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Ontology Theory, Management and Design: Advanced Tools and Models

Book Description

Ontology Theory, Management and Design: Advanced Tools and Models, explores the wide range of applications for ontologies, while providing a complete view of the both the theory behind the design and the problems posed by the practical development and use of ontologies. This reference presents an in-depth and forward looking analysis of current research, illustrating the importance of this field and pointing toward to the future of knowledge engineering, management and information technology.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. List of Reviewers
  4. Preface
  5. 1. Introduction and Overview: Theory, Concepts and Foundations
    1. 1. Ontologies in Computer Science: These New "Software Components" of Our Information Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FROM ONTOLOGY TO ONTOLOGIES
      4. A NOTION LOOKING FOR A NAME
      5. THE RIGHT WORD AT THE RIGHT TIME
      6. CONTENT OF ONTHOLOGIES: CHARACTERIZING ONTOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE
      7. STRUCTING THE CONTENT OF AN ONTHOLOGY
      8. BEYOND THE TAXONOMICAL SKELETON OF ONTHOLOGIES
      9. SUMMARIZING ALL THESE NOTIONS AROUND ONTOLOGIES
      10. APPLICATIONS OF THESE EXPLICIT REPRESENTATIONS OF ONTOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE
      11. ONTOLOGIES ARE LIVING OBJECTS: LIFE-CYCLE OF ONTOLOGIES
      12. ONTOLOGY ENGINEERING
        1. Scoping an Ontology
        2. Knowledge Acquisition
        3. Conceptualization and Ontology Design Rationale
        4. Formalization and Operationalization of Ontology
      13. THERE IS AN ONTOLOGY IN YOUR FUTURE: THE GROWING IMPORTANCE OF ONTOLOGIES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
      14. SEMANTIC WEB: THE WORLDWIDE RISE OF ONTOLOGIES
        1. Ontology-Based Web Applications
        2. Semantic Web Frameworks
      15. ONTOLOGIES IN THE WILD
      16. REFERENCES
    2. 2. Ontology Theory, Management and Design: An Overview and Future Directions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FROM INFORMATION SYSTEMS DESIGN TO ONTOLOGY MODELING
        1. Conflicts in Information Systems
          1. Syntactic Conflicts
          2. Structural Conflicts
          3. Semantic Conflicts
        2. Approaches for Solving Conflicts
        3. Ontology-Driven Information systems
        4. Ontology vs. Database Schema
      4. ONTOLOGY BASIS AND THEORY
        1. What is Ontology?
        2. Ontology Components
          1. Concepts (General Things)
          2. Slots
          3. Relationships
          4. Axioms
          5. Instances (Particular Things)
          6. Operations/Functions/Rules
        3. Ontology Life-Cycle
        4. Typology
        5. Ontologies Application Domains
      5. ONTOLOGY DESIGN AND BUILDING
      6. METHODOLOGIES FOR BUILDING ONTOLOGIES
        1. Uschold and King' Methodology
        2. Gruninger and Fox' Methodology
      7. METHONTOLOGY
        1. On-To-Knowledge
        2. Aussenac-Gilles and Colleagues' Approach
        3. Mhiri and Gargouri' Approach
      8. KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION
        1. Logic of Propositions
        2. First Order Logic
        3. Semantic Networks
        4. Conceptual Graphs
        5. Frames
        6. Description Logics
      9. ONTOLOGY AND MULTI-CONTEXT
      10. DEFINITION
      11. IMPORTANCE OF CONTEXT
      12. TOWARD AN OPEN ONTOLOGY
      13. DYNAMIC CONTEXT AND STATIC ASPECT
      14. ONTOLOGY AND CONEXT
      15. ONTOLOGY EVOLUTION AND VERSIONING
      16. FROM SCHEMA VERSIONING TO ONTOLOGY VERSIONING
      17. ONTOLOGY EVOLUTION AND VERSIONING
      18. ONTOLOGY VERSIONING
      19. TOOLS TO SUPPORT THE ONOTOLOGY EVOLUTION
      20. CONCLUSION
      21. REFERENCES
      22. ENDNOTES
  6. 2. Theoretical Models and Aspects: Formal Frameworks
    1. 3. Exceptions in Ontologies: A Theoretical Model for Deducing Properties from Topological Axioms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND ON NON-MONOTONIC LOGICS
