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Oracle Exadata Expert’s Handbook

Book Description

The Practical, Authoritative, 360-Degree Technical Guide to Oracle Exadata: From Setup to Administration, Optimization, Tuning, and Troubleshooting

The blazingly fast Oracle Exadata Database Machine is being embraced by thousands of large-scale users worldwide: by governments, the military, enterprise organizations, cloud service providers, and anyone who needs extreme performance. Now, Oracle Exadata Expert’s Handbook provides authoritative guidance to running Oracle Exadata with maximum reliability, effectiveness, performance, and efficiency.

Six renowned Oracle technology experts have brought together core technical information, experience, best practices, and insider tips in a concise reference. Covering both 11g and 12c versions of Oracle Exadata software, they deliver hands-on coverage of best practices, setup, migration, monitoring, administration, performance tuning, and troubleshooting. Whether you’re an Oracle Exadata DBA, DMA, architect, or manager, you need these insights.

  • Get a 360-degree overview of the Oracle Exadata Database Machine

  • Efficiently deploy RAC within the Oracle Exadata ecosystem

  • Fully leverage Storage Cell’s extraordinary performance, via Offloading, Smart Scans, and Hybrid Columnar Compression

  • Manage Exadata with OEM 12c: perform setup, configuration, asset/target discovery, and day-to-day administration

