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Optimizing Citrix® XenDesktop® for High Performance

Book Description

Successfully deploy XenDesktop sites for a high performance Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI)

About This Book

  • Size the VDI environment so the administrator has breathing room to design and build their XenDesktop systems efficiently

  • Use desktop virtualization tools to provide users fast, convenient access to their Windows Desktops

  • Understand the key pinch points in the resource layers such as; the Client layer, Network Layer, Access Layer, Control Layer, Services Layer and Resources Layer

  • Who This Book Is For

    Citrix XenDesktop High Performance is written for administrators who would like to deploy Citrix XenDesktop in their enterprises with the aim of providing high efficiency. Basic familiarity with Citrix XenDesktop is assumed.

    What You Will Learn

  • Understand key concepts, terminology, and system requirements

  • Discover how components work in regards to virtualization and performance

  • Identify architectural resource layers and components

  • Explore the hypervisor virtualization software that runs on top of the hardware and learn how to tune it for maximum performance

  • Analyze client hardware and software, including thin clients and mobile devices

  • In Detail

    Citrix XenDesktop is a suite of desktop virtualization tools designed to provide users with fast and convenient access to their Windows desktops and applications through any device. Virtual desktops mean that rather than setting up hundreds or thousands of individual computers in an enterprise, companies can instead opt to create servers with large amounts of memory, disk, and processing resources, and use virtualization to offer these resources to end users. The result of this is that users are provided with an experience that appears to be identical to having an individual desktop PC. Each user has some disk space, processor time, and memory allocated to them, as though it is present on their own physical machine, when in reality, the resources are physically present on a centralized server.

    This book starts by answering the basic questions you need to ask when considering XenDesktop, followed by methods of how you can properly size your server infrastructure for XenDesktop. You’ll discover how to optimize the virtual machines used in XenDesktop, how to optimize your network for XenDesktop, and how to optimize the hypervisor and the cloud. You’ll also learn how to monitor XenDesktop to maximize performance.

    By the end of the book, you will be able to plan, design, build, and deploy high performance XenDesktop Virtualization systems in enterprises. You will also know how to monitor and maintain your systems to ensure smooth operation.

    Style and approach

    This book is an all-inclusive guide that uncovers hidden and previously unpublished performance improvement areas for any XenDesktop site.