        1. Non-Monotonic Reasoning
        2. Default Logic
      4. OVERVIEW OF THE CLOSED WORLD ASSUMPTION
        1. Discussion on Default Logic
        2. Autoepistemic Logic (Moore, 1985)
        3. Circumscription (McCarthy, 1980; 1986)
        4. Belief Revision (Alchourron et al., 1985)
        5. Implementations
          1. Prolog (Colmerauer, A. and P. Roussel, 1992)
          2. AnsProlog* (Answer Set Prolog) (Baral 2003; Gelfond 2008)
      5. USING TOPOLOGY TO REPRESENT ATYPICAL ENTITIES IN ONTOLOGIES
        1. Why Using Topology?
        2. Different Ways to Define a Topology
          1. The Classical Definition of Topology Based on the Set Theory
          2. An Operational Definition of Topology: The Functional Approach
        3. Integrating Non-Monotonic Logics
      6. THE TOPOLOGICAL INCLUSION AND BELONGING RELATIONS
        1. From Non-Monotonic Logic to General Topology
        2. Definitions of Topological Relations
      7. INFERENCE RULES FOR THE SIX TOPOLOGICAL RELATIONS OF INCLUSION AND MEMBERSHIP
        1. Reflexivity, Symmetry and Transitivity of Inclusion Relations
        2. Properties of Combinations of the Topological Relations
      8. TOPOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE TWO EXAMPLES
      9. TOWARDS A NON-MONOTONIC SYSTEM: IMPLEMENTATION
        1. Adding Non-Monotonic Rules
        2. Implementation in AnsProlog
      10. CONCLUSION
        1. Future Works: A scale of Typicality
      11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      12. REFERENCES
    2. 4. An Algebra of Ontology Properties for Service Discovery and Composition in Semantic Web
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. AN ALGEBRAIC APPROACH FOR SERVICE DISCOVERY AND COMPOSITION
        1. A Motivating Example
        2. Problem and Basic Hypothesis
        3. Principles
        4. The RCS Algebra
          1. Derived Classes
          2. Algebraic Operators on Properties
        5. Composition
        6. Union
        7. Restriction Filter and Relationship Restriction
        8. Canonical Decomposition of a Relationship
        9. Algebraic Expressions and Extended Relationships
        10. Extended Attributes
        11. Semantic Services Mapping
          1. Basic Principles
          2. Simple Mapping Assertions
          3. Restricted Mappings
          4. The Algebra of Services
          5. Complex Mappings
          6. Quality of Service
        12. Automated Execution Plans Generation
          1. The Execution Plan Problem
          2. Orchestration of Services
          3. An Algorithm for Execution Plan Generation
        13. A Software Framework
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    3. 5. Approaches for Semantic Association Mining and Hidden Entities Extraction in Knowledge Base
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SEMANTIC WEB AND WEB MINING
        1. Semantic Web
          1. Ontology and Knowledge Base
          2. Semantic Search from Knowledge Base
        2. Web/Data Mining
        3. Specification of Semantic Association
          1. Signature of Semantic Association
          2. Language of Semantic Association Querying
      4. SWAR: A FRAMEWORK FOR SEMANTIC ASSOCIATION EXTRACTION FROM ASSOCIATION DATABASE
        1. Description of semantic Association Rule
        2. Constraints Specified on the Level of Semantic Rules
        3. SWAR Model for Semantic Association Rules
        4. SWARM Algorithm for Semantic Association Rules Mining (SWARM)
        5. Experimental Evaluation
      5. EXTRACTION OF RELEVANT SEMANTIC ASSOCIATIONS WITH THE USE OF HYPERCLIQUE PATTERN METHOD
        1. Approach Description
        2. Co-Occurrence Matrix Construction
        3. Hconf Computation
        4. Example of SA Mining Based on the Instance Subset
        5. Experimental Results
      6. RELATION EXTRACTION IN KNOWLEDGE BASE
        1. Relation Extraction without Open World Assumption Links
        2. Relation Extraction Based on Open World Assumption Links
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    4. 6. Reusing the Inter-Organizational Knowledge to Support Organizational Knowledge Management Process: An Ontology-Based Knowledge Network
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. APPROACHES OF ONTOLOGY MEDIATION
      4. APPLICATION OF ONTOLOGY IN KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
      5. ONTOLOGY-BASED COLLABORATION INTER-ORGANIZATION KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT NETWORK
