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Operational Amplifier Noise

Book Description

Arthur Kay’s exciting new publication is a must have for practicing, professional electrical engineers. This comprehensive guide shows engineers how to design amplifiers and associated electronics to minimize noise, providing tricks, rules-of-thumb, and analysis to create successful low noise circuits. Forget the classical textbook traps of equations, virtual grounds, and a lot of double-speak, the novel but educational presentation used here uses definition-by -example and straight-forward analysis. This is the ultimate reference book for engineers who don't have the time to read, since the concepts are presented in detailed pictures and then repeated in the text for those who like both.

Operational amplifiers play a vital role in modern electronics design. Today, op amps serve as the interfaces between the digital world of microprocessors, microcontrollers, and other digital circuits and the analog "real world". If an analog signal must be amplified, conditioned, filtered, or converted to be used by a digital system, an op amp is almost always involved. Noise is an unwanted signal that will corrupt or distort the desired signal, and veteran engineers as well as new college graduates are often faced with a lack of experience in noise analysis for operational amplifiers. The author has created a publication that is packed with essential information, while still being accessible to all readers.



* Clear, definition-by-example presentation allows for immediate use of techniques introduced;
* Tricks and rules-of-thumb, derived from author's decades of experience;
* Extreme use of figures for rapid absorption of concepts;
* Concise text explains the key points in all figures;
* Accessible to all types of readers;
* Analysis and design of low-noise circuits using op amps, including design tradeoffs for low-noise;
* Desktop reference for designing low-noise op amp circuits for novice to experienced engineers;
* Accurate measurement and prediction of intrinsic noise levels, using analysis by hand and SPICE simulation

