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Optical Methods for Data Processing in Heat and Fluid Flow

Book Description

Optical methods are now used routinely for the measurement of velocity, concentration, temperature, and other parameters in wide-ranging areas of industrial research and design such as IC engines, turbines, and combustors.

Recent advances such as the use of high-resolution CCD cameras and the extension of flow mapping to three dimensions, make optical tools such as particle image velocimetry increasingly viable for use in the industrial environment.

This excellent book presents new developments in optical diagnostic techniques in heat and fluid flow and offers an unparalleled opportunity for industrialists and academic researchers to exchange ideas.

CONTENTS INCLUDE:

  • Comparison of injector sprays for gasoline direct-injection engines

  • The design, development, and preliminary results from a high-speed, optically accessed, single cylinder engine

  • The reflected spectrum of complex multi-layered inhomogeneous highly scattering medium

  • Development of full volume digital holography for particle measurement

  • Improved liquid crystal thermography by using true-colour image processing technology

  • Development of an optical measuring technique for the study of acoustical phenomena

  • Spatio-temporal reconstruction of the unsteady wake of axisymmetric bluff bodies via time-recording DPIV

  • Application of particle image velocimetry to helicopter vortex interactions

  • Pulsed laser particle image velocimetry using a fibre-optic delivery system

  • Automated fringe analysis for profilometric mass-transfer experiments.

