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Op Amp Applications Handbook

Book Description

Operational amplifiers play a vital role in modern electronics design. The latest op amps have powerful new features, making them more suitable for use in many products requiring weak signal amplification, such as medical devices, communications technology, optical networks, and sensor interfacing.

The Op Amp Applications Handbook may well be the ultimate op amp reference book available. This book is brimming with up-to-date application circuits, valuable design tips, and in-depth coverage of the latest techniques to simplify op amp circuit designs, and improve their performance. As an added bonus, a selection on the history of op amp development provides an extensive and expertly researched overview, of interest to anyone involved in this important area of electronics.

* Seven major sections packed with technical information

* Anything an engineer will want to know about designing with op amps can be found in this book

* Op Amp Applications Handbook is a practical reference for a challenging engineering field.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Foreword
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Op Amp History Highlights
  9. Chapter 1: Op Amp Basics
    1. Chapter 1: Introduction to Op Amp Basics
    2. SECTION 1-1: Introduction
      1. Ideal Op Amp Attributes
      2. Standard Op Amp Feedback Hookups
      3. The Nonideal Op Amp—Static Errors Due to Finite Amplifier Gain
      4. Op Amp Common-Mode Dynamic Range(s)
      5. Functionality Differences of Dual-Supply and Single-Supply Devices
      6. Device Selection Drivers
    3. SECTION 1-2: Op Amp Topologies
      1. Current Feedback Amplifier Basics
      2. Current Feedback Using Vacuum Tubes
    4. SECTION 1-3: Op Amp Structures
      1. Single-Supply Op Amp Issues
      2. Op Amp Input Stages
      3. Output Stages
      4. Op Amp Process Technologies
    5. SECTION 1-4: Op Amp Specifications
      1. Input Offset Voltage, VOS
      2. Input Bias Current, IB
      3. Input Impedance
      4. Manipulating Op Amp Noise Gain and Signal Gain
      5. Open-Loop Gain And Open-Loop Gain Nonlinearity
      6. Op Amp Frequency Response
      7. Operational Amplifier Noise
      8. Op Amp Distortion
      9. Common-Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR), Power Supply Rejection Ratio (PSRR)
    6. SECTION 1-5: Precision Op Amps
      1. Precision Op Amp Amplifier DC Error Budget Analysis
      2. Chopper Stabilized Amplifiers
      3. Noise Considerations for Chopper-Stabilized Op Amps
    7. SECTION 1-6: High Speed Op Amps
      1. Introduction
      2. Voltage Feedback (VFB) Op Amps
      3. VFB Op Amps Designed on Complementary Bipolar Processes
      4. A New VFB Op Amp Architecture for “Current-on-Demand” Performance, Lower Power, and Improved Slew Rate
      5. Current Feedback (CFB) Op Amps
      6. Effects of Feedback Capacitance in Op Amps
      7. High Speed Current-to-Voltage Converters, and the Effects of Inverting Input Capacitance
      8. Noise Comparisons between VFB and CFB Op Amps
      9. DC Characteristics of High Speed Op Amps
  10. Chapter 2: Specialty Amplifiers
    1. Introduction to Specialty Amplifiers
    2. SECTION 2-1: Instrumentation Amplifiers
      1. Op Amp/In Amp Functionality Differences
      2. In Amp Definitions
      3. Subtractor or Difference Amplifiers
      4. In Amp Configurations
      5. In Amp DC Error Sources
      6. In Amp Noise Sources
      7. In Amp Bridge Amplifier Error Budget Analysis
      8. In Amp Performance Tables
      9. In Amp Input Overvoltage Protection
      10. In Amp Applications
    3. SECTION 2-2: Programmable Gain Amplifiers
      1. PGA Design Issues
      2. PGA Applications
    4. SECTION 2-3: Isolation Amplifiers
      1. Analog Isolation Techniques
      2. AD210 Three-Port Isolator
      3. Motor Control Isolation Amplifier
      4. Optional Noise Reduction Post Filter
      5. AD215 Two-Port Isolator
      6. Digital Isolation Techniques
  11. Chapter 3: Using Op Amps with Data Converters
    1. SECTION 3-1: Introduction
      1. Trends in Data Converters
    2. SECTION 3-2: ADC/DAC Specifications
      1. ADC and DAC Static Transfer Functions and DC Errors
      2. Quantization Noise in Data Converters