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Image
  2. Content
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Preface
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Chapter 1. Introduction and Review of Statistics
    1. 1.1 Time Domain View of Noise
    2. 1.2 Statistical View of Noise
    3. 1.3 Frequency Domain View of Noise
    4. 1.4 Converting Spectral Density to RMS Noise
    5. Chapter Summary
    6. Questions
    7. Further Reading
  8. Chapter 2. Introduction to Op-Amp Noise
    1. 2.1 Op-Amp Noise Analysis Technique
    2. 2.2 Introducing the Op-Amp Noise Model
    3. 2.3 Noise Bandwidth
    4. 2.4 Broadband RMS Noise Calculation
    5. 2.5 1/f RMS Noise Calculation
    6. 2.6 Combining Flicker and Broadband Noise
    7. 2.7 Noise Model for Example Circuit
    8. 2.8 Noise Gain
    9. 2.9 Converting Current Noise to Voltage Noise
    10. 2.10 Including the Effect of Thermal Noise
    11. 2.11 Combining All the Noise Sources and Computing Peak-to-Peak Output Noise
    12. 2.12 Derivation of Key Noise Formulas
    13. Chapter Summary
    14. Questions
    15. Further Reading
  9. Chapter 3. Op-Amp Noise Example Calculations
    1. 3.1 Example Calculation #1: OPA627 Noninverting Amplifier
    2. 3.2 Compute the Noise Bandwidth
    3. 3.3 Get Key Noise Specifications from the Data Sheet
    4. 3.4 Compute Total Op-Amp Voltage Noise Contribution
    5. 3.5 Compute Total Thermal Noise Contribution
    6. 3.6 Combine All the Noise Sources and Compute Peak-to-Peak Output
    7. 3.7 Example Calculation #2: Two-Stage Amplifier
    8. Chapter Summary
    9. Questions
    10. Further Reading
  10. Chapter 4. Introduction to Spice Noise Analysis
    1. 4.1 Running a Noise Analysis in TINA Spice
    2. 4.2 Test the Op-Amp Model Noise Accuracy
    3. 4.3 Build Your Own Noise Model
    4. 4.4 Use TINA to Analyze the Circuit Given in Chapter 3
    5. 4.5 Feedback Capacitor Simulation Example
    6. Chapter Summary
    7. Questions
    8. Further Reading
  11. Chapter 5. Introduction to Noise Measurement
    1. 5.1 Equipment for Measuring Noise: True RMS DMM
    2. 5.2 Equipment for Measuring Noise: Oscilloscope
    3. 5.3 Equipment for Measuring Noise: Spectrum Analyzer
    4. 5.4 Shielding
    5. 5.5 Verify the Noise Floor
    6. 5.6 Account for the Noise Floor
    7. 5.7 Measure Example Circuit #1 Using a True RMS Meter
    8. 5.8 Measure Example Circuit #1 Using an Oscilloscope
    9. 5.9 Measure Example Circuit #1 Using a Spectrum Analyzer
    10. 5.10 Measure Low Frequency Noise for the OPA227
    11. 5.11 Offset Temperature Drift vs. 1/f Noise in Low-Frequency Noise Measurement
    12. Chapter Summary
    13. Questions
    14. Further Reading
  12. Chapter 6. Noise Inside the Amplifier
    1. 6.1 Five Rules of Thumb for Worst-Case Noise Analysis and Design
    2. 6.2 Detailed Mathematics for Bipolar Noise
    3. 6.3 Detailed Mathematics for FET Noise
    4. 6.4 Simplified Physical Connection Inside Amplifier
    5. Chapter Summary
    6. Questions
    7. Further Reading
  13. Chapter 7. Popcorn Noise
    1. 7.1 Review of 1/f and Broadband Noise
    2. 7.2 What Is Popcorn Noise
    3. 7.3 What Causes Popcorn Noise?
    4. 7.4 How Common Is the Problem?
    5. 7.5 Popcorn Noise—Current or Voltage Noise?
    6. 7.6 Bench and Production Test for Voltage Popcorn Noise
    7. 7.7 Bench and Production Test for Current Popcorn Noise
    8. 7.8 Analyzing the Popcorn Noise Data
    9. 7.9 Setting Limits to a Popcorn Noise Test
    10. 7.10 When Is Popcorn Noise a Concern?
    11. Chapter Summary
    12. Questions
    13. Further Reading
  14. Chapter 8. 1/f Noise and Zero-Drift Amplifiers
    1. 8.1 Zero-Drift Amplifiers
    2. 8.2 Zero-Drift Amplifier Spectral Density Curve
    3. 8.3 Low-Frequency Noise
    4. 8.4 Measuring Low-Frequency Noise
    5. Chapter Summary
    6. Questions
    7. Further Reading
  15. Chapter 9. Instrumentation Amplifier Noise
    1. 9.1 Short Review of Three Amp Instrumentation Amplifier
    2. 9.2 Noise Model of Three Amp Instrumentation Amplifier
    3. 9.3 Hand Analysis of Three Amp Instrumentation Amplifier
    4. 9.4 Simulation of Three Amp Instrumentation Amplifier
    5. 9.5 Reducing Noise with Averaging Circuit
    6. Chapter Summary
    7. Questions
    8. Further Reading
  16. Chapter 10. Photodiode Amplifier Noise
    1. 10.1 Introduction to Photodiodes
    2. 10.2 The Simple Transimpedance Amplifier
    3. 10.3 Photodiode Current Noise
    4. 10.4 Thermal Noise from Rf
    5. 10.5 Noise from Op-amp Voltage Noise Source
    6. 10.6 Total Noise (Op-amp, Diode, and Resistance)
    7. 10.7 Stability of Transimpedance Amplifier
    8. Chapter Summary
    9. Questions
    10. Further Reading
  17. Chapter 11. Photodiode Noise Amplifier Example Results
    1. 11.1 Photodiode Example Specifications
    2. 11.2 Photodiode Current Noise Calculations
    3. 11.3 Op-amp Specifications
    4. 11.4 Op-amp Voltage Noise Calculations
    5. 11.5 Thermal (Resistor) Noise Calculations
    6. 11.6 Op-amp Current Noise Calculations
    7. 11.7 Total Noise for Example Transimpedance Amplifier
    8. 11.8 Spice Analysis of Example Circuit
    9. 11.9 Measuring the Noise for the Example Transimpedance Amplifier
    10. Chapter Summary
    11. Questions
    12. Further Reading
  18. Glossary
  19. Answers to Questions
  20. Index