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Oncology: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice

Book Description

Advancements in cancer diagnosis and treatment have extended the lives of many patients facing numerous types of cancer over the years. Research on best practices, new drug development, early identification, and treatment continues to advance with the ultimate goal of uncovering a cure for cancer in all its forms. Oncology: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice features international perspectives on cancer identification, treatment, and management methodologies in addition to patient considerations and outlooks for the future. This collection of emerging research provides valuable insight for researchers, graduate-level students, and professionals in the medical field.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Preface
  5. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Design Methodologies
    1. Chapter 1: Palliative Care
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. I. WHAT IS PALLIATIVE CARE?
      4. II. EVIDENCE FOR PALLIATIVE CARE IN THE ICU
      5. III. BARRIERS TO DELIVERY OF PALLIATIVE CARE
      6. IV. ISSUES SPECIFIC TO CARDIOTHORACIC CRITICAL CARE
      7. V. METHODS TO IMPROVE DELIVERY OF PALLIATIVE CARE IN THE CARDIOTHORACIC ICU
      8. VI. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      9. VII. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 2: An Introduction to the Basic Concepts in QSAR-Aided Drug Design
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY DATA
      5. CHEMICAL STRUCTURE REPRESENTATION
      6. MOLECULAR DESCRIPTORS
      7. DESCRIPTOR SELECTION METHODS
      8. QSAR MODEL BUILDING METHODS
      9. STATISTICAL TREATMENTS AND MODEL VALIDATION
      10. 3D-QSAR STUDIES
      11. CASE STUDIES
      12. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      13. CONCLUSION
      14. REFERENCES
      15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      16. ENDNOTES
    3. Chapter 3: The History and Development of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS A QSAR?
      3. EARLY APPROACHES
      4. THE BEGINNINGS OF CORRELATION (1816-1900)
      5. MORE PROGRESS (1901-1962)
      6. 1962 – PRESENT
      7. TRANSPORT THROUGH AN ORGANISM
      8. QSAR IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
      9. DESCRIPTORS
      10. STATISTICS
      11. APPROACHES TO QSAR/QSPR MODELLING
      12. SOME NEWER APPLICATIONS OF QSAR
      13. QSAR SOFTWARE
      14. WHITHER QSAR?
      15. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      16. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 4: Ligand- and Structure-Based Drug Design of Non-Steroidal Aromatase Inhibitors (NSAIs) in Breast Cancer
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BREAST CANCER AND ITS TREATMENT
      4. AROMATASE BIOCHEMISTRY
      5. STRUCTURE OF AROMATASE
      6. EXPRESSION OF GENE OF AROMATASE
      7. AROMATASE INHIBITORS (AIs)
      8. LIGAND- AND STRUCTURE-BASED DRUG DESIGN (LBDD AND SBDD) OF AROMATASE INHIBITORS
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 5: A Bounded Health Information Technology System Design Approach to Support Community-Based Care Delivery
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. METHOD
      4. 3. RESULTS
      5. 4. DISCUSSION
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 6: The Dark Side of Medical Tourism?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: TRENDS IN THE ‘DARK’ MEDICAL TOURISM MARKET
      3. THE ISSUES
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 7: Red Meat and Health
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RED MEAT INTAKE, HEALTH, AND CHRONIC DISEASE
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 8: HPV Detection Methods
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HPV DETECTION TECHNIQUES
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. Chapter 9: Proposed Threshold Algorithm for Accurate Segmentation for Skin Lesion
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THE PROPOSED ALGORITHM
      4. 3. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION
      5. 4. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
  6. Section 2: Technologies and Applications
    1. Chapter 10: Nanotechnology, Metal Nanoparticles, and Biomedical Applications of Nanotechnology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
      4. SYNTHESIS OF NANOPARTICLES
      5. BIOSYNTHESIS OF METALLIC NANOPARTICLES USING BACTERIA
      6. BIOSYNTHESIS OF METALLIC NANOPARTICLES USING FUNGI
      7. BIOSYNTHESIS OF METALLIC NANOPARTICLES USING PLANTS
      8. BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS
      9. NANOROBOTICS AND DRUG DELIVERY
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      14. APPENDIX
    2. Chapter 11: Diverse Applications of Nanotechnology in Biomedicine, Chemistry, and Engineering