        1. Selection Framework for Ontology Mediation
        2. Operation of the Inter-Organizational Knowledge Management Network
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. 7. Building and Use of a LOM Ontology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LEARNING OBJECTS INDEXING
        1. Learning Objects
        2. Metadata and Standards
      4. LEARNING OBJECT METADATA
        1. LOM Model
        2. LOM Using
      5. SEMANTIC WEB FOR E-LEARNING
      6. A LOM ONTOLOGY
      7. TOOL ENVIROMENT
        1. The LOIT Architecture
        2. Learning Object Indexing
        3. Search for Learning Objects
        4. Advanced search
      8. USING THE LOM ONTOLOGY IN MEMORAE
        1. The Approach MEMORAe
        2. The MEMORAe Model
        3. E-MEMORAe2.0 Environment
        4. LOM Ontology Integration in MEMORAe
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTES
  7. 3. Ontology Management: Construction, Evolution and Alignment
    1. 8. Ontology Evolution: State of the Art and Future Directions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ONTOLOGY EVOLUTION ISSUES
        1. Ontology Evolution Requirements
        2. Comparison with Database Schema and Knowledge Base Evolution
          1. Database Schema vs. Ontology Evolution
          2. Knowledge-Based System vs. Ontology Evolution
        3. Ontology Changes
          1. Change Activities
            1. Ontology Revision
            2. Ontology Versioning
            3. Ontology Adaptation
            4. Ontology Evolution
          2. Change Effects
          3. Change Classification
      4. ONTOLOGY EVOLUTION APPROACHES
        1. Ontology Learning Approach Based on Change Requirement Discovery
          1. Data-Driven Change Discovery
          2. User-Driven Change Discovery
          3. Learning Consistent Ontologies
        2. Multimedia Ontology Evolution Approach BOEMIE3
          1. Ontology Population and Enrichment Patterns
          2. Consistency Maintenance
          3. Change Versioning
        3. Change Management Approach for Distributed Ontology
          1. Distributed Change Management
          2. An Ontology of Change Operations and a Change Specification Language
        4. A Global Evolution Process for KAON Ontology
          1. Change Capturing
          2. Change Representation
          3. Change Semantics
            1. Consistency Maintenance of KAON Ontology
            2. Consistency Maintenance of OWL Ontology
          4. Change Propagation
          5. Change Implementation
          6. Change Validation
        5. Ontology Evolution Approach Based on Belief Change Principles
          1. Application Scope
          2. Ontology Evolution Operations
          3. Ontology Evolution Algorithm
          4. Consistency Maintenance
        6. Change Detection Approach Using a Version Log
          1. Evolution Framework Overview
            1. Evolution-On-Request
            2. Evolution-In-Response
          2. Change Definition Language
          3. Evolution Log Model
          4. Consistency Maintenance
      5. TOOLS SUPPORTING ONTOLOGY EVOLUTION
        1. KAON4 Tool
        2. Protégé5 Editor
      6. ONTOLOGY VERSIONING TOOLS
        1. Change Detection and Logging Tools
        2. Ontology Learning and Data-Driven Change Discovery Tool Text2Onto6
      7. SYNTHESIS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
        1. Ontology Debugging and Evolution
        2. Integrating Ontology Evaluation in Ontology Evolution
        3. Towards Ontology Evolution Guidelines
      9. FUTURE ISSUES
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ENDNOTES
    2. 9. Large Scale Matching Issues and Advances
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LARGE SCALE MATCHING PROBLEM
        1. Motivating Example
        2. Scalable Matching
        3. Domains and Applications
      4. CLASSIFICATION OF LARGE SCALE MATCHING APPROACHES
        1. Pair-Wise Matching
          1. Schema Matching
          2. Ontology Matching
        2. Holistic Matching
        3. Optimization Techniques
        4. Classification of Matching Approaches
      5. REVIEW OF LARGE SCALE MATCHING TOOLS
        1. Pair-Wise Matching Tools
        2. Holistic Matching Tools
        3. Matching Tools Comparison
      6. OPEN DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    3. 10. From Temporal Databases to Ontology Versioning: An Approach for Ontology Evolution
