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Oracle Database 10g Real Application Clusters Handbook

Book Description

Learn cutting-edge technology from Oracle experts

Written by Oracle insiders, this comprehensive guide covers everything you need to know about Real Application Clusters -- low-cost hardware platforms that can rival and exceed the quality of service, availability, and scalability of the most expensive mainframe systems.

  • Concepts covered are applicable to all previous versions of Oracle

  • Tuning and troubleshooting tips, providing insight on the most advanced diagnostics available

  • Detailed coverage of advanced RAC concepts

  • Working code for all examples available online

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Oracle Database 10g Real Application Clusters Handbook
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Contents
  5. Acknowledgments
  6. Introduction
  7. Part I High Availability Architecture and Clusters
    1. 1 Introduction to High Availability and Scalability
      1. High Availability
        1. HA Terminology
        2. Planned and Unplanned Outages
        3. An End-End Perspective
        4. Cost of Downtime
        5. Building Redundant Components
        6. Common Solutions for HA
        7. Cluster, Cold Failover, and Hot Failover
        8. HA Option Pros and Cons
      2. Scalability
      3. Oracle Real Application Cluster Solution
      4. In a Nutshell
    2. 2 Clustering Basics and History
      1. Grid Computing with Clusters
      2. Shared Storage in Clustering
        1. Types of Clustering Architectures
      3. History of Oracle RAC
      4. Oracle Parallel Server Architecture
        1. Components of an OPS Database
        2. Limitations of Oracle Parallel Server
      5. The Oracle RAC Solution
        1. Availability
        2. Scalability
        3. Reliability
        4. Affordability
        5. Transparency
        6. Commoditization
      6. In a Nutshell
    3. 3 RAC Architecture
      1. Single Instance vs. RAC Environment
      2. RAC Components
        1. Shared Disk System
        2. Oracle Clusterware
        3. Cluster Interconnect
      3. Oracle Kernel Components
        1. Global Cache and Global Enqueue Services
        2. Global Resource Directory
        3. RAC Background Processes
      4. In a Nutshell
  8. Part II Installation, Configuration, and Storage
    1. 4 RAC Preinstallation
      1. Preinstallation Tasks
      2. Set up the Groups and Users
        1. Configure Raw Devices
        2. Secure Shell Configuration
        3. Configure the Kernel Parameters
        4. Configure the Hangcheck-Timer Modul
        5. Run the Cluster Verification Utility
        6. CRS Installation
        7. In a Nutshell
    2. 5 RAC Installation
      1. Automatic Storage Management
      2. Real Application Clusters Installatio
        1. Creating the RAC Database
      3. In a Nutshell
    3. 6 Automatic Storage Management
      1. Facts about Automatic Storage Management
        1. ASM Building Blocks
      2. ASM Administration and Management
        1. ASM Instance Management
      3. ASM Tools
        1. ASMCMD ASM Command-Line Utility
        2. ASM FTP Utility
      4. ASMLib
        1. Installing ASMLi
        2. Configuring ASMLib
      5. OCFS and ASM Comparison
      6. In a Nutshell
  9. Part III RAC Administration and Management
    1. 7 RAC Basic Administration
      1. Initialization Parameters
        1. Unique Parameters
        2. Identical Parameters
        3. Instance-Specific Parameters
        4. Managing the Parameter File
      2. Starting and Stopping Instance(s)
        1. Using srvctl to Start/Stop Instance(s)
        2. Using SQL *Plus to Start/Stop Instance(s)
      3. Administering Undo
        1. Automatic Undo Management
        2. Manual Undo Management
      4. Administering a Temporary Tablespace
      5. Administering Online Redologs
        1. Enabling Archive Logs in the RAC Environment
      6. Enabling the Flashback Area
      7. Managing Database Configuration with SRVCTL
      8. Managing Database Objects
        1. Managing Tablespaces
        2. Managing Sequences
        3. Managing Tables
        4. Managing Indexes
      9. In a Nutshell
    2. 8 RAC Advanced Administration
      1. Understanding Services
        1. Service Characteristics
      2. Administering Services
        1. Creating Services
      3. Administering Cluster Ready Services
        1. Starting and Stopping CRS—Oracle 10g R1
        2. Starting and Stopping CRS—Oracle 10g R2
        3. Disabling and Enabling CRS
        4. CRS Utilities
      4. Administering OCR
      5. Administering the Voting Disk
      6. In a Nutshell
    3. 9 RAC Backup and Recovery
      1. Introduction to Backups
        1. Oracle Backup Options
      2. Oracle Backup Basics
        1. Performing Backups in Oracle
      3. Instance Recovery in RAC
        1. Redo Threads and Streams