  • Tune Oracle Exadata for even better performance

  • Perform Exadata Backup/Recovery/DR with RMAN and Data Guard

  • Migrate to Oracle Exadata from other platforms

  • Use Oracle Exadata with the ZFS Storage Appliance

  • Consolidate within the Exadata Database Cloud

  • Table of Contents

    1. About This eBook
    2. Title Page
    3. Copyright Page
    4. Contents
    5. Preface
    6. Acknowledgments
      1. Tariq Farooq
      2. Charles Kim
      3. Nitin Vengurlekar
      4. Sridhar Avantsa
      5. Guy Harrison
      6. Syed Jaffar Hussain
      7. Nabil Nawaz
    7. About the Authors
    8. About the Technical Reviewers and Contributors
    9. 1. 360-Degree Overview of Exadata
      1. An Exadata Synopsis
        1. An Engineered Database Machine
        2. How Exadata Changes Your Job Role
        3. Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c
      2. Hardware Architecture
        1. Server Layer—Compute Nodes
        2. Shared Storage—Storage Cells
        3. Networking Fabric—InfiniBand
        4. Power Distribution Units (PDUs)
        5. Cisco Switch
        6. 2u Custom Network Switch Space
      3. Software Architecture
        1. Real Application Clusters (RAC)
        2. Automatic Storage Management (ASM)
        3. DB Compute Nodes
        4. Storage Cell Software
      4. Models and Configuration Options
        1. Historical Synopsis
        2. The Evolution of Exadata
        3. Exadata SuperCluster T4-4
        4. Exadata SuperCluster T5-8
        5. Exadata SuperCluster M6-32
        6. Exadata Storage Expansion Racks
        7. Exadata Storage Cells
        8. Hardware Progression
      5. Examining an Exadata Machine
      6. Summary
    10. 2. Real Application Clusters (RAC) in Exadata
      1. The Significance of RAC in Exadata
      2. An Overview of RAC
        1. A Quick Primer on RAC in Exadata
        2. How RAC Affects DBAs
      3. Setting Up RAC Clusters in Exadata
      4. Operational Best Practices
        1. Maximum Availability Architecture (MAA)
        2. Optimal and Efficient Databases in RAC
      5. Managing RAC with OEM 12c
      6. Common Utilities and Commands
      7. Troubleshooting and Tuning RAC
        1. Start with ORAchk
        2. Employ the TFA Collector Utility
        3. Use the Automatic Diagnostic Repository
        4. Check the Alert and Trace Log Files
        5. Employ the Three As
        6. Check the Private Cluster Interconnect
        7. Enable Tracing and Inspect the Trace Logs
        8. Cluster Health Monitor
        9. Employ Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c
        10. Miscellaneous Tools and Utilities
        11. Useful Oracle Support Resources
      8. Summary
    11. 3. The Secret Sauce: Exadata Storage Cells
      1. An Overview of Exadata Storage Server
        1. Storage Server Architecture
        2. Cell Software Components and Management
        3. Configuring Mail Server for Alert Notifications
        4. Displaying Cell Server Details
        5. Cell Metrics and Alert History
        6. Querying Cell Alert History
        7. Querying GV$ Views
      2. Storage Architecture and Formulation
      3. Disk Architecture in Non-Exadata
      4. Disk Architecture in Exadata
      5. System Users for Cell Administration
        1. Listing Disk Levels
        2. Configuring Cell Disks
        3. Creating Grid Disks
        4. Configuring Flash Grid Disks
        5. Creating an ASM Disk Group
      6. Managing the Cell Server
      7. Troubleshooting the Cell Server
        1. SunDiag
        2. ExaWatcher
        3. Exachk
        4. CheckHWnFWProfile
      8. Storage Cell Startup and Shutdown
      9. Solving Disk Problems
      10. Enforcing Cell Security
        1. Configuring ASM-Scoped Security
        2. Configuring Database-Scoped Security
        3. Exempting Cell Security
      11. Summary
    12. 4. Flash Cache, Smart Scans, and Cell Offloading
      1. Concepts of Exadata Flash Cache
        1. Why Flash Cache Is Necessary
        2. Evolution of Flash Cache in Exadata
      2. Storage Server and Flash Cache
        1. The Exadata Smart Flash Cache Feature
        2. Populating the Flash Cache
        3. Exadata Smart Flash Logging
      3. The Database and Flash Cache
        1. Smart Scans and Cell Offloading
        2. Storage Indexes
        3. Caching Data in the Flash Cache
      4. Summary
    13. 5. Exadata Compression: HCC Demystified
      1. Columnar Storage Models
        1. The PAX Model
        2. Fractured Mirrors
        3. Fine-Grained Hybrids
      2. Oracle Implementation of DSM—Hybrid Columnar Compression
        1. Compression within Oracle Databases
