You are previewing Optical CDMA Networks: Principles, Analysis and Applications.
O'Reilly logo
Optical CDMA Networks: Principles, Analysis and Applications

Book Description

This book focuses heavily on the principles, analysis and applications of code-division multiple-access (CDMA) techniques in optical communication systems and networks.

In this book, the authors intimately discuss modern optical networks and their applications in current and emerging communication technologies, evaluating the quality, speed and number of supported services. In particular, principles and fundamentals of optical CDMA techniques from beginner to advanced levels are heavily covered. Furthermore, the authors concentrate on methods and techniques of various encoding and decoding schemes and their structures, as well as analysis of optical CDMA systems with various transceiver models including advanced multi-level incoherent and coherent modulations with the architecture of access/aggregation networks in mind. Moreover, authors examine intriguing topics of optical CDMA networking, compatibility with IP networks, and implementation of optical multi-rate multi-service CDMA networks.

Key features:

  • Expanded coverage of optical CDMA networks, starts from principles and fundamentals

  • Comprehensive mathematical modelling and analysis from signal to system levels

  • Addresses the applications of modern optical networking in the current and emerging communication technologies

  • Greater focus on advanced optical multi-level incoherent and coherent modulations, spreading codes, and transceiver designs

  • Detailed hardware specifications, system-level block diagrams, and network nodes' functionalities

  • This book appeals to researchers, practicing engineers, and advanced students. It is a practical resource for readers with an interest in optical communications and networks.