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    Table of Contents

    1. Optimizing Citrix® XenDesktop® for High Performance
      1. Table of Contents
      2. Optimizing Citrix® XenDesktop® for High Performance
      3. Notice
      4. Credits
      5. About the Author
      6. About the Reviewers
      7. www.PacktPub.com
        1. Support files, eBooks, discount offers, and more
          1. Why subscribe?
          2. Free access for Packt account holders
      8. Preface
        1. What this book covers
        2. What you need for this book
        3. Who this book is for
        4. Conventions
        5. Reader feedback
        6. Customer support
          1. Downloading the example code
          2. Downloading the color images of this book
          3. Errata
          4. Piracy
          5. Questions
      9. 1. XenDesktop® Architecture
        1. Introduction
        2. Getting started with hypervisors
        3. Architecture
          1. The Clients layer
          2. The Network layer
          3. The Access layer
          4. The Control layer
          5. The Services layer
          6. The Resources layer
          7. The Storage System layer
          8. The Hypervisors layer
        4. Terminology and concepts
          1. Hyperthreading
          2. The server side
          3. The client side
          4. Virtual machine
            1. Server virtual machines
            2. Desktop virtual machines
            3. XenApp®
            4. EdgeSight®
            5. FlexCast®
        5. Components
          1. Citrix Receiver™
          2. Hypervisor
          3. NetScaler®
          4. StoreFront™
          5. Delivery Controller
          6. Studio
          7. Director
          8. The License Server
          9. Database
          10. Active Directory
          11. DHCP
          12. DNS
          13. Desktop
          14. Server
          15. Storage
            1. vDisk
            2. Personal vDisk
          16. Virtual Desktop Agent
        6. Summary
      10. 2. Sizing
        1. System requirements
          1. Citrix Receiver™
          2. StoreFront 3.x
          3. Database–Microsoft SQL Server
          4. Studio
          5. The Delivery Controller
          6. Director
          7. License Server 11.x
          8. NetScaler VPX™
          9. CloudBridge VPX™ (WAN Optimization)
          10. Virtual Delivery Agent
          11. Microsoft Active Directory
          12. Microsoft DHCP Server
          13. Microsoft DNS Server
        2. Hypervisor host
        3. XenDesktop® site sizing calculations
          1. Storage calculation
            1. vMem–memory calculation
            2. vCPU–CPU calculation
            3. vNIC–network bandwidth
          2. User type
            1. Small XenDesktop® site
            2. Medium XenDesktop® site
            3. Large XenDesktop® site
            4. Enterprise XenDesktop® site
        4. Summary
      11. 3. Hypervisors
        1. VMware rings
        2. XenServer® domains
        3. Hyper-V partitions
        4. Full virtualization
        5. Paravirtualization
        6. Hardware-assisted virtualization
        7. Hypervisor Tools
          1. VMware Tools
        8. XenServer® Tools
        9. Hyper-V Tools
        10. Summary
      12. 4. Memory Optimization
        1. XenDesktop® nugget
        2. Hypervisor memory optimization
        3. Memory
          1. VMware
            1. Memory overhead
            2. Transparent page sharing
            3. Ballooning
            4. Hypervisor swapping
            5. Compression
            6. How memory reclamation works
            7. Virtual machine memory allocation
          2. XenServer®
            1. Memory overhead
              1. Memory overhead calculation
            2. Dynamic Memory Control
              1. Dynamic memory mode
              2. Target memory mode
              3. Static Memory Maximum
          3. Hyper-V
            1. Memory overhead
            2. Static memory
            3. Dynamic memory
        4. Summary
      13. 5. Network Optimization
        1. XenDesktop® nugget
        2. Network virtualization
        3. Traffic separation
        4. QoS
          1. ICA/HDX virtual channels
          2. Multi-stream and multi-port
            1. Multi-stream policy settings
            2. Multi-stream registry settings
              1. Streams
              2. Virtual Channels
        5. Virtual networking
          1. Virtual Ethernet adapters
          2. Virtual Switches
        6. VMware virtual networking
          1. VM DirectPath I/O
          2. Network I/O Control
          3. VMXNET 3
          4. Large Receive Offload
          5. Port Groups
          6. Virtual Switch VLAN
          7. Virtual Guest VLAN Tagging
          8. External Switch Tagging
          9. NIC Teaming
            1. Load balancing
            2. Link aggregation
            3. Failover protection
          10. VMware networking maximums
          11. VMware networking tweaks
        7. XenServer® networking
          1. XenServer® networking maximums
          2. XenServer® networking tweaks
        8. Hyper-V networking
        9. Hyper-V networking maximums
        10. Hyper-V networking tweaks
        11. Summary
      14. 6. Storage Optimization
        1. XenDesktop® nugget
        2. Input/output operations per second
        3. Data de-duplication
        4. Personal vDisk
        5. Storage types
          1. Block versus file
            1. File storage types
            2. Block storage types
          2. Local versus network
            1. Local storage
            2. Network storage
            3. Hyper converged storage
            4. Redundant array of inexpensive disks
          3. Cloud storage technologies