        2. The Concepts of HCC
        3. Compression Ratios
        4. Compression Types and Compression Units
      3. HCC and Performance
        1. Bulk Load Operations
        2. Bulk Read I/O Operations
        3. Small I/O Operations
      4. HCC and DML
      5. HCC and Locking
      6. Practical Uses of HCC
      7. Summary
    14. 6. Oracle Database 12c and Exadata
      1. 12c Partitioning Features
        1. Partial Indexes
        2. Partition Index Maintenance
        3. Partition Move
      2. New 12c Optimizer Features
        1. Adaptive Plans
        2. Automatic Re-optimization
        3. Dynamic Adaptive Statistics
      3. Information Lifecycle Management
      4. Application Continuity
      5. Multitenant Architecture
        1. Overview
        2. PDB: A New Consolidation Model
        3. Unplug/Plug Operations
        4. RAC and PDB
      6. Exadata Software Updates
      7. Summary
    15. 7. Exadata Networking: Management and Administration
      1. Exadata Network Components
      2. The Role of the InfiniBand Network
      3. Network Architecture
      4. Network Setup Requirements
      5. Troubleshooting Tools and Utilities
        1. Physical Link Monitoring
      6. Log Files Collection
      7. Integrated Lights Out Manager
      8. OEM Cloud Control 12c
      9. Summary
    16. 8. Backup and Recovery and Data Guard
      1. RMAN Disk-to-Disk Backups
        1. Settings for RMAN Backups on the Exadata
        2. rman2disk Shell Script
        3. rman2disk Template Files
        4. Using rman2disk
        5. Creating RMAN Backups
        6. RMAN Backup Schedule
        7. Container and Pluggable Databases
      2. Data Guard
        1. Patches
        2. Session Data Unit
        3. Bandwidth-Delay Product
        4. Network Queue Size
        5. Disabling TCP Nagle Algorithm
        6. Enabling Network Time Protocol
        7. Block Change Tracking
        8. Fast Recovery Area
        9. Automatic Archive Switch
        10. Parallel Execution Message Size
        11. Database Cache Size
        12. Standby Redo Logs
        13. Force Logging
        14. Flashback Logging
        15. Real-Time Apply
        16. Timeout and Reopen Options
        17. Archive Generation Rate
        18. Standby File Management
        19. Data Guard Standby-First Patching
        20. Active Data Guard
      3. Far Sync
        1. Archive Log Retention Policy
        2. Data Corruptions
        3. Data Guard Instantiation
        4. Configuring Data Guard Broker
        5. OEM Cloud Control 12c
      4. Switchover Considerations
        1. Switchover Tracing
        2. Guaranteed Restore Point
      5. Summary
    17. 9. Managing Exadata with OEM 12c
      1. Exadata Targets Discovery
        1. Exadata Monitoring Architecture
      2. Oracle Exadata Plugins
        1. Prerequisite Checks
        2. Manual Deployment
      3. Exadata Database Machine Discovery
        1. Prerequisite Checks
        2. Launching Exadata Discovery
        3. Post-Discovery Procedure
      4. Exadata Components
        1. Monitoring and Management
        2. Administration
      5. Summary
    18. 10. Migrating to Exadata
      1. Exadata Implementation Lifecycle
      2. Phase I: Architectural Strategy
        1. Sizing the Specific Exadata Solution
      3. Phase II: Planning and Design
        1. Custom versus Third-Party Applications
        2. Choosing Exadata Features to Implement
        3. Accounting for the Paradigm Change
        4. Determining Migration Strategies
      4. Phase III: Migration Testing
        1. Backup and Recovery Strategy
        2. Exadata Monitoring and Alerting
        3. Exadata Patching
      5. Exadata Migration Best Practices
      6. Summary
    19. 11. Upgrading and Patching Exadata and ZFS Storage Appliance
      1. Planning an Exadata and ZFS Upgrade
        1. Patch Release Cycle
      2. Quarterly Full Stack Download
      3. Patching Tools and Processes
        1. OPatch
        2. patchmgr
        3. OPlan
      4. Oracle Patch Types
        1. Patch Set Updates
        2. Critical Patch Updates and Security Patch Updates
        3. Oracle Patching Standard
        4. One-Off Patches
      5. Exadata High Availability Upgrades
      6. Reviewing Settings with Exachk
      7. Exadata Full Stack Upgrade
        1. Exadata Upgrade Path
        2. Downloading Patches for Exadata and ZFS
        3. Upgrading the Cell Nodes
        4. Updating the Compute Nodes
        5. Updating InfiniBand Switches
        6. Updating Grid Home
        7. Upgrading Ethernet Switches
        8. Upgrading the KVM Switch
        9. Upgrading PDUs
      8. ZFS Upgrade
        1. ZFSSA Configuration and Upgrade
        2. ZFS Update Stage 1
        3. ZFS Update Stage 2
        4. Updating ZFS BIOS
      9. Summary
    20. 12. ZFS Storage Appliance for Exadata
      1. ZFS Family Line
      2. Increased Storage Capacity
        1. Reclaiming Resources and Space from DBFS
        2. Information Lifecycle Management
      3. ZFSSA Browser User Interface
      4. Creating NFS Shares
      5. Preparing Exadata for Direct NFS
        1. Configuring and Mounting the NFS Share
        2. Snapshots
        3. Clones
        4. Snapshots and Clones with Data Guard
        5. Best-Practice Settings on ZFS Share
      6. Other Industry Use Cases
      7. Learning on the Simulator
      8. Summary
    21. 13. Exadata Performance Tuning
      1. Oracle Performance Tuning
        1. Systematic Oracle Performance Tuning
        2. Oracle Performance Troubleshooting
      2. Application Design for Exadata
      3. Database Design for Exadata
        1. Storage Indexes
        2. Offloading
        3. Exadata Smart Flash Cache and Indexes
        4. Index Design for New Applications
        5. Indexing Strategy for Existing Applications
        6. Choosing Compression Levels
      4. SQL Tuning for Exadata
      5. Exadata RAC Tuning
        1. Global Cache Basics
        2. RAC Tuning Principles
        3. Cluster Overhead
        4. Reducing Global Cache Latency
        5. LMS Latency
        6. Balancing an Exadata RAC Database
        7. Balancing Workloads with IORM and DBRM
      6. Optimizing Exadata I/O
        1. Leveraging Flash More Effectively
        2. Configuring the Write-Back Facility
        3. Configuring ASM
        4. Changing the Block Size
      7. Summary
    22. 14. Database Consolidation on Exadata
      1. Database Consolidation Models
      2. Exadata Consolidation Planning
      3. Grouping Applications
        1. Server Pools
        2. Chargeback
      4. Evaluating Sizing Requirements
      5. Setting Up Exadata for Consolidation
        1. Storage and I/O Settings
        2. Memory Settings
        3. CPU Settings
      6. Isolation Management
        1. Fault Isolation in Database Consolidation
        2. Fault Isolation in Schema Consolidation
        3. Operational Isolation in Database Consolidation
        4. Operational Isolation in Schema Consolidation
        5. Resource Isolation in Database Consolidation
        6. Resource Isolation in Schema Consolidation
        7. Security Isolation in Database Consolidation
        8. Security Isolation in Schema Consolidation
      7. 12c Pluggable Database
      8. Summary
    23. 15. Exadata Smart Flash Cache in Depth
      1. Solid-State Disk Technology
        1. Limitations of Disk Technology
        2. The Rise of Solid-State Flash Disks
        3. Flash SSD Architecture and Performance
        4. The Oracle Database Flash Cache
      2. Exadata Flash Hardware
      3. Exadata Smart Flash Cache
        1. Exadata Smart Flash Cache Architecture
        2. What the Exadata Smart Flash Cache Stores
        3. Flash Cache Compression
        4. CELL_FLASH_CACHE Storage Clause
        5. Flash Cache KEEP Expiration
        6. Monitoring Exadata Smart Flash Cache
        7. Exadata Smart Flash Cache Performance
      4. Exadata Smart Flash Logging
        1. Controlling and Monitoring Smart Flash Logging
        2. Testing Exadata Smart Flash Logging
      5. Smart Flash Cache WriteBack
        1. Data File Write I/O Bottlenecks
        2. Write-Back Cache Architecture
        3. Enabling and Disabling the Write-Back Cache
        4. Write-Back Cache Performance
      6. Summary
    24. 16. Advanced Exadata Flash Configuration
      1. Using Flash as Grid Disks
        1. Grid Disks, Cell Disks, and the Flash Cache
        2. Creating a Flash-Based ASM Disk Group
      2. Flash Tablespace versus Flash Cache
        1. Index Fetch Performance
        2. Scan Performance
        3. Creating a Flash Temporary Tablespace
        4. Using Flash for Redo Logs
      3. Storage Tiering Solutions
        1. Using Partitions to Tier Data
        2. 12c ILM and ADO
      4. Summary
    25. 17. Exadata Tools and Utilities
      1. Exadata Diagnostic Tools
        1. SunDiag
        2. Exachk: Exadata Health Check
      2. InfiniBand Network Diagnostic Tools
        1. Verifying InfiniBand Topology
        2. infinicheck
      3. Other Useful Exadata Commands
        1. imageinfo and imagehistory
        2. InfiniBand Network–Related Commands
      4. Monitoring Exadata Storage Cells
        1. Dell Software Tools for Exadata
        2. Monitoring the Cell with Enterprise Manager
      5. Summary
    26. Index
    27. Code Snippets