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OFDMA Mobile Broadband Communications

Book Description

Written by the pioneers of Flash-OFDM, arguably the first commercially developed OFDMA-based mobile broadband system in the world, this book teaches OFDMA from first principles, enabling readers to understand mobile broadband as a whole. The book examines the key requirements for data-centric mobile; how OFDMA fits well with data networks; why mobile broadband needs to be IP-based; and how to bridge communications theory to real-world air interface design and make a good system choice between performance and complexity. It also explores the future of wireless technologies beyond conventional cellular architecture. One of the key challenges faced by newcomers to this field is how to apply the wireless communications theory and principles to the real world and how to understand sophisticated commercial systems such as LTE. The authors use their firsthand experience to help graduate students, researchers and professionals working on 4G to bridge the gap between theory and practice.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Epigraph
  4. Title Page
  5. Copyright
  6. Dedication
  7. Table of Contents
  8. Foreword
  9. Preface
  10. List of Notation
  11. List of Abbreviations
  12. 1 Introduction
    1. 1.1 Evolution towards mobile broadband communications
    2. 1.2 System design principles of wireless communications
    3. 1.3 Why OFDMA for mobile broadband?
    4. 1.4 Systems approach and outline of the book
  13. 2 Elements of OFDMA
    1. 2.1 OFDM
      1. 2.1.1 Tone signals
      2. 2.1.2 Cyclic prefix
      3. 2.1.3 Time-frequency resource
      4. 2.1.4 Block signal processing
      5. Discussion notes 2.1 FFT/IFFT
      6. Discussion notes 2.2 Filtering
      7. Discussion notes 2.3 Equalization
    2. 2.2 From OFDM to OFDMA
      1. 2.2.1 Basic principles
      2. 2.2.2 Comparison: OFDMA, CDMA, and FDMA
      3. 2.2.3 Inter-cell interference averaging: OFDMA versus CDMA
      4. 2.2.4 Tone hopping: averaging versus peaking
      5. Practical example 2.1 Physical resource block allocation and hopping in LTE data channels
      6. 2.2.5 Time-frequency synchronization and control
      7. 2.2.6 Block signal processing
      8. Discussion notes 2.4 Block front-end processing at the base station
      9. Discussion notes 2.5Wideband processing at the user
    3. 2.3 Peak-to-average power ratio and SC-FDMA
      1. 2.3.1 PAPR problem
      2. 2.3.2 PAPR of OFDMA
      3. 2.3.3 SC-FDMA and PAP reduction
      4. 2.3.4 Frequency domain equalization at the SC-FDMA receiver
      5. Discussion notes 2.6 SINR degradation in SC-FDMA
      6. 2.3.5 System aspects of SC-FDMA
      7. Practical example 2.2 Uplink data and control channels in LTE
    4. 2.4 Real-world impairments
      1. 2.4.1 Carrier frequency offset and Doppler effect
      2. 2.4.2 Arrival time beyond the cyclic prefix
      3. 2.4.3 Sampling rate mismatch
      4. 2.4.4 I/Q imbalance
      5. 2.4.5 Power amplifier nonlinear distortion
      6. Discussion notes 2.7 Determination of OFDMA parameters
    5. 2.5 Cross interference and self-noise models
      1. 2.5.1 Cross interference and self-noise due to ICI
    6. 2.6 Self-noise due to imperfect channel estimation
      1. 2.6.1 Self-noise measurement via null pilot
    7. 2.7 Summary of key ideas
  14. 3 System design principles
    1. 3.1 System benefits of OFDMA
    2. 3.2 Fading channel mitigation and exploitation
      1. 3.2.1 Fading mitigation
      2. 3.2.2 Fading exploitation
      3. 3.2.3 Mitigation or exploitation?