        6. Storage virtualization
        7. VMware virtual storage
          1. Datastores
          2. Virtual machine filesystem
          3. Virtual machine storage
          4. vMotion
          5. VMware storage limits
            1. Virtual machine limits
            2. VMware ESXi host limits
        8. VMware storage tweaks
          1. VSAN
          2. vFRC
          3. CBRC
          4. Storage I/O Control
          5. I/O Analyzer
          6. SCSI Controller
        9. XenServer® virtual storage
          1. Repositories
          2. Blkfront, blkback, blktap, and tapdisk
          3. Tapdisk3
          4. Storage resource pools
          5. IntelliCache
          6. XenMotion®
          7. XenServer® storage limits
            1. Virtual machine limits
            2. XenServer® host limits
            3. XenServer® pool limits
            4. XenMotion® limits
        10. XenServer® storage tweaks
          1. Sanbolic Melio
          2. Workload balancer
          3. Storage buffer
          4. Blkback page pool size
          5. Blktap page pool size
          6. Communication rings
          7. I/O scheduler
        11. Hyper-V virtual storage
          1. Cluster Shared Volumes
          2. Resilient filesystem
          3. Live migration
          4. Storage spaces
          5. Tiered spaces
          6. Disk storage types
        12. Hyper-V storage limits
        13. Hyper-V storage tweaks
          1. SMB Direct
          2. Storage drivers
          3. Unnecessary protocols
          4. Default disk path
          5. Storage controller
          6. Disk storage type
          7. Storage QoS
        14. Summary
      15. 7. CPU Optimization
        1. XenDesktop® nugget
        2. Virtual CPUs
          1. Hyperthreading
          2. Non-uniform memory access
          3. Intel VT
          4. AMD-V
          5. CPU virtualization
        3. VMware virtual CPUs
          1. Shares, reservations, and limits
        4. VMware virtual CPU limits
          1. Virtual machine limits
          2. VMware ESXi host limits
        5. VMware vCPU tweaks
          1. Power management
          2. NUMA in VMware
          3. Latency sensitivity
        6. XenServer® virtual CPUs
        7. XenServer® virtual CPU limits
          1. Virtual machine limits
          2. Host limits
        8. XenServer® vCPU tweaks
          1. Disable power management
          2. Caps, pins, and weights
          3. CPU tools
          4. irqbalance
          5. numad
          6. The number of Dom0 vCPUs
          7. Netback threads
        9. Hyper-V virtual CPUs
        10. Hyper-V vCPU limits
          1. Virtual machine limits
          2. Host limits
        11. Hyper-V vCPU tweaks
          1. Integration services and Enlightened I/O
          2. Roles
          3. 64 versus 32
          4. 1:12 overcommit ratio
        12. Summary
      16. 8. Performance Monitoring
        1. XenDesktop® nugget
        2. The ICA protocol
        3. XenDesktop® Director and EdgeSight®
        4. Using HDX Insight™
        5. Third-party tools
          1. eG Innovations
        6. Lakeside software
        7. XenDesktop® performance metrics
        8. VMware monitoring tools
          1. GUI tools
          2. CLI tools
            1. vCLI
            2. PowerCLI
          3. esxtop
            1. Memory
            2. CPU
            3. Network
            4. Storage
        9. XenServer® monitoring tools
          1. GUI tools
          2. CLI tools
            1. Round Robin Databases
            2. xentop
              1. Memory
              2. CPU
              3. Network
              4. Storage
            3. xenmon
            4. xm
        10. Hyper-V monitoring tools
          1. GUI tools
            1. Hyper-V Manager
          2. CLI tools
            1. PowerShell library
            2. Resource metering
              1. Memory
              2. CPU
              3. Network
              4. Storage
        11. Load testing
        12. Summary
      17. 9. Acceleration
        1. XenDesktop® nugget
        2. Application Delivery Controllers
          1. Load balancer
          2. Secure ticket authority
          3. ADC caching
          4. ADC compression
        3. WAN Optimization Controllers
          1. WAN caching
          2. WAN compression
          3. WAN de-duplication
          4. WAN latency reduction
          5. WAN quality of service
          6. WAN protocol optimization
        4. Content Delivery Networks
          1. Virtual Desktop Infrastructure Content Delivery Network
        5. Three dimensional graphics and high definition
          1. HDX™
          2. HDX™ 3D
        6. Thin clients
        7. Summary
      18. 10. XenDesktop® Component Tweaks
        1. Citrix Receiver™ tweaks
          1. Caching
          2. Compression
          3. Keyboard and mouse
        2. Citrix® Virtual Desktop tweaks
        3. Citrix® StoreFront™ tweaks
          1. HTML5
          2. CRL checking
          3. Disable NetBIOS
          4. Socket pooling
          5. Application Initialization
        4. Citrix® Studio tweaks
          1. Database split
        5. Citrix® Director tweaks
          1. Pre-populate domain
          2. Session timeout
        6. Citrix® Delivery Controller tweaks
          1. SQL mirroring
          2. Connection Leasing
          3. Separate roles
        7. Citrix® License Server tweaks
        8. Active Directory tweaks
          1. Disable forest searching
        9. DHCP and DNS
        10. SQL databases
        11. Citrix Provisioning Services™
          1. Spanning Tree
          2. Large Send Offload
          3. Auto negotiation
          4. Stream service isolation
        12. Summary
      19. Index