You are previewing Oracle Data Guard 11g Handbook.
O'Reilly logo
Oracle Data Guard 11g Handbook

Book Description

Master Oracle Data Guard 11g

Provide superior data protection, availability, and disaster recovery using the tested techniques in this Oracle Press guide. Cowritten by a team of Oracle experts, Oracle Data Guard 11g Handbook provides a sound architectural foundation along with best practices for configuration, monitoring, maintenance, and troubleshooting. You will get full details on implementing deployment architectures to address requirements that extend beyond disaster recovery. This invaluable resource also includes a complete set of monitoring scripts available for download.

• Develop a disaster recovery plan for your Oracle database to meet your organization's requirements

• Configure and deploy Oracle Data Guard for your environment

• Tune and troubleshoot your physical and logical standby databases

• Implement the Oracle Data Guard Broker management framework

• Integrate with Oracle Grid Control

• Monitor your Oracle Data Guard environment

• Enable read-only services and disaster recovery with Oracle Active Data Guard

• Configure seamless database and application failover

• Minimize planned downtime using Oracle Data Guard switchover

• Handle backup and recovery with Oracle Recovery Manager

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Oracle Data Guard 11g Handbook
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Contents
  5. Foreword
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Introduction
  8. 1 Data Guard Architecture
    1. Data Guard Overview
      1. What Is Redo?
    2. Redo Transport Services
      1. Synchronous Redo Transport
      2. Asynchronous Redo Transport
      3. Redo Transport Compression
      4. Automatic Gap Resolution
    3. Apply Services
      1. Redo Apply (Physical Standby)
      2. SQL Apply (Logical Standby)
      3. Can’t Decide? Then Use Both!
    4. Data Guard Protection Modes
      1. Maximum Performance
      2. Maximum Availability
      3. Maximum Protection
    5. Role Management Services
      1. Switchover
      2. Failover
    6. Data Guard Management
    7. Active Standby Databases
      1. Offload Read-Only Queries and Reporting
      2. Offload Backups
      3. Testing
    8. Data Guard and the Maximum Availability Architecture
    9. Conclusion
  9. 2 Implementing Oracle Data Guard
    1. Plan Before You Implement
      1. Determining Your Requirements
      2. Understanding the Configuration Options
      3. Relating the RPO and RTO to the Protection Mode
    2. Creating a Physical Standby Database
      1. Choosing Your Interface
      2. Before You Start
      3. Using Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control
      4. The Power User Method
    3. Creating a Logical Standby
    4. Data Guard and Oracle Real Application Clusters
    5. Conclusion
  10. 3 Redo Processing
    1. Important Concepts of Oracle Recovery
      1. ACID Properties
      2. Oracle Recovery
      3. Life of a Transaction
      4. Nologging Operations
    2. The Components of a Physical Standby
      1. Real-time Apply
      2. Scaling and Tuning Data Guard Apply Recovery
      3. Parallel Media Recovery
      4. Tools and Views for Monitoring Physical Standby Recovery
    3. Physical Standby Corruption Detection
      1. 11g New Data Protection Changes
      2. Data Protection and Checking on a Physical Standby
    4. Conclusion
  11. 4 Logical Standby
    1. Characterizing the Dataset Available at the Logical Standby
      1. Characterizing the Dataset Replicated from the Primary Database
      2. Protecting Replicated Tables on a Logical Standby
      3. Customizing Your Logical Standby Database (or Creating a Local Dataset at the Logical Standby)
      4. Understanding the Operational Aspects of a Logical Standby
      5. Looking Inside SQL Apply
    2. Tuning SQL Apply
      1. Some Rules of Thumb
      2. Determining Whether SQL Apply Is Lagging
      3. Determining Whether SQL Apply Is the Bottleneck
      4. Determining Which SQL Apply Component Is the Bottleneck
    3. Troubleshooting SQL Apply
      1. Understanding Restarts in SQL Apply
      2. Troubleshooting Stopped SQL Apply
    4. Conclusion
  12. 5 Implementing Oracle Data Guard Broker
    1. Overview of the Data Guard Broker
      1. The Broker Process Model
      2. The Broker Process Flow