    Table of Contents

    1. Cover
    2. Title Page
    3. Copyright
    4. Dedication
    5. List of Figures
    6. List of Tables
    7. Preface
    8. Acknowledgements
    9. Chapter 1: Introduction to Optical Communications
      1. 1.1 Evolution of Lightwave Technology
      2. 1.2 Laser Technologies
      3. 1.3 Optical Fibre Communication Systems
      4. 1.4 Lightwave Technology in Future
      5. 1.5 Optical Lightwave Spectrum
      6. 1.6 Optical Fibre Transmission
      7. 1.7 Multiple Access Techniques
        1. 1.7.1 Wavelength Division Multiple Access (WDMA)
        2. 1.7.2 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
        3. 1.7.3 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
      8. 1.8 Spread Spectrum Communications Techniques
        1. 1.8.1 Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum (DS-SS)
        2. 1.8.2 CDMA and DS-SS
        3. 1.8.3 Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum (FH-SS)
        4. 1.8.4 CDMA and FH-SS
      9. 1.9 Motivations for Optical CDMA Communications
      10. 1.10 Access Networks Challenges
      11. 1.11 Summary
      12. References
    10. Chapter 2: Optical Spreading Codes
      1. 2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2 Bipolar Codes
        1. 2.2.1 m-Sequence Codes
        2. 2.2.2 Gold Sequences
        3. 2.2.3 Walsh–Hadamard Codes
      3. 2.3 Unipolar Codes: Optical Orthogonal Codes
      4. 2.4 Unipolar Codes: Prime Code Families
        1. 2.4.1 Prime Codes
        2. 2.4.2 Modified Prime Codes (MPC)
        3. 2.4.3 The New-Modified Prime Code (n-MPC)
        4. 2.4.4 Padded Modified Prime Codes
        5. 2.4.5 Group Padded Modified Prime Code (GPMPC)
        6. 2.4.6 Transposed Modified Prime Codes
      5. 2.5 Codes with Ideal In-Phase Cross-Correlation
        1. 2.5.1 Finite Fields
        2. 2.5.2 Balanced Incomplete Block Design Codes
        3. 2.5.3 Modified Quadratic Congruence Codes
        4. 2.5.4 Modified Frequency-Hopping Codes
        5. 2.5.5 Codes Evaluation and Comparison
      6. 2.6 Multidimensional Optical Codes
        1. 2.6.1 Two-Dimensional Optical Spreading Codes
      7. 2.7 Channel Encoding in OCDMA Systems
        1. 2.7.1 Manchester Codes
        2. 2.7.2 Convolutional Codes
        3. 2.7.3 Turbo Codes
        4. 2.7.4 Turbo Decoding Algorithms
      8. 2.8 Turbo-Coded Optical CDMA
        1. 2.8.1 Turbo-Coded Optical CDMA Transceivers
        2. 2.8.2 Analysis of Uncoded OCDMA
        3. 2.8.3 Analysis of Turbo-Coded OCDMA
      9. 2.9 Summary
      10. References
    11. Chapter 3: Optical CDMA Review
      1. 3.1 Introduction
      2. 3.2 Optical Coding Principles
      3. 3.3 OCDMA Networking: Users Are Codes
        1. 3.3.1 From LAN to PON
        2. 3.3.2 OCDMA for Access Networks
      4. 3.4 Optical CDMA Techniques
        1. 3.4.1 Coherent vs. Incoherent OCDMA
        2. 3.4.2 Synchronous vs. Asynchronous OCDMA
        3. 3.4.3 Wavelength-Hopping Coding
        4. 3.4.4 Spectral Phase Coding (SPC)
        5. 3.4.5 Spectral-Amplitude-Coding (SAC)
        6. 3.4.6 Time-Spreading Coding
      5. 3.5 Free-Space and Atmospheric Optical CDMA
      6. 3.6 Summary
      7. References
    12. Chapter 4: Spectrally Encoded OCDMA Networks
      1. 4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2 Spectral-Amplitude-Coding Schemes
        1. 4.2.1 Arrayed Waveguide Gratings (AWGs)
        2. 4.2.2 Acoustically Tuneable Optical Filters (ATOF)
        3. 4.2.3 Fibre Bragg Gratings
      3. 4.3 System Considerations
        1. 4.3.1 Tuneable Range
        2. 4.3.2 Bit Rate Limitation
        3. 4.3.3 Low-Cost Structure by Using Couplers
        4. 4.3.4 Noise Sources at the Receivers
      4. 4.4 Gaussian Approach Analysis
        1. 4.4.1 Optimal Threshold
        2. 4.4.2 Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Bit-Error Rate
      5. 4.5 Negative Binomial Approach Analysis
        1. 4.5.1 NB Distribution with Hadamard Encoding
        2. 4.5.2 NB Distribution with MQC Encoding
      6. 4.6 Spectral-Phase-Coding Schemes
      7. 4.7 Summary
      8. References
    13. Chapter 5: Incoherent Temporal OCDMA Networks
      1. 5.1 Introduction
      2. 5.2 PPM-OCDMA Signalling
      3. 5.3 PPM-OCDMA Transceiver Architecture
        1. 5.3.1 PPM-OCDMA Transmitter Architectures
        2. 5.3.2 PPM-OCDMA Receiver Architectures
      4. 5.4 PPM-OCDMA Performance Analysis
        1. 5.4.1 Analysis of Simple Receiver
