. Restoring datafiles
                1. Determining the files to recover.
                2. Copying backup files.
                3. Restoring the database.
              2. Restoring the control file
            3. Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery
            4. Backup and Recovery Commands
              1. ALTER DATABASE BACKUP CONTROLFILE
              2. ALTER DATABASE OPEN
              3. ALTER SYSTEM SUSPEND/RESUME
              4. CREATE CONTROLFILE
              5. DBVERIFY
              6. OCOPY
              7. RECOVER
              8. STARTUP MOUNT
          3. Recovery Manager (RMAN)
            1. RMAN Fundamentals
            2. Running RMAN
            3. Using RMAN Scripts
            4. Using RMAN Commands
            5. Common RMAN Parameters and Identifiers
            6. Common RMAN Clauses
              1. allocOperand Clause
              2. archivelogRecordSpecifier Clause
              3. completedTimeSpec Clause
              4. keepOption Clause
              5. listObjList Clause
              6. mntQualifier Clause
              7. obsoleteOpersList Clause
              8. recordSpec Clause
              9. until Clause
            7. RMAN Commands
              1. @ (At Sign)
              2. @@ (Double At Sign)
              3. ALLOCATE CHANNEL
              4. ALLOCATE CHANNEL FOR MAINTENANCE
              5. ALTER DATABASE
              6. BACKUP
              7. BLOCKRECOVER
              8. CATALOG
              9. CHANGE
              10. CONFIGURE
              11. CONNECT
              12. COPY
              13. CREATE CATALOG
              14. CREATE SCRIPT
              15. CROSSCHECK
              16. DELETE
              17. DELETE SCRIPT
              18. DROP CATALOG
              19. DUPLICATE
              20. EXECUTE SCRIPT
              21. EXIT
              22. HOST
              23. LIST
              24. PRINT SCRIPT
              25. QUIT
              26. RECOVER
              27. REGISTER
              28. RELEASE CHANNEL
              29. REPLACE SCRIPT
              30. REPLICATE
              31. REPORT
              32. RESET DATABASE
              33. RESTORE
              34. RESYNC
              35. RUN
              36. SEND
              37. SET
              38. SHOW
              39. SHUTDOWN
              40. SPOOL
              41. SQL
              42. STARTUP
              43. SWITCH
              44. UPGRADE CATALOG
              45. VALIDATE
        5. 16. Enterprise Manager
          1. Architecture
            1. Three-Tier Configuration
            2. Two-Tier Configuration
          2. Running Enterprise Manager
          3. Enterprise Manager Interface
            1. Console Areas
            2. Views
          4. Enterprise Manager Administration
            1. Jobs
            2. Events
            3. Wizards
          5. Expansion Packs
            1. Diagnostics Pack
            2. Tuning Pack
            3. Change Management Pack
            4. Standard Management Pack
            5. Management Pack for Oracle Applications
            6. Management Pack for SAP R/3
            7. DBA Management Pack and DBA Studio
          6. OEMUTIL
            1. Running OEMUTIL
            2. OEMUTIL Commands
              1. changeCredentials
                1. Keywords
              2. deregisterEvent
                1. Keywords
              3. omsCredentials
              4. registerEventFromLibrary
                1. Keywords
              5. submitJob
                1. Keywords
              6. submitJobFromLibrary
                1. Keywords
        6. 17. Performance
          1. SQL Optimization
            1. Rule-based Optimizer
            2. Cost-based Optimizer
            3. Statistics
              1. Gathering statistics
              2. Stored statistics
              3. Histograms
            4. Optimizer Modes
            5. Hints
              1. Optimizer mode hints
              2. Access path hints
              3. Query transformation hints
              4. Join hints
              5. Parallel execution hints
              6. Miscellaneous hints
            6. Stored Outlines and Plan Stability
              1. Creating outlines
              2. Using outlines
              3. Private outlines
          2. EXPLAIN PLAN
            1. Preparing to Run EXPLAIN PLAN
            2. Executing EXPLAIN PLAN
            3. PLAN_TABLE Columns
          3. TKPROF
            1. Preparing for a Trace
            2. Collecting Trace Information
            3. Running TKPROF
              1. Syntax
              2. Keywords
            4. TKPROF Output
          4. AUTOTRACE
          5. Statistics Collection
            1. UTLBSTAT/UTLESTAT
            2. Statspack
              1. Installing Statspack
              2. Using Statspack
              3. Reporting on Statspack data
              4. Statspack levels and thresholds
              5. Removing Statspack data
      5. IV. Appendixes
        1. A. Datatypes
          1. Scalar Datatypes
            1. Character Datatypes
            2. Numeric Datatypes
            3. Datetime Datatypes
              1. DATE datatype
              2. INTERVAL datatypes
              3. TIMESTAMP datatypes
            4. Large Object Datatypes
            5. Other Scalar Datatypes
          2. Collection Datatypes
            1. Collection Operators
          3. Reference Datatypes
        2. B. Expressions, Operators, and Conditions
          1. Expressions
          2. Operators
          3. Conditions
            1. Simple Conditions
            2. Group Conditions
            3. Logical Conditions
            4. Other Conditions
        3. C. Numeric Formats
        4. D. Date Formats
        5. E. Additional Resources
          1. Web Sites
          2. Books
            1. General
            2. Security
            3. Networking
            4. SQL
            5. PL/SQL
            6. Packages
            7. Java
            8. SQL*Plus
            9. SQL*Loader
            10. Backup and Recovery
            11. Enterprise Manager
            12. Performance
      6. Index
      7. Colophon