        2. Redo Records and Change Vectors
        3. Checkpoints
      4. Crash Recovery
        1. Steps in Crash Recovery (Single Instance)
        2. Crash Recovery in RAC
      5. Instance Recovery
        1. Instance Recovery in OPS
        2. Instance Recovery in RAC
      6. Crash Recovery and Media Recovery
        1. Bounded Recovery
        2. Block Written Record (BWR)
        3. Past Image (PI)
        4. Two–Pass Recovery
        5. Cache Fusion Recovery
      7. Dynamic Reconfiguration and Affinity Remastering
        1. Fast Reconfiguration in RAC
        2. Internals of Cache Fusion Recovery
      8. Backup and Recovery of the Voting Disk and OCR
        1. Backup and Recovery of Voting Disks
        2. Backup and Recovery of OCR
      9. In a Nutshell
    4. 10 RAC Performance Management
      1. RAC Design Considerations
        1. Oracle Design Best Practices
        2. RAC–Specific Design Best Practices
      2. Partitioning the Workload
      3. Scalability and Performance
      4. Choosing the Block Size for an RAC Database
      5. Using Automatic Segment Space Management
        1. Limitations of ASSM
      6. Introduction to V$ and GV$ Views
        1. V$ Views Containing Cache Fusion Statistics
      7. RAC Wait Events
      8. Enqueue Tuning in RAC
      9. AWR and STATSPACK
        1. Interpreting the AWR Report
      10. GCS and GES Messaging Statistics Section
        1. STATSPACK
      11. ADDM
      12. Tuning the Cluster Interconnect
        1. Verify That Private Interconnect Is Used
        2. Verify That Network Interconnect Is Not Saturated
      13. In a Nutshell
  10. Part IV Advanced Concepts in RAC
    1. 11 Global Resource Directory
      1. Cache Coherency
        1. Resources and Enqueues
      2. Global Enqueue Services
        1. Latches and Enqueues
        2. Global Locks Database and Structure
        3. Messaging in RAC
      3. Global Cache Services
        1. Lock Modes and Lock Roles
        2. Consistent Read Processing
        3. Lock Mastering and Remastering
      4. In a Nutshell
    2. 12 A Closer Look at Cache Fusion
      1. Key Components in Cache Fusion
        1. Ping
        2. Deferred Ping
        3. Past Image (PI) Blocks
        4. Lock Mastering
        5. Types of Contention
      2. Cache Fusion I or Consistent Read Server
      3. Cache Fusion II or Write/Write Cache Fusion
        1. Cache Fusion in Operation
        2. Cache Fusion Walkthrough
        3. Resource Mastering and Remastering
      4. Background Process and Cache Fusion
        1. LMON: Lock Monitor Process
        2. LMS: Lock Manager Server
        3. LMD: Lock Manager Daemon Process (LMDn)
        4. LCKn: Lock Process (LCK0)
        5. DIAG: Diagnostic Daemon (DIAG)
      5. In a Nutshell
    3. 13 Workload and Connection Management
      1. Workload Distribution and Load Balancing
        1. Hardware and Software Load Balancing
      2. Load Balancing and Oracle Net Services
        1. Client–Side Load Balancing
        2. Server–Side Load Balancing
      3. Transparent Application Failover
        1. TAF Considerations
      4. Workload Management
        1. Oracle Services
        2. Workload Balancing
        3. High Availability Features
      5. In a Nutshell
    4. 14 RAC Troubleshooting
      1. Log Directory Structure in Cluster Ready Services
      2. Log Directory Structure in the Oracle RDBMS
        1. The Lamport Algorithm
      3. RAC ON and OFF
      4. Database Performance Issues
        1. Hung Database
      5. Debugging Node Eviction Issues
        1. Instance Membership Recovery
        2. Debugging CRS and GSD Using DTRACING
      6. In a Nutshell
  11. Part V Deploying RAC
    1. 15 RAC Extensions
      1. Design Considerations
      2. Speed of Light
        1. Network Connectivity
        2. Data Storage
      3. Common Techniques for Data Mirroring
        1. Array–Based Mirroring
        2. Host–Based Mirroring
        3. Challenges in Extended Clusters
      4. Extended RAC Limitations
      5. Extended RAC vs. Data Guard
      6. In a Nutshell
    2. 16 Developing Applications for RAC
      1. Application Partitioning
        1. Best Practice: Application Partitioning Schemes
      2. Data Partitioning
        1. Best Practice: Guidance Systems
      3. Buffer Busy Waits/Block Contention
      4. Index Partitioning
        1. Buffer Busy Waits: Index Branch/Leaf Blocks Contention
        2. Sorted Hash Clusters
      5. Working with Sequences
        1. CACHE and NOORDER
        2. CACHE and ORDER
        3. NOCACHE and ORDER
        4. Best Practice: Use Different Sequences for Each Instance
      6. Connection Management
      7. Full Table Scans
        1. Identifying Full Table Scans
        2. Interconnect Protocol
      8. Library Cache Effect in the Parsing
      9. Commit Frequency
      10. In a Nutshell
  12. A RAC Reference
  13. B Adding and Removing Cluster Nodes
  14. C References
  15. Index