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Optical Fiber Telecommunications Volume VIB, 6th Edition by Alan E. Willner, Tingye Li, Ivan Kaminow

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Chapter 7

Extremely Higher-Order Modulation Formats

Masataka Nakazawa, Toshihiko Hirooka, Masato Yoshida and Keisuke Kasai,    Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan

7.1 Introduction

The capacity of the optical communication infrastructure in backbone networks has increased a 1000-fold over the last 20 years. This has been made possible by the development of the EDFA and WDM in the 1990s. Despite such rapid progress, the Internet traffic is still growing at an annual rate of 40%, driven by innovative new services such as real-time video streaming, 3-D and ultra-realistic transmission, and cloud computing. This means that in 20 years we will need Peta bit/s or even Exa bit/s ...

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