      3. The Broker Configuration Files
      4. The Broker CLI
    2. Getting Started with the Broker
      1. Configuring the Broker Parameters
      2. The Broker and Oracle Net Services
      3. RAC and the Broker
      4. Connecting to the Broker
    3. Managing Data Guard with the Broker
      1. Creating and Enabling a Broker Configuration
      2. Changing the Broker Configuration Properties
      3. Changing the State of a Database
      4. Changing the Protection Mode
    4. Monitoring Data Guard Using the Broker
    5. Removing the Broker
    6. Conclusion
  13. 6 Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control Integration
    1. Accessing the Data Guard Features
      1. Configuring Data Guard Broker with OEM Grid Control
      2. Verify Configuration and Adding Standby Redo Logs
      3. Viewing Metrics
      4. Modifying Metrics
      5. Viewing the Alert Log File
      6. Enabling Flashback Database
      7. Reviewing Performance
      8. Changing Protection Modes
      9. Editing Standby Database Properties
      10. Performing a Switchover
      11. Performing a Manual Failover
      12. Fast-Start Failover
      13. Creating a Logical Standby
      14. Managing Active Standby
      15. Managing Snapshot Standby
      16. Removing a Standby Database from Broker Control
    2. Keeping an Eye on Availability
    3. Conclusion
  14. 7 Monitoring Data Guard Implementations
    1. Monitoring the Data Guard Environment
      1. Mining the Alert Log File (PS+LS)
      2. Gathering Statistical Information from Archive Log History (PS+LS)
      3. Detecting Archive Log Gaps (PS+LS)
      4. Identifying Delays in Redo Transport (PS)
      5. Monitoring Archive Log Destinations (PS+LS)
      6. Examining Apply Rate and Active Rate (PS)
      7. Reviewing Transport and Apply Lag (PS+LS)
      8. Determining the Current Time on the Standby Database (PS)
      9. Reporting the Status of Managed Recovery Process (PS)
    2. Data Guard Menu Utility
    3. Reviewing the Current Data Guard Environment
      1. Checking the Password File (PS+LS)
      2. Checking for Nologging Activities (PS+LS)
      3. Looking at Archivelog Mode and Destinations (PS+LS)
      4. Checking Standby File Management (PS)
      5. Revealing Errors in the Data Guard Status View (PS)
      6. Logical Standby Data Guard Menu
    4. Conclusion
  15. 8 Switchover and Failover
    1. Introduction to Role Transition
      1. Switchover
      2. Failover
      3. Switchover vs. Failover
    2. Flashback Technologies and Data Guard
    3. Performing a Switchover
      1. Configuration Completeness Check
      2. Preparatory Checks
      3. Preprocessing Steps
      4. Switching over to a Physical Standby
      5. Switching over to a Logical Standby
      6. Using the Broker or Grid Control to Switchover
      7. Switchover Health Check
    4. Performing a Failover
      1. Failing over to a Physical Standby
      2. Failing over to a Logical Standby
      3. Bringing Back the Old Primary
      4. Using the Broker or Grid Control to Failover
      5. Automatic Failover
    5. A Final Word on Multiple Standbys
    6. Conclusion
  16. 9 Active Data Guard
    1. Physical Standby—Open Read-Only
      1. Why Read-Only?
      2. The Downside of Read-Only or Read-Write Mode
    2. Snapshot Standby for QA and Test Environments
      1. Read Write Standby in Oracle Database 10g
      2. Snapshot Standbys in Oracle Database 11g
    3. Real Application Testing
      1. Database Replay
      2. SQL Performance Analyzer
    4. Active Data Guard
      1. Configuring Active Data Guard
    5. Conclusion
  17. 10 Automating Site and Client Failover
    1. Defining the Problem
      1. Complete Site Failover
      2. Partial Site Failover
    2. The Nitty Gritty
      1. Connection Load Balancing and Connect Time Failover
      2. Outbound Connect Timeout
      3. Transparent Application Failover
      4. Fast Application Notification
      5. The DB_ROLE_CHANGE System Event
    3. Implementing Client Failover
      1. Complete Site Failover Configuration
    4. Conclusion
  18. 11 Minimizing Planned Downtime Using Data Guard Switchover
    1. Overview of Planned Migration
    2. Leveraging Data Guard Switchover for Planned Migration
      1. Case 1–New Data Center
      2. Case 2–Move to ASM
    3. Performing a Database Rolling Upgrade Using Data Guard