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. HISTORY
      3. SYNTHESIS
      4. APPLICATIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 12: Nanotechnology Applications in Biomedical Engineering
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OVERVIEW OF NANOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS
      4. NANOSCALE MATERIALS
      5. NANOTECHNOLOGY PARTICLES
      6. COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
      7. APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
      8. NANOTECHNOLOGY SAFETY ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS IN THE BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
      9. THE FUTURE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
      10. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      11. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      12. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 13: Nanotechnology for Omics-Based Ocular Drug Delivery
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. OCULAR DISEASE
      3. APPLICATION TO OCULAR DISEASES
      4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
      5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 14: Nanomedicine Magic Bullet for Human Cancer
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NANOPARTICLE TECHNOLOGIES
      4. FUTURE PERSPECTIVE ON PASSIVE TARGETING
      5. IMMEDIATE FUTURE OF CANCER NANOMEDICINES
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 15: QSAR of Antioxidants
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MECHANISM OF ACTION OF ANTIOXIDANTS
      5. METHODS OF ANTIOXIDANTS DETERMINATION
      6. COMPUTER AIDED DRUG DESIGN (CADD)
      7. QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS (QSAR)
      8. STATISTICAL METHODS
      9. VALIDATION OF QSAR MODELS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 16: Integrated in Silico Methods for the Design and Optimization of Novel Drug Candidates
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. QSAR-AIDED IN SILICO INTEGRATIONS FOR SMALL-SCALE LIGAND SCREENING
      4. HITS IDENTIFICATION, SELECTION, AND NOVEL SAR RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. CASE STUDY: IN SILICO DESIGN AND IDENTIFICATION OF NOVEL 6-FLUOROQUINOLONES AS POTENTIAL INHIBITORS AGAINST MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS DNA GYRASE
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    8. Chapter 17: Computational Approaches for the Discovery of Novel Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A and NS5B Inhibitors
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HCV GENOME AND STRUCTURE
      4. COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN DRUG DESIGN
      5. NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEIN 5B (NS5B)
      6. QSAR APPROACH EMPLOYED TO IDENTIFY NOVEL NS5B INHIBITORS
      7. VIRTUAL SCREENING METHOD IN IDENTIFYING NS5B POLYMERASE INHIBITORS
      8. NS3/NS4A PROTEASE
      9. CONVENTIONAL QSAR APPROACH IN DISCOVERY FOR NS3/4A PROTEASE INHIBITORS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. FUTURE DIRECTION
      12. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      13. REFERENCES
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 18: Multimodality Medical Image Fusion Using M-Band Wavelet and Daubechies Complex Wavelet Transform for Radiation Therapy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE SURVEY
      4. MULTIMODALITY MEDICAL IMAGE FUSION SCHEME
      5. PERFORMANCE METRICS FOR COMPARISON
      6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 19: Analysis of Valuable Techniques and Algorithms Used in Automated Skin Lesion Recognition Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FEATURES USED FOR MAKING CLASSIFIER COMPARISON
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 20: A Study on Automatic Segmentation and Classification of Skin Lesions in Dermoscopic Images
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. REVIEW ON EARLY DETECTION OF MELANOMA IN SITU
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
  7. Section 3: Organizational Implications and Critical Issues
    1. Chapter 21: Role of Supercomputers in Bioinformatics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SUPERCOMPUTING IN SEQUENCE ANALYSIS
      4. SUPERCOMPUTING IN VIRTUAL SCREENING
      5. SUPERCOMPUTING IN QSAR
      6. SUPERCOMPUTING IN DOCKING STUDIES
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 22: QSAR Models towards Cholinesterase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ENZYME
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. AN OVERVIEW OF DUAL BINDING SITE ACHEIS
      6. HISTORY OF QSAR
      7. QUALITY OF FIT AND QSAR MODEL VALIDATION METHODS
      8. COMPUTATIONAL APPROACHES ON DRUG DESIGN
      9. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE PROSPECTIVE