      3. ADC Input-Referred Noise
      4. Calculating Op Amp Output Noise and Comparing it with ADC Input-Referred Noise
      5. Quantifying and Measuring Converter Dynamic Performance
      6. Signal-to-Noise-and-Distortion Ratio (SINAD), Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), and Effective Number of Bits (ENOB)
      7. Analog Bandwidth
      8. Harmonic Distortion, Worst Harmonic, Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), Total Harmonic Distortion Plus Noise (THD + N)
      9. Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR)
      10. Two-Tone Intermodulation Distortion (IMD)
    3. SECTION 3-3: Driving ADC Inputs
      1. Introduction
      2. Op Amp Specifications Key to ADC Applications
      3. Driving High Resolution Sigma-Delta Measurement ADCs
      4. Op Amp Considerations for Multiplexed Data Acquisition Applications
      5. Driving Single-Supply Data Acquisition ADCs with Scaled Inputs
      6. Driving ADCs with Buffered Inputs
      7. Driving Buffered Differential Input ADCs
      8. Driving CMOS ADCs with Switched Capacitor Inputs
      9. Single-Ended ADC Drive Circuits
      10. Op Amp Gain Setting and Level Shifting in DC-Coupled Applications
      11. Drivers for Differential Input ADCs
      12. Driving ADCs with Differential Amplifiers
      13. Overvoltage Considerations
    4. SECTION 3-4: Driving ADC/DAC Reference Inputs
    5. SECTION 3-5: Buffering DAC Outputs
      1. General Considerations
      2. Differential to Single-Ended Conversion Techniques
      3. Single-Ended Current-to-Voltage Conversion
      4. Differential Current-to-Differential Voltage Conversion
      5. An Active Low-Pass Filter for Audio DAC
  12. Chapter 4: Sensor Signal Conditioning
    1. SECTION 4-1: Introduction
    2. SECTION 4-2: Bridge Circuits
      1. An Introduction to Bridges
      2. Amplifying and Linearizing Bridge Outputs
      3. Driving Remote Bridges
      4. System Offset Minimization
    3. SECTION 4-3: Strain, Force, Pressure and Flow Measurements
      1. Strain Gages
      2. Bridge Signal Conditioning Circuits
    4. SECTION 4-4: High Impedance Sensors
      1. Photodiode Preamplifier Design
      2. Preamplifier Offset Voltage and Drift Analysis
      3. Thermoelectric Voltages as Sources of Input Offset Voltage
      4. Preamplifier AC Design, Bandwidth, and Stability
      5. Photodiode Preamplifier Noise Analysis
      6. Input Voltage Noise
      7. Photodiode Circuit Trade-off
      8. Compensation of a High Speed Photodiode I/V Converter
      9. Op Amp Selection for Wideband Photodiode I/V Converters
      10. High Speed Photodiode Preamp Design
      11. High Speed Photodiode Preamp Noise Analysis
      12. High Impedance Charge Output Sensors
      13. Low Noise Charge Amplifier Circuit Configurations
      14. 40dB Gain Piezoelectric Transducer Amplifier Operates on Reduced Supply Voltages for Lower Bias Current
      15. Hydrophones
      16. Op Amp Performance: JFET versus Bipolar
      17. A pH Probe Buffer Amplifier
    5. SECTION 4-5: Temperature Sensors
      1. Thermocouple Principles and Cold-Junction Compensation
      2. Single-Chip Thermocouple Signal Conditioners
      3. Resistance Temperature Detectors
      4. Thermistors
      5. Semiconductor Temperature Sensors
  13. Chapter 5: Analog Filters
    1. SECTION 5-1: Introduction
    2. SECTION 5-2: The Transfer Function
      1. The S-Plane
      2. Fo and Q
      3. Phase Response
      4. The Effect of Nonlinear Phase
    3. SECTION 5-3: Time Domain Response
      1. Impulse Response
      2. Step Response
    4. SECTION 5-4: Standard Responses
      1. Butterworth
      2. Chebyshev
      3. Bessel
      4. Linear Phase with Equiripple Error
      5. Transitional Filters
      6. Comparison of All-Pole Responses
      7. Elliptical
      8. Maximally Flat Delay With Chebyshev Stop band
      9. Inverse Chebyshev
      10. Using the Prototype Response Curves
    5. SECTION 5-5: Frequency Transformations
      1. Low Pass to High Pass
      2. Low Pass to Band Pass
      3. Low Pass to Bandreject (Notch)
      4. Low Pass to All Pass
    6. SECTION 5-6: Filter Realizations
      1. Single-Pole RC
      2. Passive LC Section
      3. Integrator
      4. General Impedance Converter
      5. Active Inductor
