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Oracle Database 11g Oracle Real Application Clusters Handbook, Second Edition

Book Description

Master Oracle Real Application Clusters

Maintain a dynamic enterprise computing infrastructure with expert instruction from an Oracle ACE. Oracle Database 11g Oracle Real Application Clusters Handbook, Second Edition has been fully revised and updated to cover the latest tools and features. Find out how to prepare your hardware, deploy Oracle Real Application Clusters, optimize data integrity, and integrate seamless failover protection. Troubleshooting, performance tuning, and application development are also discussed in this comprehensive Oracle Press guide.

• Install and configure Oracle Real Application Clusters

• Configure and manage diskgroups using Oracle Automatic Storage Management

• Work with services, voting disks, and Oracle Clusterware Repository

• Look under the hood of the Cache Fusion and Global Resource Directory operations in Oracle Real Applications Clusters

• Explore the internal workings of backup and recovery in Oracle Real Application Clusters

• Employ workload balancing and the Transparent Application Failover feature of an Oracle database

• Get complete coverage of Stretch Clusters, also known as Metro Clusters

• Troubleshoot Oracle Clusterware using the most advanced diagnostics available

• Develop custom Oracle Real Application Clusters applications

Table of Contents

  1. Title Page
  2. Copyright Page
  3. Dedication
  4. About the Author
  5. Contents
  6. Foreword
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Introduction
  9. PART I High Availability Architecture and Clusters
    1. CHAPTER 1 Introduction to High Availability and Scalability
      1. High Availability
        1. HA Terminology
        2. Planned and Unplanned Outages
        3. An End-to-End Perspective
        4. Cost of Downtime
        5. Building Redundant Components
        6. Common Solutions for HA
        7. Cluster, Cold Failover, and Hot Failover
        8. HA Option Pros and Cons
      2. Scalability
      3. Oracle Real Application Clusters Solution
      4. Emerging Trends
        1. Oracle 11g Solutions
      5. In a Nutshell
    2. CHAPTER 2 Clustering Basics and History
      1. Grid Computing with Clusters
      2. Shared Storage in Clustering
        1. Types of Clustering Architectures
      3. History of Oracle RAC
        1. Oracle Parallel Storage Evaluation
      4. Oracle Parallel Server Architecture
      5. Components of an OPS Database
        1. Cluster Group Services (CGS)
        2. Distributed Lock Manager (DLM)
        3. Locking Concepts in Oracle Parallel Server
        4. Cache Fusion Stage 1, CR Server
        5. Limitations of Oracle Parallel Server
      6. The Oracle RAC Solution
        1. Availability
        2. Scalability
        3. Affordability
      7. In a Nutshell
    3. CHAPTER 3 Oracle RAC Architecture
      1. Single-Instance vs. Oracle RAC Environment
      2. Oracle RAC Components
        1. Shared Disk System
        2. Oracle Clusterware
        3. Oracle Clusterware Components
        4. Networking Stack Components
      3. Oracle Kernel Components
        1. Global Cache and Global Enqueue Services
        2. Global Resource Directory
        3. Oracle RAC Background Processes
      4. In a Nutshell
  10. PART II Installation, Configuration, and Storage
    1. CHAPTER 4 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
      1. Preinstallation Tasks
        1. Configuring the Network
        2. Setting Up the Groups and Users
        3. Configuring Shared Storage
        4. Secure Shell and User Limits Configuration
        5. Configuring the Kernel Parameters
        6. Oracle Validated Configuration RPM
        7. Running the Cluster Verification Utility
        8. Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
        9. Installing the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
      2. In a Nutshell
    2. CHAPTER 5 Oracle RAC Installation
      1. Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation
        1. Creating the Oracle RAC Database
      2. In a Nutshell
    3. CHAPTER 6 Automatic Storage Management
