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OpenGL ES 3.0 Cookbook by Parminder Singh

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Implementing bump mapping

The bump mapping technique is a very efficient technique as compared to displacement mapping. This technique is also used to add depth details or elevations to the surface of the geometry. However, this depth or elevation is fake. The geometry vertices do not undergo any change in the elevation. Instead, it uses the light illumination to simulate the depth appearance on a smooth surface. Light illumination uses the vertex normal information stored in normal maps to add depth. Like height maps, which store the height or elevation information, the normal map stores normal information. The idea in normal maps is to avoid calculation of normal maps for each triangular face; these can be sampled from the texture.

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