### Advanced Counting Formulas

Most of the basic examples I presented earlier in this chapter use functions or formulas that perform conditional counting. The advanced counting formulas that I present here represent more complex examples for counting worksheet cells, based on various types of criteria.

Note

Some of these examples are array formulas.

#### Counting cells by using the COUNTIF function

Excel’s `COUNTIF` function is useful for single-criterion counting formulas. The `COUNTIF` function takes two arguments:

range: The range that contains the values that determine whether to include a particular cell in the count

criteria: The logical criteria that determine whether to include a particular cell in the count

Table 17-2 lists several examples of formulas that use the `COUNTIF` function. These formulas all work with a range named Data. As you can see, the criteria argument proves quite flexible. You can use constants, expressions, functions, cell references, and even wildcard characters (* and ?).

Table 17-2. Examples of Formulas Using the COUNTIF Function`=COUNTIF(Data,12)` | Returns the number of cells containing the value 12 |

`=COUNTIF(Data,"<0")` | Returns the number of cells containing a negative value |

`=COUNTIF(Data,"<>0")` | Returns the number of cells not equal to 0 |

`=COUNTIF(Data,">5")` | Returns the number of cells greater than 5 |

`=COUNTIF(Data,A1)` | Returns the number of cells equal to the contents of cell A1 |

`=COUNTIF(Data,">"&A1)` | Returns the number of cells greater than the value in cell A1 |

`=COUNTIF(Data,"*") ...` |