      6. Frequency-Dependent Negative Resistor (FDNR)
      7. Sallen-Key
      8. Multiple Feedback
      9. State Variable
      10. Biquadratic (Biquad)
      11. Dual Amplifier Band Pass (DAPB)
      12. Twin-T Notch
      13. Bainter Notch
      14. Boctor Notch
      15. “1 - Band Pass” Notch
      16. First Order All-Pass
      17. Second Order All-Pass
    7. SECTION 5-7: Practical Problems in Filter Implementation
      1. Passive Components (Resistors, Capacitors, Inductors)
      2. Limitations of Active Elements (Op Amps) in Filters
    8. SECTION 5-8: Design Examples
      1. Antialias Filter
      2. Transformations
      3. CD Reconstruction Filter
      4. Digitally Programmable State Variable Filter
      5. 60 Hz Notch Filter
  14. Chapter 6: Signal Amplifiers
    1. SECTION 6-1: Audio Amplifiers
      1. Audio Preamplifiers
      2. Microphone Preamplifiers
      3. RIAA Phono Preamplifiers
      4. Audio Line Level Stages
      5. Audio Buffers and Line Drivers
      6. Single-Ended Line Drivers
      7. Differential Line Drivers
      8. Transformer-Coupled Line Drivers
    2. SECTION 6-2: Buffer Amplifiers and Driving Capacitive Loads
      1. Buffer Amplifiers
      2. Driving Capacitive Loads
    3. SECTION 6-3: Video Amplifiers
      1. Video Signals and Specifications
      2. Differential Gain And Phase Specifications
      3. Video Formats in Graphics Display Systems
      4. Bandwidth Considerations in Video Applications
      5. Video Signal Transmission
      6. Transmission Line Driver Lab
      7. Video Line Drivers
      8. Video Distribution Amplifier
      9. Differential Line Drivers/Receivers
      10. Approaches To Video Differential Driving/Receiving
      11. Inverter-Follower Differential Driver
      12. Cross-Coupled Differential Driver
      13. Fully Integrated Differential Drivers
      14. A 4-Resistor Differential Line Receiver
      15. Active Feedback Differential Line Receiver
      16. A Cable-Tap or Loopthrough Amplifier
      17. High Speed Clamping Amplifiers
      18. Flash Converter with Clamp Amp Input Protection
      19. High Speed Video Multiplexing with Op Amps Utilizing Disable Function
      20. Programmable Gain Amplifier using the AD813 Current Feedback Video Op Amp
      21. Integrated Video Multiplexers and Crosspoint Switches
      22. Single Supply Video Applications
    4. SECTION 6-4: Communication Amplifiers
      1. Communications-Specific Specifications
      2. Distortion Specifications
      3. Noise Specifications
      4. Variable Gain Amplifiers (VGAs) in Automatic Gain Control (AGC)
      5. Voltage Controlled Amplifiers (VCAs)
      6. Digitally Controlled Variable Gain Amplifiers for CATV Upstream Data Line Drivers
      7. xDSL Upstream Data Line Drivers
    5. SECTION 6-5: Amplifier Ideas
      1. High Efficiency Line Driver
      2. A Simple Wide Bandwidth Noise Generator
      3. Single-Supply Half- and Full-Wave Rectifier
      4. Paralleled Amplifiers Drive Loads Quietly
      5. Power-Down Sequencing Circuit for Multiple Supply Applications
      6. Programmable Pulse Generator Using the AD8037 Clamping Amplifier
      7. Full-Wave Rectifier Using the AD8037 Clamping Amplifier
      8. AD8037 Clamping Amplifier Amplitude Modulator
      9. Sync Inserter Using the AD8037 Clamping Amplifier
      10. AD8037 Clamped Amplifier As Piecewise Linear Amplifier
      11. Using the AD830 Active Feedback Amplifier as an Integrator
      12. Instrumentation Amplifier with 290MHz Gain-Bandwidth
      13. Programmable Gain Amplifier with Arbitrary Attenuation Step Size
      14. A Wideband In Amp
      15. Negative Resistance Buffer
      16. Cross-Coupled In Amps Provide Increased CMR
    6. SECTION 6-6: Composite Amplifiers
      1. Multiple Op Amp Composite Amplifiers
      2. Voltage-Boosted Output Composite Amplifiers
      3. Gain-Boosted Input Composite Amplifiers
      4. “Nostalgia” Vacuum Tube Input/Output Composite Op Amp
  15. Chapter 7: Hardware and Housekeeping Techniques
    1. SECTION 7-1: Introduction to Hardware and Housekeeping Techniques
    2. SECTION 7-2: Passive Components
      1. Introduction
      2. Capacitors
      3. Resistors and Potentiometers
      4. Inductance
      5. Don’t Overlook Anything
    3. SECTION 7-3: PCB Design Issues
      1. Resistance of Conductors