      1. Facts about Automatic Storage Management
        1. Physical Limits of ASM
        2. ASM in Operation
        3. ASM Building Blocks
      2. ASM Administration and Management
        1. ASM Instance Management
      3. ASM Tools
        1. ASMCA: The ASM Configuration Assistant
        2. ASMCMD: The ASM Command-Line Utility
        3. ASM FTP Utility
      4. ASMLib
        1. Installing ASMLib
        2. Configuring ASMLib
      5. In a Nutshell
  11. PART III Oracle RAC Administration and Management
    1. CHAPTER 7 Oracle RAC Basic Administration
      1. Initialization Parameters
        1. Unique Parameters
        2. Identical Parameters
        3. Instance-Specific Parameters
        4. Managing the Parameter File
      2. Starting and Stopping Instances
        1. Using srvctl to Start/Stop Instance(s)
        2. Using SQL*Plus to Start/Stop Instances
        3. Registering a Single-Instance Database in OCR Using SRVCTL
      3. Administering Undo
        1. Automatic Undo Management
        2. Manual Undo Management
      4. Administering a Temporary Tablespace
      5. Administering Online Redo Logs
        1. Enabling Archive Logs in the Oracle RAC Environment
      6. Enabling the Flashback Area
      7. Managing Database Configuration with SRVCTL
      8. Managing Database Objects
        1. Managing Tablespaces
        2. Managing Sequences
        3. Managing Tables
        4. Managing Indexes
        5. Scope of SQL Commands
        6. Database Connections
      9. In a Nutshell
    2. CHAPTER 8 Oracle RAC Advanced Administration
      1. Understanding Services
        1. Service Characteristics
      2. Administering Services
        1. Creating Services
      3. Administering SCAN
      4. Administering Cluster Ready Services
        1. Clusterware Startup Process (Oracle 11g R1)
        2. Clusterware Starting Sequence
        3. Oracle Clusterware Auto Startup
        4. Oracle Clusterware Manual Startup
        5. Starting and Stopping CRS (Oracle 11g R2)
        6. Verifying CRS
        7. Disabling and Enabling CRS
        8. CRS Utilities
      5. Administering OCR
      6. Administering Oracle Local Registry
      7. Administering the Voting Disk
      8. In a Nutshell
    3. CHAPTER 9 Oracle RAC Backup and Recovery
      1. Introduction to Backups
        1. Oracle Backup Options
      2. Oracle Backup Basics
        1. Performing Backups in Oracle
      3. Instance Recovery in Oracle RAC
        1. Redo Threads and Streams
        2. Redo Records and Change Vectors
        3. Checkpoints
      4. Crash Recovery
        1. Steps in Crash Recovery (Single Instance)
        2. Crash Recovery in Oracle RAC
      5. Instance Recovery
        1. Instance Recovery in OPS
        2. Instance Recovery in Oracle RAC
      6. Crash Recovery and Media Recovery
        1. Bounded Recovery
        2. Block Written Record (BWR)
        3. Past Image (PI)
        4. Two-Pass Recovery
        5. Cache Fusion Recovery
      7. Dynamic Reconfiguration and Affinity Remastering
        1. Fast Reconfiguration in Oracle RAC
        2. Internals of Cache Fusion Recovery
      8. Backup and Recovery of the Voting Disk and OCR
        1. Backup and Recovery of Voting Disks
        2. Backup and Recovery of OCR
      9. In a Nutshell
    4. CHAPTER 10 Oracle RAC Performance Management
      1. Oracle RAC Design Considerations
        1. Oracle Design Best Practices
        2. Oracle RAC–Specific Design Best Practices
      2. Partitioning the Workload
      3. Scalability and Performance
      4. Choosing the Block Size for an Oracle RAC Database
      5. Using Automatic Segment Space Management
        1. Limitations of ASSM
      6. Introduction to the V$ and GV$ Views
        1. V$ Views Containing Cache Fusion Statistics
      7. Oracle RAC Wait Events
        1. Understanding Cluster Waits
      8. Global Cache Statistics
        1. Global Cache Statistics Summary
      9. Global Cache Service Times
        1. Global Cache Service Times Summary
      10. Enqueue Tuning in Oracle RAC
      11. Oracle AWR Report
        1. Interpreting the AWR Report
        2. GCS and GES Messaging Statistics Section
        3. STATSPACK
        4. ADDM