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. VERSIONING IN SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT AND CAD/CAM APPLICATIONS
      4. TEMPORAL VERSIONING IN DATABASES
        1. Data Versioning
        2. Schema Versioning
      5. ONTOLOGY VERSIONING
        1. Objectives of Versioning Support
        2. Requirements of Versioning Support
        3. Approaches for Ontology Versioning
      6. AN APPROACH FOR ONTOLOGY EVOLUTION
        1. Evolution Changes
        2. Ontology Coherence
      7. VERSIONING MANAGEMENT
        1. Links between Versions
        2. Optimization of the Ontology Versioning Process
        3. Ontology Versions storage
        4. Architecture of VERSIOS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
  8. 4. Ontology Applications and Experiences
    1. 11. Ontology Learning from Thesauri: An Experience in the Urban Domain
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STATE OF THE ART IN ONTOLOGY LEARNING FROM THESAURI
      4. APPLICABILITY OF ONTOLOGYLEARNING IN THE URBAN DOMAIN
        1. The URBAMET Use Case
        2. The URBISOC Use Case
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
    2. 12. Applications of Ontologies and Text Mining in the Biomedical Domain
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. USE OF ONTOLOGIES IN TEXT MINING
      4. ONTOLOGIES AND INFORMATION RETRIEVAL
      5. QUERY REFORMULATION
      6. QUERY EXPANSION
        1. Collection Dependent QE
        2. Knowledge Source Dependent
      7. QUERY REFINEMENT
      8. SEMANTIC INDEXING
      9. ORGANIZATION OF SEARCH RESULTS
      10. DISCUSSION
      11. ONTOLOGIES AND INFORMATION EXTRACTION
        1. Filtering
        2. Part-Of-speech
        3. Semantic Tagging
        4. Parsing
      12. DISCOURSE ANALYSIS
      13. OUTPUT GENERATION
        1. The Use of Ontologies in Information Extraction
      14. TEXT MINING AND THE ONTOLOGY LIFECYCLE
        1. Ontology Lifecycle
        2. Import and Reuse
        3. Ontology Learning
        4. Term and Concept Extraction
          1. Hierarchical Clustering
        5. Ontology Pruning
        6. Ontology Refinement
          1. Semi-Automatic Approaches
          2. Automatic Approaches
      15. ONOTOLOGY EVALUATION
      16. SUMMARY
      17. REFERENCES
      18. ENDNOTES
    3. 13. Ontology Based Multimedia Indexing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. VOCABULARIES FOR MULTIMEDIA ANNOTATION
        1. The Interoperability and semantic Description Problems
        2. RDF-Based Solutions for Solving the Interoperability and the Semantic Description Problems
        3. Ontology-Based Solutions for Solving the Interoperability Problem
        4. Existing Tools for Ontology-Based Multimedia Annotation
      4. ONTOLOGY-DRIVEN FRAMEWORKS FOR MULTIMEDIA SEMANTIC ANNOTATION
        1. Ontologies for Modeling the Multimedia Semantic Annotations
        2. The Problem of Integrating Indexation Algorithms into Annotation Frameworks
        3. Ontology-Driven Multimedia Annotation and Management Concrete Approaches
      5. A PROPOSAL FOR MULTIMEDIA DISTRIBUTED INDEXING AND ANNOTATION
        1. Harmonizing the Multimedia Metadata
        2. Harmonizing the Indexation Algorithms
        3. Harmonizing the Ontology-Based Semantic Annotations
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    4. 14. Semantic Enrichment of Web Service Architecture
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STATE OF ART
        1. Data Semantic Integration
          1. Description
          2. Discovery
          3. Composition
        2. Semantic Integration by the Treatments
          1. Description
          2. Discovery
          3. Composition
          4. Discussion
      4. SWS TECHNOLOGIES
      5. WSMO
      6. WSMF
      7. OWL-S
      8. METEOR-S
        1. Discussion
      9. ARCHITECTURE PRESENTATION
      10. SAMPLE APPLICATION
        1. Actor, Role and Goal
        2. Scenario of Use
        3. Basic Architecture of the VTA
      11. SERVICES DESCRIPTION ONOTOLOGY DESIGN
      12. SEMANTIC DESCRIPTION OF THE WEB SERVICES
        1. Service Offering the Flight Times (GetPlaneTime)
        2. Reservation Services Flight
      13. GOALS
      14. MEDIATORS
      15. OPEN DIRECTIONS
      16. CONCLUSION
      17. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      18. ENDNOTES
  9. Compilation of References
  10. About the Contributors