      1. Leveraging Rolling Upgrades Using SQL Apply
      2. Rolling Upgrades Using Transient Logical Standby
    4. Conclusion
  19. 12 Backup and Recovery Considerations
    1. RMAN Basics
    2. RMAN Integration with Data Guard
      1. Block Change Tracking Support
      2. Control File Management
      3. Resynchronizing the RMAN Catalog
    3. RMAN Configuration in Data Guard
      1. Example Configuration for a Primary Database
      2. Example Configuration for a Backup Standby Database
      3. Example Configuration for Other Physical Standby Databases
    4. Backup Strategies
    5. Backup Scenarios
      1. Backup Database Not Backed Up
      2. Full Backups on Primary
      3. Backup as Copy
      4. Image Copy Rolled Forward
      5. Standby Database Creation
      6. Backups on a Standby Database
      7. Archive Backups
    6. General Recovery Strategies
      1. Media Failure
      2. Block Corruption
      3. User Errors
    7. Recovery Scenarios
      1. Loss of a Datafile on a Primary Database
      2. Loss of a Datafile on a Standby Database
      3. Loss of Standby Controlfile
      4. Loss of Primary Controlfile
      5. Loss of an Online Redo Log File
      6. Incomplete Recovery of the Primary Database
      7. Recovering from a Dropped Table
      8. Recover a Missing Datafile from a Backup Taken on the Standby
    8. General Best Practices
    9. Conclusion
  20. 13 Troubleshooting Data Guard
    1. Diagnostic Information
      1. Database Alert Logs
      2. Observer Log Files
      3. Data Guard Trace Files
      4. Data Guard Broker Log Files and Tools
      5. Dynamic Performance Views
    2. Data Guard Configuration and Management Errors
      1. Common Management Issues
      2. Physical Standby Issues
      3. Logical Standby Database Failures
      4. Switchover Issues
      5. Failover Issues
      6. Data Guard Broker Issues
      7. Errors Converting to a Snapshot Standby
    3. Helpful Hints and Tips
      1. Avoid Refreshing the Standby Control File
      2. Avoid Using the NOLOGGING Clause
      3. OMF—Copying Control File
    4. Conclusion
  21. 14 Deployment Architectures
    1. Manufacturing Company: HA Configuration
    2. Utility Company: Zero Data Loss HA/DR
    3. Retail Brokerage Firm: HA/DR with Zero Data Loss and Extended Geographic Separation
    4. Government Agency: Protection from Multi-site Threats
    5. Pharmaceutical Company: Centralized HA/DR and Data Distribution
    6. Web Retailer: HA/DR with Reader-farm Scale Out
    7. Insurance Company: Maximum Availability Architecture
    8. Conclusion
  22. A Data Guard vs. Array-based Remote Mirroring Solutions
    1. The Basics
    2. Topology
    3. Performance
    4. Reliability
    5. Final Thoughts
  23. Index
  24. Footnote
    1. ch01fn01
    2. ch01fn02
    3. ch01fn03
    4. ch01fn04
    5. ch01fn05
    6. ch01fn06
    7. ch01fn07
    8. ch01fn08
    9. ch01fn09
    10. ch01fn10
    11. ch01fn11
    12. ch01fn12
    13. ch01fn13
    14. ch01fn14
    15. ch01fn15
    16. ch02fn01
    17. ch02fn02
    18. ch02fn03
    19. ch02fn04
    20. ch02fn05
    21. ch02fn06
    22. ch02fn07
    23. ch02fn08
    24. ch02fn09
    25. ch02fn10
    26. ch02fn11
    27. ch02fn12
    28. ch02fn13
    29. ch02fn14
    30. ch02fn15
    31. ch02fn16
    32. ch02fn17
    33. ch02fn18
    34. ch02fn19
    35. ch03fn01
    36. ch03fn02
    37. ch04fn01
    38. ch04fn02
    39. ch04fn03
    40. ch04fn04
    41. ch04fn05
    42. ch04fn06
    43. ch04fn07
    44. ch04fn08
    45. ch04fn09
    46. ch04fn10
    47. ch04fn11
    48. ch04fn12
    49. ch04fn13
    50. ch04fn14
    51. ch04fn15
    52. ch04fn16
    53. ch04fn17
    54. ch04fn18
    55. ch04fn19
    56. ch04fn20
    57. ch04fn21
    58. ch04fn22
    59. ch04fn23
    60. ch04fn24
    61. ch04fn25
    62. ch04fn26
    63. ch04fn27
    64. ch04fn28
    65. ch04fn29
    66. ch04fn30
    67. ch04fn31
    68. ch04fn32
    69. ch04fn33
    70. ch04fn34
    71. ch04fn35
    72. ch05fn1
    73. ch06fn1
    74. ch06fn2
    75. ch06fn3
    76. ch06fn4
    77. ch07fn1
    78. ch08fn1
    79. ch08fn2
    80. ch08fn3
    81. ch09fn1
    82. ch09fn2
    83. ch09fn3
    84. ch11fn1
    85. ch11fn2
    86. ch11fn3
    87. ch11fn4
    88. ch11fn5
    89. ch12fn1
    90. ch12fn2
    91. ch13fn1
    92. ch13fn2
    93. ch14fn1
    94. ch14fn2
    95. ch14fn3
    96. ch14fn4
    97. ch14fn5
    98. ch14fn6
    99. ch14fn7