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 23: Ethics, Risk, and Media Intervention
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHALLENGES OF WOMEN’S BREAST CANCER
      4. ETHICS, RIGHTS, AND RESPONSIBILITIES
      5. RISK: PERCEPTION AND COMMUNICATION
      6. MEDIA INTERVENTION
      7. METHOD AND OUTCOMES: INITIATIVE FOR ACTION IN VENEZUELA
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    4. Chapter 24: The Role of Primary Health Care in Prevention, Early Detection, and Control of Cancer
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE GLOBAL BURDEN OF CANCER
      4. ROLE OF PRIMARY HEALTHCARE IN CANCER PREVENTION AND CONTROL
      5. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 25: My Desired Self, Avatar
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. 3. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      5. 4. METHODS
      6. 5. RESULTS
      7. 6. DISCUSSION
      8. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 26: Isocenter Verification in Radiotherapy Clinical Practice Using Virtual Simulation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODS
      5. RESULTS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 27: Organization and Structure of the Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HIGH-RELIABILITY ORGANIZATIONS (ICUs)
      4. TEAM MEMBERS
      5. ICU PHYSICIAN STAFFING MODELS
      6. BILLING
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 28: Ethics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 29: Risk, Activism, and Empowerment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AWARENESS OF WOMEN’S BREAST CANCER
      4. SELF-ADVOCACY
      5. THE ROLE OF ACTIVISTS
      6. THE ROLE OF HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS
      7. THE ROLE OF SOCIETY
      8. ACTION INITIATIVE IN VENEZUELA
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTES
  8. Section 4: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 30: Molecular Docking at a Glance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. WORLDWIDE USE OF MOLECULAR DOCKING
      5. MOLECULAR DOCKING PROCESS
      6. MOLECULAR REPRESENTATION FOR MOLECULAR DOCKING
      7. DOCKING CLASSIFICATION METHODS
      8. A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO MOLECULAR DOCKING METHODS
      9. MOLECULAR DOCKING APPLICATIONS
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      14. ENDNOTE
    2. Chapter 31: Docking Methodologies and Recent Advances
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FUNDAMENTAL NECESSITIES
      4. MOLECULAR DOCKING MODELS
      5. DOCKING METHODOLOGIES
      6. OTHER METHODOLOGICAL ADVANCES
      7. SEARCHING FUNCTION
      8. SCORING FUNCTIONS
      9. OTHER ADVANCEMENT IN SCORING FUNCTION
      10. PERFORMANCE OF SCORING FUNCTION
      11. DIFFERENT ALGORITHMS USED FOR DOCKING
      12. A GLIMPSE OF VIRTUAL SCREENING
      13. APPLICATIONS OF MOLECULAR DOCKING
      14. CASE STUDY
      15. CONCLUSION
      16. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 32: Current Trends in Docking Methodologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. HIGH THROUGHPUT SCREENING (HTS)
      4. 3. MOLECULAR DOCKING
      5. 4. MOLECULAR DYNAMICS (MD) SIMULATION
      6. 5. BINDING FREE ENERGY
      7. 6. RELAXED COMPLEX SCHEME
      8. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 33: Recent Advancements in Docking Methodologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MOLECULAR DOCKING
      5. ADVANCEMENTS IN DOCKING METHODOLOGIES
      6. PROTEIN-PROTEIN DOCKING
      7. OTHER ADVANCEMENTS IN DOCKING METHODOLOGIES
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 34: Methods for Docking and Drug Designing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
      4. METHODS AND TOOLS FOR MOLECULAR DOCKING
      5. ROLE OF DOCKING IN COMPUTER AIDED DRUG DESIGN
      6. MOLECULAR DOCKING: MODERN DAY PERSPECTIVE
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 35: Protein-Ligand Docking Methodologies and Its Application in Drug Discovery
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THEORY OF MOLECULAR DOCKING
      4. 3. TYPES OF DOCKING METHODOLOGIES
      5. 4. APPLICATION EXAMPLES OF MOLECULAR DOCKING IN MODERN DRUG DISCOVERY
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 36: Scoring Functions of Protein-Ligand Interactions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SCORING FUNCTIONS
      5. CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 37: Online Molecular Docking Resources
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 38: Mapping Population Health Management Roadmap into Cervical Cancer Screening Programs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MAPPING POPULATION HEALTH MANAGEMENT ROADMAP INTO CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING PROGRAMS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES