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Optical Physics, Fourth Edition

Book Description

This fourth edition of a well-established textbook takes students from fundamental ideas to the most modern developments in optics. Illustrated with 400 figures, it contains numerous practical examples, many from student laboratory experiments and lecture demonstrations. Aimed at undergraduate and advanced courses on modern optics, it is ideal for scientists and engineers. The book covers the principles of geometrical and physical optics, leading into quantum optics, using mainly Fourier transforms and linear algebra. Chapters are supplemented with advanced topics and up-to-date applications, exposing readers to key research themes, including negative refractive index, surface plasmon resonance, phase retrieval in crystal diffraction and the Hubble telescope, photonic crystals, super-resolved imaging in biology, electromagnetically induced transparency, slow light and superluminal propagation, entangled photons and solar energy collectors. Solutions to the problems, simulation programs, key figures and further discussions of several topics are available at www.cambridge.org/lipson.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents
  6. Preface to the fourth edition
  7. Preface from the original edition
  8. 1 History of ideas
    1. 1.1 The nature of light
    2. 1.2 Speed of light
    3. 1.3 The nature of light waves: Transverse or longitudinal?
    4. 1.4 Quantum theory
    5. 1.5 Optical instruments
    6. 1.6 Coherence, holography and aperture synthesis
    7. 1.7 Lasers
    8. References
  9. 2 Waves
    1. 2.1 The non-dispersive wave equation in one dimension
    2. 2.2 Dispersive waves in a linear medium: The dispersion equation
    3. 2.3 Complex wavenumber, frequency and velocity
    4. 2.4 Group velocity
    5. 2.5 Waves in three dimensions
    6. 2.6 Waves in inhomogeneous media
    7. 2.7 Advanced topic: Propagation and distortion of a wave-group in a dispersive medium
    8. 2.8 Advanced topic: Gravitational lenses
    9. Chapter summary
    10. Problems
    11. References
  10. 3 Geometrical optics
    1. 3.1 The basic structure of optical imaging systems
    2. 3.2 Imaging by a single thin lens in air
    3. 3.3 Ray-tracing through simple systems
    4. 3.4 The matrix formalism of the Gaussian optics of axially symmetric refractive systems
    5. 3.5 Image formation
    6. 3.6 The cardinal points and planes
    7. 3.7 Aberrations
    8. 3.8 Advanced topic: The aplanatic objective
    9. 3.9 Advanced topic: Optical cavity resonators
    10. Chapter summary
    11. Problems
    12. References
  11. 4 Fourier theory
    1. 4.1 Analysis of periodic functions
    2. 4.2 Fourier analysis
    3. 4.3 Non-periodic functions
    4. 4.4 The Dirac δ-function
    5. 4.5 Transforms of complex functions
    6. 4.6 The Fourier inversion theorem
    7. 4.7 Convolution
    8. 4.8 Fourier transform of two- and three-dimensional lattices
    9. 4.9 Correlation functions
    10. 4.10 Advanced topic: Self-Fourier functions
    11. Chapter summary
    12. Appendix: Formal derivation of the reciprocal lattice in three dimensions
    13. Problems
    14. References
  12. 5 Electromagnetic waves
    1. 5.1 Maxwell’s equations and their development
    2. 5.2 Plane wave solutions of the wave equation
    3. 5.3 Radiation
    4. 5.4 Reflection and refraction at an abrupt interface between two media
    5. 5.5 Incidence in the denser medium
    6. 5.6 Electromagnetic waves incident on a conductor
    7. 5.7 Reciprocity and time reversal: The Stokes relationships
    8. 5.8 Momentum of an electromagnetic wave: Radiation pressure
    9. 5.9 Advanced topic: Angular momentum of a spiral wave
    10. 5.10 Advanced topic: Left-handed, or negative refractive index materials
    11. Chapter summary
    12. Problems
    13. References
  13. 6 Polarization and anisotropic media
    1. 6.1 Polarized light in isotropic media
    2. 6.2 Production of polarized light
    3. 6.3 Wave propagation in anisotropic media: A generalized approach
    4. 6.4 Electromagnetic waves in an anisotropic medium
    5. 6.5 Crystal optics
    6. 6.6 Uniaxial crystals
    7. 6.7 Interference figures: Picturing the anisotropic properties of a crystal
    8. 6.8 Applications of propagation in anisotropic media
    9. 6.9 Induced anisotropic behaviour
    10. 6.10 Advanced topic: Hyperbolic propagation in meta-materials
    11. Chapter summary
    12. Problems
    13. References
  14. 7 The scalar theory of diffraction
    1. 7.1 The scalar-wave theory of diffraction
    2. 7.2 Fresnel diffraction
    3. 7.3 Propagation of a Gaussian light beam
    4. 7.4 Fresnel diffraction by linear systems
    5. 7.5 Advanced topic: X-ray microscopy
    6. Chapter summary
    7. Appendix: The Huygens–Kirchhoff diffraction integral
    8. Problems
    9. References
  15. 8 Fraunhofer diffraction and interference
    1. 8.1 Fraunhofer diffraction in optics
    2. 8.2 Fraunhofer diffraction and Fourier transforms
    3. 8.3 Examples of Fraunhofer diffraction by one- and two-dimensional apertures
    4. 8.4 Some general diffraction principles
    5. 8.5 Interference
    6. 8.6 Three-dimensional interference
    7. 8.7 Inelastic scattering: The acousto-optic effect
    8. 8.8 Advanced topic: Phase retrieval in crystallography
    9. 8.9 Advanced topic: Phase retrieval in an optical system – the Hubble Space Telescope and COSTAR
    10. Chapter summary
    11. Problems
    12. References
  16. 9 Interferometry
    1. 9.1 Interference between coherent waves
    2. 9.2 Diffraction gratings
    3. 9.3 Two-beam interferometry
    4. 9.4 Common-path interferometers
    5. 9.5 Interference by multiple reflections
    6. 9.6 Advanced topic: Berry’s geometrical phase in interferometry
    7. 9.7 Advanced topic: The gravitational-wave detector LIGO
    8. Chapter summary
    9. Problems
    10. References
  17. 10 Optical waveguides and modulated media
    1. 10.1 Optical waveguides
    2. 10.2 Optical fibres
    3. 10.3 Propagation of waves in a modulated medium
    4. 10.4 Advanced topic: An omnidirectional reflector
    5. 10.5 Advanced topic: Photonic crystals
    6. Chapter summary
    7. Problems
    8. References
  18. 11 Coherence
    1. 11.1 Coherence of waves in space and time
    2. 11.2 Physical origin of linewidths
    3. 11.3 Quantification of the concept of coherence
    4. 11.4 Temporal coherence
    5. 11.5 Fourier transform spectroscopy
    6. 11.6 Spatial coherence
    7. 11.7 Fluctuations in light beams, classical photon statistics and their relationship to coherence
    8. 11.8 The application of coherence theory to astronomy: Aperture synthesis
    9. Chapter summary
    10. Problems
    11. References
  19. 12 Image formation
    1. 12.1 The diffraction theory of image formation
    2. 12.2 The resolution limit of optical instruments
    3. 12.3 The optical transfer function: A quantitative measure of the quality of an imaging system
    4. 12.4 Applications of the Abbe theory: Spatial filtering
    5. 12.5 Holography
    6. 12.6 Advanced topic: Surpassing the Abbe resolution limit – super-resolution
    7. 12.7 Advanced topic: Astronomical imaging by speckle interferometry
    8. Chapter summary
    9. Problems
    10. References
  20. 13 The classical theory of dispersion
    1. 13.1 Classical dispersion theory
    2. 13.2 Rayleigh scattering
    3. 13.3 Coherent scattering and dispersion
    4. 13.4 Dispersion relations
    5. 13.5 Group velocity in dispersive media: Superluminal velocities and slow light
    6. 13.6 Advanced topic: Non-linear optics
    7. 13.7 Advanced topic: Surface plasmons
    8. Chapter summary
    9. Problems
    10. References
  21. 14 Quantum optics and lasers
    1. 14.1 Quantization of the electromagnetic field
    2. 14.2 Plane wave modes in a linear cavity
    3. 14.3 Are photons real?
    4. 14.4 Interaction of light with matter
    5. 14.5 Lasers
    6. 14.6 Laser hardware
    7. 14.7 Laser light
    8. 14.8 Advanced topic: Resonant fluorescence and Rabi oscillations
    9. 14.9 Advanced topic: Electromagnetically induced transparency
    10. Chapter summary
    11. Problems
    12. References
  22. Appendix A Bessel functions in wave optics
  23. Appendix B Lecture demonstrations in Fourier optics
  24. Index