        2. 5.4.2 Analysis of Receiver with MAI Cancellation and Manchester Encoding
        3. 5.4.3 Analysis of a Receiver with MAI Cancellation
      5. 5.5 Discussion of Results
        1. 5.5.1 BER Against Received Signal Power
        2. 5.5.2 BER Against Number of Active Users
        3. 5.5.3 BER Against Prime Number
      6. 5.6 Overlapping PPM-OCDMA Signalling
      7. 5.7 OPPM-OCDMA Transceiver Architecture
        1. 5.7.1 OPPM-OCDMA Transmitter Architectures
        2. 5.7.2 OPPM-OCDMA Receiver Architectures
      8. 5.8 OPPM-OCDMA Performance Analysis
        1. 5.8.1 Analysis of Simple Receiver
        2. 5.8.2 Analysis of Receiver with MAI Cancellation
        3. 5.8.3 Analysis of Receiver with MAI Cancellation and Manchester Encoding
        4. 5.8.4 Analysis of Self-Interferences (SI)
      9. 5.9 Discussion of Results
        1. 5.9.1 BER Performance of Receivers with MAI
        2. 5.9.2 BER Performance of Receivers with MAI and SI
      10. 5.10 Analysis of Throughput
        1. 5.10.1 OPPM-OCDMA Throughput
        2. 5.10.2 PPM-OCDMA Throughput
      11. 5.11 Summary
      12. References
    14. Chapter 6: Coherent Temporal OCDMA Networks
      1. 6.1 Introduction
      2. 6.2 Coherent Homodyne BPSK-OCDMA Architecture
        1. 6.2.1 Analysis of Phase Modulation with MZI
        2. 6.2.2 Analysis of Phase Modulation with DFB Injection-Locking
      3. 6.3 Coherent Heterodyne BPSK-OCDMA Architecture
        1. 6.3.1 Analysis of Phase Modulation with MZI
      4. 6.4 Summary
      5. References
    15. Chapter 7: Hybrid Temporal Coherent and Incoherent OCDMA Networks
      1. 7.1 Introduction
      2. 7.2 Coherent Transmitter with Incoherent Receiver
        1. 7.2.1 Interference Cancellation Technique
      3. 7.3 Analysis of Transceivers with MAI Cancellation
      4. 7.4 Results and Throughput Analysis
      5. 7.5 Summary
      6. References
    16. Chapter 8: Optical CDMA with Polarization Modulations
      1. 8.1 Introduction
      2. 8.2 Optical Polarization Shift Keying (PolSK)
        1. 8.2.1 Theory of Polarization Modulation
        2. 8.2.2 Laser Phase Noise
        3. 8.2.3 Self-Phase Modulation
        4. 8.2.4 Polarization Fluctuation
        5. 8.2.5 Polarization Dependent Loss
      3. 8.3 PolSK-OCDMA Transceiver Architecture
        1. 8.3.1 Signals and System Configuration
        2. 8.3.2 Decision Rule Analysis at PolSK-OCDMA Receiver
        3. 8.3.3 PolSK-OCDMA Signal Processing
      4. 8.4 Evaluation of PolSK-OCDMA Transceiver Performance
      5. 8.5 Transceiver Architecture for Hybrid F-PolSK-OCDMA
        1. 8.5.1 Transmitter Configuration
        2. 8.5.2 Receiver Configuration and Signal Processing
        3. 8.5.3 Analysis of Receivers Error Probability
      6. 8.6 Performance of F-PolSK-OCDMA Transceiver
      7. 8.7 Long-Haul PolSK Transmission
        1. 8.7.1 Direct-Detection PolSK
        2. 8.7.2 Noises in Polarization Modulated Systems
      8. 8.8 Summary
      9. References
    17. Chapter 9: Optical CDMA Networking
      1. 9.1 Introduction
        1. 9.1.1 Current Solutions
        2. 9.1.2 Next Generation Networks (NGN)
      2. 9.2 OCDMA-PON
      3. 9.3 OCDMA-PON Architecture
        1. 9.3.1 OCDMA-PON Transmission Analysis
        2. 9.3.2 Performance Discussion of OCDMA-PON
      4. 9.4 IP Traffic over OCDMA Networks
        1. 9.4.1 IP Transmission over OCDMA Network
        2. 9.4.2 Analysis of IP over OCDMA
        3. 9.4.3 Performance of IP over OCDMA
      5. 9.5 Random Access Protocols
        1. 9.5.1 Random Access Protocol Algorithms
        2. 9.5.2 Network Performance Metrics
        3. 9.5.3 Performance of Prime Code Families in Random Access Protocols
      6. 9.6 Multi-Protocol Label Switching
        1. 9.6.1 MPLS Fundamentals
        2. 9.6.2 Optical MPLS Techniques
        3. 9.6.3 Generalized MPLS (GMPLS)
      7. 9.7 Summary
      8. References
    18. Chapter 10: Services Differentiation and Quality of Services in Optical CDMA Networks
      1. 10.1 Introduction
      2. 10.2 Differentiated Services in Optical CDMA
      3. 10.3 Variable-Weight Optical Spreading Codes
        1. 10.3.1 Distinct Set Approach
        2. 10.3.2 Random Approach
        3. 10.3.3 Performance Analysis
      4. 10.4 Variable-Length Optical Spreading Codes
        1. 10.4.1 Performance Analysis
      5. 10.5 Multirate Differentiated Services in OCDMA Networks
        1. 10.5.1 Performance Analysis
      6. 10.6 Summary
      7. References
    19. Index