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Operating System Concepts, Seventh Edition by Greg Gagne, Abraham Silberschatz, Peter Baer Galvin

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Chapter 23. Influential Operating Systems

Now that you understand the fundamental concepts of operating systems (CPU scheduling, memory management, processes, and so on), we are in a position to examine how these concepts have been applied in several older and highly influential operating systems. Some of them (such as the XDS-940 and the THE system) were one-of-a-kind systems; others (such as OS/360) are widely used. The order of presentation highlights the similarities and differences of the systems; it is not strictly chronological or ordered by importance. The serious student of operating systems should be familiar with all these systems.

As we describe early systems, we include references to further reading. The papers, written by the designers of the systems, are important both for their technical content and for their style and flavor.

Early Systems

Early computers were physically enormous machines run from a console. The programmer, who was also the operator of the computer system, would write a program and then would operate the program directly from the operator's console. First, the program would be loaded manually into memory from the front panel switches (one instruction at a time), from paper tape, or from punched cards. Then, the appropriate buttons would be pushed to set the starting address and to start the execution of the program. As the program ran, the programmer/operator could monitor its execution by the display lights on the console. If errors were discovered, ...

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