      2. Voltage Drop in Signal Leads—“Kelvin” Feedback
      3. Signal Return Currents
      4. Stray Capacitance
    4. SECTION 7-4: Op Amp Power Supply Systems
      1. Linear IC Regulation
      2. Some Linear Voltage Regulator Basics
      3. Pass Devices
      4. ±15 V Regulator Using Adjustable Voltage ICs
      5. Low Dropout Regulator Architectures
      6. Charge-Pump Voltage Converters
      7. Unregulated Inverter and Doubler Charge Pumps
      8. Regulated Output Charge-Pump Voltage Converters
      9. Linear Post Regulator for Switching Supplies
      10. Power Supply Noise Reduction and Filtering
      11. Capacitors
      12. Ferrites
    5. SECTION 7-4: Op Amp Protection
      1. In-Circuit Overvoltage Protection
      2. Clamping Diode Leakage
      3. A Flexible Voltage Follower Protection Circuit
      4. CM Over-Voltage Protection Using CMOS Channel Protectors
      5. Inverting Mode Op Amp Protection Schemes
      6. Amplifier Output Voltage Phase-Reversal
      7. Fixes For Output Phase—Reversal
      8. Protecting In Amps Against Overvoltage
      9. Out-of-Circuit Overvoltage Protection
      10. ESD Models and Testing
    6. SECTION 7-5: Thermal Considerations
      1. Thermal Basics
      2. Heat Sinking
    7. SECTION 7-6: EMI/RFI Considerations
      1. EMI/RFI Mechanisms
      2. EMI Noise Sources
      3. EMI Coupling Paths
      4. Noise Induced by Near-Field Interference
      5. Passive Components: Arsenal Against EMI
      6. A Review of Shielding Concepts
      7. Input-Stage RFI Rectification Sensitivity
      8. Background: Op amp and In Amp RFI Rectification Sensitivity Tests
      9. An Analytical Approach: BJT RFI Rectification
      10. Reducing RFI Rectification within Op Amp and In Amp Circuits
      11. Op Amp Inputs
      12. In Amp Inputs
      13. Amplifier Outputs and EMI/RFI
      14. Printed Circuit Board Design for EMI/RFI Protection
      15. Carefully Choose Logic Devices
      16. Design PCBs Thoughtfully
      17. Designing Controlled Impedances Traces on PCBs
      18. Microstrip PCB transmission lines
      19. Some Microstrip Rules of Thumb
      20. Symmetric Stripline PCB Transmission Lines
      21. Some Pros and Cons of Embedding Traces
      22. Transmission Line Termination Rule of Thumb
    8. SECTION 7-7: Simulation, Breadboarding and Prototyping
      1. Analog Circuit Simulation
      2. Macromodel versus Micromodel
      3. The ADSpice Op Amp Macromodels
      4. Input and Gain/Pole Stages
      5. Frequency-Shaping Stages
      6. Macromodel Output Stages
      7. Model Transient Response
      8. The Noise Model
      9. Current Feedback Amplifier Models
      10. Simulation Must Not Replace Breadboarding
      11. Simulation is a Tool to be Used “Wisely”
      12. Know the Models
      13. Understand PCB Parasitics
      14. Simulation Speeds the Design Cycle
      15. SPICE Support
      16. Model Support
      17. Acknowledgments:
      18. Breadboard and Prototyping Techniques
      19. Deadbug Prototyping
      20. Solder-Mount Prototyping
      21. Milled PCB Prototyping
      22. Beware of Sockets
      23. Some Additional Prototyping Points
      24. Evaluation Boards
      25. General-Purpose Op Amp Evaluation Boards
      26. Dedicated Op Amp Evaluation Boards
      27. Summary
  16. Chapter 8: Op Amp History
    1. Introduction to Op Amp History
      1. A Definition for the Fledgling Op Amp
    2. SECTION 8-1: Introduction
      1. Setting the Stage for the Op Amp
      2. Black’s Feedback Amplifier
    3. SECTION 8-2: Vacuum Tube Op Amps
      1. Development of Differential Amplifier Techniques
      2. Op Amp and Analog Computing Developments
      3. Naming the Op Amp
      4. Evolution of the Vacuum Tube Op Amp
    4. SECTION 8-3: Solid-State Modular and Hybrid Op Amps
      1. Birth of the Transistor
      2. Birth of the IC
      3. The Planar Process
      4. Solid-State Modular and Hybrid Op Amp Designs
    5. SECTION 8-4: IC Op Amps
      1. Birth of the Monolithic IC Op Amp
      2. SuperBeta IC Op Amps—LM108 to OP97
      3. Precision Bipolar IC Op Amps—μA725 to the OP07 Families
      4. Precision JFET IC Op Amps—AD503 to the AD820/AD822/AD824 and AD823 Families
      5. The AD515 and AD545 Hybrid IC Electrometer Amplifiers
      6. Monolithic IC Electrometer Amplifiers