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Oil Spill Science and Technology, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Oil Spill Science and Technology, Second Edition, delivers a multi-contributed view on the entire chain of oil-spill related topics from oil properties and behaviors, to remote sensing through the management side of contingency planning and communicating oil spill risk perceptions.

Completely new case studies are included with special attention to the Deepwater Horizon event, covering the impacts of wetlands and sand beaches, a mass balance approach, and the process for removing petroleum chemicals still trapped near Alabama beaches. Other new information on lingering oil left behind from the Exxon Valdez spill, the emergency system used in the Prestige incident, and coverage on the Heibei Spirit spill in Korea are also included.

This updated edition combines technology with case studies to identify the current state of knowledge surrounding oil spills that will encourage additional areas of research that are left to uncover in this critical sector of the oil and gas industry.



  • Updated with new chapters on risk analysis and communication, contingency planning, restoration, and case studies
  • Supported with technological advances evolved from the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil tragedy and events in the Arctic/Antarctic
  • Multi-contributed from various industry experts to provide an extensive background in technical equipment and worldwide procedures used today

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. List of Contributors
  6. Preface
  7. Chapter 1. Oil Spills and Risk Perceptions
    1. 1.1. Introduction
    2. 1.2. Oil Spill Context
    3. 1.3. Social Concepts and Risk
    4. 1.4. Risk Concepts and Oil Spills
    5. 1.5. Conclusions
  8. Chapter 2. Quantification of Oil Spill Risk
    1. 2.1. Introduction
    2. 2.2. Vessel Spills
    3. 2.3. Well Blowouts
    4. 2.4. Spill and Blowout Risk Model
    5. 2.5. Monte Carlo Forecast Model Simulation Results for Example Case
    6. 2.6. Crude-by-Rail Spills
    7. 2.7. Conclusions
  9. Chapter 3. Oil Physical Properties: Measurement and Correlation
    1. 3.1. Introduction
    2. 3.2. Bulk Properties of Crude Oil and Fuel Products
    3. 3.3. Hydrocarbon Groups
    4. 3.4. Quality Assurance and Control
    5. 3.5. Effects of Evaporative Weathering on Oil Bulk Properties
  10. Chapter 4. Chemical Fingerprints of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products
    1. 4.1. Introduction
    2. 4.2. Fingerprinting Analysis of Petroleum Compounds
    3. 4.3. Chemical Components of Petroleum
    4. 4.4. Weathering Effect on Oil Chemical Composition
  11. Chapter 5. Oil Spill Remote Sensing
    1. 5.1. Introduction
    2. 5.2. Atmospheric Properties
    3. 5.3. Oil Interaction With Light and Electronic Waves
    4. 5.4. Visible Indications of Oil
    5. 5.5. Optical Sensors
    6. 5.6. Laser Fluorosensors
    7. 5.7. Microwave Sensors
    8. 5.8. Slick Thickness Determination
    9. 5.9. Integrated Airborne Sensor Systems
    10. 5.10. Satellite Remote Sensing
    11. 5.11. Oil Under Ice Detection
    12. 5.12. Underwater Detection and Tracking
    13. 5.13. Small Remote-Controlled Aircraft
    14. 5.14. Real-Time Displays and Printers
    15. 5.15. Routine Surveillance
    16. 5.16. Future Trends
    17. 5.17. Recommendations
  12. Chapter 6. Oil Spill Detection Using Space-Borne Sentinel-1 SAR Imagery
    1. 6.1. Introduction
    2. 6.2. Materials and Methods
    3. 6.3. Results
    4. 6.4. Discussion and Conclusion
  13. Chapter 7. Laser Fluorosensors
    1. 7.1. Principles of Operation
    2. 7.2. Oil Classification
    3. 7.3. Existing Operational Units
    4. 7.4. Aircraft Requirements
    5. 7.5. Cost Estimates
    6. 7.6. Conclusion
  14. Chapter 8. Introduction to Spill Modeling
    1. 8.1. Introduction
    2. 8.2. An Overview of Weathering
    3. 8.3. Evaporation
    4. 8.4. Water Uptake and Emulsification
    5. 8.5. Natural Dispersion
    6. 8.6. Other Processes
    7. 8.7. Movement of Oil and Oil Spill Modeling
    8. 8.8. Spill Modeling
  15. Chapter 9. Physical Spill Countermeasures on Water—Response in Fast Currents
    1. 9.1. Introduction
    2. 9.2. Origins of Fast Water Spills
    3. 9.3. Basics of Working in Fast Currents
    4. 9.4. Tactics
    5. 9.5. Safety
    6. 9.6. Special Conditions
    7. 9.7. Decision Guide
    8. 9.8. Calculations
    9. 9.9. Current Research
    10. 9.10. Conclusions
  16. Chapter 10. In Situ Burning: An Update
    1. 10.1. Introduction
    2. 10.2. An Overview of In Situ Burning
    3. 10.3. Detailed Science
    4. 10.4. Burn Emissions
    5. 10.5. Assessment of Feasibility of Burning
    6. 10.6. Burning on Water
    7. 10.7. Burning on Land and Wetlands
    8. 10.8. Burning in or on Ice
    9. 10.9. Equipment—Selection, Deployment, and Operation
    10. 10.10. Final Recovery of Residue
    11. 10.11. Possible Spill Situations
    12. 10.12. Postburn Actions
    13. 10.13. Health and Safety Precautions During Burning
  17. Chapter 11. Shoreline Countermeasures
    1. 11.1. Introduction
    2. 11.2. Shoreline Treatment Decision Process
    3. 11.3. Shoreline Treatment Strategies and Tactics
    4. 11.4. Treatment by Shore Type
    5. 11.5. Waste Generation
  18. Chapter 12. Bioremediation of Oil Spills on Land
    1. 12.1. Introduction
    2. 12.2. Brief Overview of Bioremediation Techniques for Land Oil Spills
    3. 12.3. Key Organisms Involved in Biodegradation of Oil Spills on Land
    4. 12.4. Environmental Factors Affecting Bioremediation
    5. 12.5. In Situ Bioremediation Strategies
    6. 12.6. Ex Situ Bioremediation Strategies
    7. 12.7. Enhanced Bioremediation
    8. 12.8. Case Study: Kuwait Oil Spill
    9. 12.9. Conclusion
  19. Chapter 13. Sunken and Submerged Oil
    1. 13.1. Introduction
    2. 13.2. Sunken and Submerged Oil Characteristics
    3. 13.3. Sunken and Submerged Oil Spill Response Methods and Recommendations for Future Work
  20. Chapter 14. Oil Pollution in Antarctica
    1. 14.1. Introduction
    2. 14.2. Current Situation
    3. 14.3. Antarctic Environment
    4. 14.4. Antarctic Biota
    5. 14.5. Oil Behavior
    6. 14.6. Antarctic Treaty System
    7. 14.7. Remediation Techniques
    8. 14.8. Case Studies
    9. 14.9. Conclusions
  21. Chapter 15. Deepwater Horizon Well Blowout Mass Balance
    1. 15.1. Introduction
    2. 15.2. Scientific Background
    3. 15.3. The Macondo Blowout
    4. 15.4. The Fate and Removals of Oil on the Sea Surface
    5. 15.5. Subsurface Fate and Losses
    6. 15.6. Timing of the Losses and Additions
    7. 15.7. Calculation of Mass Balance
    8. 15.8. Conclusion
  22. Chapter 16. Assessing the Increase in Background Oil–Contamination Levels Along Alabama's Beaches Resulting From the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill
    1. 16.1. Introduction
    2. 16.2. Study Area
    3. 16.3. Background Oil Levels in Alabama's Beaches Prior to the Arrival of DWH Oil Spill
    4. 16.4. State of Alabama's Beaches During Active Oil Deposition Period (From June 2010 to August 2010)
    5. 16.5. State of Alabama's Beaches During the Cleanup Period (August 2010 to June 2013)
    6. 16.6. State of Alabama's Beaches During Post-cleanup Period (2013–14)
    7. 16.7. Post-cleanup Surveys Completed From 2015 to 2016
    8. 16.8. Laboratory Studies: Chemical Characterization of DWH Oil Spill Residues
    9. 16.9. Discussion
    10. 16.10. Conclusions
    11. List of Abbreviations
  23. Chapter 17. Remote Sensing of Oil Slicks for the Deepwater Horizon Damage Assessment
    1. 17.1. Introduction
    2. 17.2. Methods
    3. 17.3. Results
    4. 17.4. Discussion
    5. 17.5. Conclusion and Recommendations
  24. Chapter 18. The Hebei Spirit Oil Spill, 2007
    1. 18.1. Introduction
    2. 18.2. Response at Sea and On Shore
    3. 18.3. The Issue of Submerged Oil
    4. 18.4. Oil Contamination in the Environment
    5. 18.5. Biological and Ecological Effects
    6. 18.6. Conclusion
  25. Chapter 19. Health Aspects of the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill
    1. 19.1. Introduction
    2. 19.2. Acute Health Effects
    3. 19.3. Long-Term Health Effects
    4. 19.4. Mothers and Children's Environmental Health Study
    5. 19.5. Environmental Health Contingency Plan in Oil Spill Disasters
    6. 19.6. Future Needs
  26. Chapter 20. Recent Studies on the Effects of Oil
    1. 20.1. Introduction
    2. 20.2. Some Historical Background
    3. 20.3. Oil and Fish: A Paradigm Shift
    4. 20.4. Fish Studies Post–Deepwater Horizon
    5. 20.5. Marine Mammals and Oil: Early Studies
    6. 20.6. The Exxon Valdez and Killer Whales: Circumstantial but Compelling
    7. 20.7. Dolphins and the Deepwater Horizon: “Uncommon Disease Conditions”
    8. 20.8. Oil and Sea Turtles: Known Risk but Little Information
    9. 20.9. Conclusion
  27. Conversions
  28. Index