      12. Tuning the Cluster Interconnect
        1. Verifying That Private Interconnect Is Used
        2. Interconnect Latencies
        3. Verifying That Network Interconnect Is Not Saturated
      13. In a Nutshell
  12. PART IV Advanced Concepts in Oracle RAC
    1. CHAPTER 11 Global Resource Directory
      1. Resources and Enqueues
        1. Grants and Conversions
        2. Locks and Enqueues
      2. Cache Coherency
      3. Global Enqueue Services
        1. Latches and Enqueues
        2. Global Locks Database and Structure
        3. Messaging in Oracle RAC
      4. Global Cache Services
        1. Lock Modes and Lock Roles
        2. Consistent Read Processing
        3. GCS Resource Mastering
        4. Read-Mostly Locking
      5. In a Nutshell
    2. CHAPTER 12 A Closer Look at Cache Fusion
      1. Key Components in Cache Fusion
        1. Ping
        2. Deferred Ping
        3. Past Image (PI) Blocks
        4. Lock Mastering
        5. Types of Contention
      2. Cache Fusion I or Consistent Read Server
      3. Cache Fusion II or Write/Write Cache Fusion
        1. Cache Fusion in Operation
        2. Cache Fusion Walkthrough
        3. Resource Mastering and Remastering
      4. Background Process and Cache Fusion
        1. LMON: Lock Monitor Process
        2. LMS: Lock Manager Server
        3. LMD: Lock Manager Daemon Process (LMDn)
        4. LCKn: Lock Process (LCK0)
        5. DIAG: Diagnostic Daemon (DIAG)
      5. In a Nutshell
    3. CHAPTER 13 Workload and Connection Management
      1. Workload Distribution and Load Balancing
        1. Hardware and Software Load Balancing
      2. Load Balancing and Oracle Net Services
        1. Client-Side Load Balancing
        2. Server-Side Load Balancing
      3. Transparent Application Failover
        1. TAF Considerations
      4. Workload Management
        1. Oracle Services
        2. Workload Balancing
        3. High Availability Features
      5. In a Nutshell
    4. CHAPTER 14 Oracle RAC Troubleshooting
      1. Installation Log Files
      2. Log Directory Structure in the Oracle RDBMS
      3. Log Directory Structure in Oracle Grid Infrastructure
      4. Troubleshooting a Failed Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
      5. Inside the Database Alert Log
      6. RAC ON and OFF
      7. Database Performance Issues
        1. Hung Database
      8. Debugging Node Eviction Issues
        1. Cluster Health Monitor
        2. Instance Membership Recovery
      9. Advanced Debugging for Oracle Clusterware Modules
      10. Debugging Various Utilities in Oracle RAC
      11. In a Nutshell
  13. PART V Deploying Oracle RAC
    1. CHAPTER 15 Extending Oracle RAC for Maximum Availability
      1. Extended Benefits
        1. Full Utilization of Resources
        2. Extreme Rapid Recovery
      2. Design Considerations
        1. Speed of Light
        2. Network Connectivity
        3. Cache Fusion Performance
        4. Data Storage
      3. Common Techniques for Data Mirroring
        1. Array-Based Mirroring
        2. Host-Based Mirroring
        3. ASM Preferred Read
        4. Challenges in Extended Clusters
      4. Extended Oracle RAC Limitations
      5. Extended Oracle RAC vs. Oracle Data Guard
      6. In a Nutshell
    2. CHAPTER 16 Developing Applications for Oracle RAC
      1. Application Partitioning
        1. Best Practice: Application Partitioning Schemes
      2. Data Partitioning
        1. Best Practice: Guidance Systems
      3. Buffer Busy Waits/Block Contention
      4. Index Partitioning
        1. Buffer Busy Waits: Index Branch/Leaf Blocks Contention
        2. Sorted Hash Clusters
      5. Working with Sequences
        1. CACHE and NOORDER
        2. CACHE and ORDER
        3. NOCACHE and ORDER
        4. Best Practice: Use Different Sequences for Each Instance
      6. Connection Management
      7. Full Table Scans
        1. Identifying Full Table Scans
        2. Interconnect Protocol
      8. Library Cache Effect in the Parsing
      9. Commit Frequency
      10. In a Nutshell
  14. PART VI Appendixes
    1. APPENDIX A Oracle RAC Reference
    2. APPENDIX B Adding and Removing Cluster Nodes
    3. APPENDIX C References
  15. Index