  • Table of Contents

    1. Cover Page
    2. Title Page
    3. Copyright
    4. Related Titles of Interest
    5. Contents
    6. Preface
    7. Section 1 Doppler Anemonmetry
      1. 1: Comparison of Injector Sprays for Gasoline Direct-injection Engines
        1. Abstract
        2. 1.1 Introduction
        3. 1.2 Spray measurement techniques
        4. 1.3 Injector spray tests into atmosphere
        5. 1.4 Cylinder pressure effects
        6. 1.5 Application to combustion chamber design
        7. 1.6 Conclusions
        8. References
      2. 2: Application of Laser Doppler Anemometry and Infrared Thermograph Methods for Measurements of Fluid Flow in a Small Transonic Channel
        1. Abstract
        2. Notation
        3. 2.1 Introduction
        4. 2.2 Experimental apparatus and measurement techniques
        5. 2.3 Results and Discussions
        6. 2.4 Conclusion
        7. References
        8. Bibliography
        9. Acknowledgements
      3. 3: An Experimental Investigation of the Flow Produced in a Rectangular Container by a Rotating Disc using LDA
        1. Abstract
        2. 3.1 Introduction
        3. 3.2 Experimental setup and measurement procedure
        4. 3.3 Doppler signal processing
        5. 3.4 Experimental results and discussion
        6. 3.5 Conclusion
        7. Acknowledgments
        8. References
      4. 4: The Design, Development, and Preliminary Results from a High-speed, Optically Accessed, Single-cylinder Engine
        1. Abstract
        2. 4.1 Introduction
        3. 4.2 Optical engine requirements
        4. 4.3 Engine design
        5. 4.4 Results
        6. 4.5 Conclusions
        7. References
        8. Bibliography
    8. Section 2 Laser Speckle and Holography
      1. 5: The Reflected Spectrum of Complex Multi-layered Inhomogeneous Highly Scattering Medium
        1. Abstract
        2. 5.1 Introduction
        3. 5.2 Monte Carlo technique
        4. 5.3 Skin model
        5. 5.4 Skin optics simulation
        6. 5.5 Results and discussion
        7. 5.6 Conclusions
        8. References
      2. 6: Digital Speckle Photography Applied to in Vivo Blood Micro-circulation Monitoring
        1. Synopsis
        2. 6.1 Introduction
        3. 6.2 Speckle photography technique
        4. 6.3 Bio-speckle formation and its dynamic behaviour
        5. 6.4 Cross correlation analysis and results
        6. 6.5 Conclusions
        7. 6.6 Acknowledgments
        8. References
      3. 7: Development of Full-volume Digital Holography for Particle Measurement
        1. Abstract
        2. Notation
        3. 7.1 Introduction
        4. 7.2 Basic concept
        5. 7.3 Numerical simulations
        6. 7.4 Experiments
        7. 7.5 Conclusions
        8. 7.6 References
      4. 8: A Particle Imaging and Analysis System for Underwater Holograms
        1. Abstract
        2. 8.1 Introduction
        3. 8.2 Sources of aberrations and noise
        4. 8.3 The ‘HoloCam’ underwater holocamera
        5. 8.4 The ‘HoloScan’ replay machine
        6. 8.5 Particle identification and organism classification
        7. Conclusions
        8. Acknowledgements
        9. References
    9. Section 3 Fluorescence, Phospherence, and Liquid Crystals
      1. 9: The Application of LIF to Study the Dispersion of a Surface Film due to Wave Breaking using a Two-camera System
        1. Abstract
        2. 9.1 Introduction
        3. 9.2 Experimental description
        4. 9.3 Preparation of LIF images
        5. 9.4 Conclusions
        6. Acknowledgements
        7. References
      2. 10: Thermographic Phosphor Thermometry – Recent Developments for Applications in Gas Turbines
        1. Abstract
        2. Notation
        3. 10.1 Introduction
        4. 10.2 Phosphor physics
        5. 10.3 Coating techniques
        6. 10.4 Experimental procedures
        7. 10.5 Results and discussion
        8. 10.6 Concluding remarks
        9. References
        10. Bibliography
      3. 11: Improved Liquid Crystal Thermography by using True-colour Image Processing Technology
        1. Abstract
        2. 11.1 Introduction
        3. 11.2 Experimental arrangement and measurement
        4. 11.3 Calibration of liquid crystals
        5. 11.4 Results
        6. 11.5 Conclusions
        7. Acknowledgement
        8. References
      4. 12: Development of an Optical Measuring Technique for the Study of Acoustical Phenomena
        1. Abstract
        2. 12.1 Introduction
        3. 12.2 Radiation stress
        4. 12.3 Fluorescent dye velocimetry
        5. 12.4 Conclusion
        6. References
      5. 13: A Study of the Flow Structure in the Near-wall Region of a Complex-shaped Channel using Liquid Crystals
        1. Abstract
        2. 13.1 Introduction
        3. 13.2 Experimental setup and model
        4. 13.3 Experimental procedure and results
        5. Conclusions
        6. References
    10. Section 4 PIV
      1. 14: Spatio-temporal Reconstruction of the Unsteady Wake of Axi-symmetric Bluff Bodies via Time-recording DPIV
        1. Introduction
        2. 14.1 Experimental set-up
        3. 14.2 Results
        4. 14.3 Conclusion
        5. References
      2. 15: The Measurement of the Velocity Field around a Ship Hull Model in a Towing Tank using PIV Method
        1. Abstract
        2. 15.1 Introduction
        3. 15.2 Experimental investigation of the flow around a ship hull model
        4. 15.3 PIV Method
        5. 15.4 Discussion of the results
        6. 15.5 Conclusions
        7. References
      3. 16: Velocity Measurements in Impinging Turbulent Jets using Digital Particle Image Velocimetry
        1. Abstract
        2. 16.1 Introduction
        3. 16.2 Experimental work
        4. 16.3 Results and discussion
        5. 16.4 Conclusions
        6. References
      4. 17: Application of Particle Image Velocimetry to Helicopter Vortex Interactions
        1. Abstract
        2. 17.1 Introduction
        3. 17.2 Experimental method
        4. 17.3 Results
        5. 17.4 Discussion
        6. 17.5 Conclusions
        7. 17.6 Acknowledgements
        8. References
    11. Section 5 Multi-phase flow analysis
      1. 18: Recognition of Two-phase Flow Patterns with the use of Dynamic Image Analysis
        1. Abstract
        2. 18.1 Introduction
        3. 18.2 Basic concept
        4. 18.3 Gas–liquid flow
        5. 18.4 Conclusions
        6. 18.5 References
      2. 19: Gas/Liquid Mixing: Simultaneous PIV Measurements of Two Phases Mixing Together; High-pressure Spray Application
        1. Abstract
        2. 19.1 Introduction
        3. 19.2 Experimental procedure
        4. 19.3 Results
        5. 19.4 Conclusions
        6. 19.5 References
      3. 20: Flame Visualization Enhancement by Image Processing
        1. Abstract
        2. 20.1 Introduction
        3. 20.2 Experimental setup
        4. 20.3 Data evaluation by image processing
        5. 20.4 Conclusions
        6. References
        7. Bibliography
      4. 21: Optical Diagnostics – Automatic Data Processing and Application in Fundamental Studies and Control Systems
        1. Abstract
        2. 21.1 Introduction
        3. 21.2 Experimental apparatus
        4. 21.3 Interferometric techniques in combustion research
        5. 21.4 An integral approach: the determination of integral characteristics of burning gaseous phase
        6. 21.5 Image decoding and analysis
        7. 21.6 Concluding remarks
        8. Acknowledgments
        9. References
      5. 22: Application of Physical Modelling to Study Combustion Processes and Flow Patterns in Large-scale Boilers and Furnaces
        1. Abstract
        2. 22.1 Introduction
        3. 22.2 Physical modelling
        4. 22.3 Application of physical modelling to optimizations and redesign of industrial boilers
        5. 22.4 Activities of the Heat Technology Department at TUG
        6. 22.5 Summary
        7. 22.6 Acknowledgement
        8. References
        9. Bibliography
      6. 23: Pulsed Laser Particle Image Velocimetry using a Fibre-optic Delivery System
        1. Abstract
        2. 23.1 Introduction
        3. 23.2 Experimental setup
        4. 23.3 Image acquisition setup
        5. 23.4 Fibre optic delivery
        6. 23.5 Results
        7. 23.6 Conclusions
        8. References
      7. 24: Automated Fringe Analysis for Profilometric Mass-transfer Experiments
        1. Abstract
        2. 24.1 Introduction
        3. 24.2 Fringe interpretation in mass transfer experiments
        4. 24.3 Automated analysis
        5. 24.4 Example
        6. Conclusions
        7. References
    12. Authors' Index