    3. 3.3 Intra-cell user multiplexing
    4. 3.4 Inter-cell interference management
    5. 3.4.1 Interference averaging and active control
      1. 3.4.2 Universal versus fractional frequency reuse
    6. 3.5 Multiple antenna techniques
      1. 3.5.1 System benefits
      2. 3.5.2 OFDMA advantages
    7. 3.6 Scheduling
    8. 3.7 Network architecture and airlink support
      1. 3.7.1 Unplanned deployment of base stations
      2. 3.7.2 Mobile IP-based handoff
    9. 3.8 Summary of key ideas: evolution of system design principles
  15. 4 Mitigation and exploitation of multipath fading
    1. 4.1 Multipath fading channel
      1. 4.1.1 Impulse response model
      2. 4.1.2 Amplitude statistics
      3. 4.1.3 Channel variation in time
      4. 4.1.4 Channel variation in frequency
      5. 4.1.5 Gaussian-Markov model
    2. 4.2 Communications over a fading channel: the single-user case
      1. 4.2.1 Performance penalty due to multipath fading
      2. 4.2.2 Mitigation of fading via channel state feedback
      3. Discussion notes 4.1 Practical consideration of feedback-based approaches
      4. 4.2.3 Mitigation of fading via diversity
      5. Discussion notes 4.2 Tradeoff considerations for achieving diversity
      6. 4.2.4 Feedback or diversity
    3. 4.3 Communications over a fading channel: the multiuser case
      1. 4.3.1 Fading channel and multiuser diversity
      2. Practical example 4.1 Multiuser diversity in the downlink: EV-DO
      3. Practical example 4.2 Multiuser diversity in the uplink: Flash-OFDM and LTE
      4. 4.3.2 Exploring multiuser diversity in frequency and space
      5. 4.3.3 Multiuser or single-user diversity
    4. 4.4 Summary of key ideas
  16. 5 Intra-cell user multiplexing
    1. 5.1 Orthogonal multiplexing
      1. 5.1.1 Orthogonal multiplexing in the perfect model
      2. Discussion notes 5.1 An analysis of optimal power and bandwidth allocation in a cellular downlink
      3. Practical example 5.1 Downlink user multiplexing: EV-DO,HSDPA, and LTE
      4. 5.1.2 Orthogonal multiplexing in the cross interference model
      5. Discussion notes 5.2 An analysis of optimal power and bandwidth allocation for orthogonal uplink multiplexing with cross interference in the power limited regime
      6. 5.1.3 Orthogonal multiplexing in the self-noise model
    2. 5.2 Non-orthogonal multiplexing
      1. 5.2.1 Non-orthogonal multiplexing in the perfect model
      2. 5.2.2 Non-orthogonal multiplexing in the cross interference and self-noise models
      3. 5.2.3 Superposition-by-position coding
    3. 5.3 Inter-sector interference management
      1. 5.3.1 Sectorization
      2. 5.3.2 Synchronized sectors
      3. 5.3.3 Users at sector edge
    4. 5.4 Summary of key ideas
  17. 6 Inter-cell interference management
    1. 6.1 Analysis of SIR distributions
      1. 6.1.1 Downlink SIR
      2. Discussion notes 6.1 An analysis of C/I distribution with randomly-placed base stations
      3. 6.1.2 Uplink SIR
    2. 6.2 Uplink power control and SINR assignment in OFDMA
      1. 6.2.1 SINR feasibility region
      2. 6.2.2 Distributed power control
      3. 6.2.3 SINR assignment
      4. 6.2.4 Joint bandwidth and SINR assignment
      5. 6.2.5 Utility maximization in SINR assignment
      6. Practical example 6.1 Uplink power control in LTE
    3. 6.3 Fractional frequency reuse
      1. 6.3.1 A two-cell analysis
      2. Discussion notes 6.2 Motivation of fractional frequency reuse from a different angle
      3. 6.3.2 Static FFR in a multi-cell scenario
      4. 6.3.3 Breathing cells: FFR in the time domain
      5. 6.3.4 Adaptive FFR
      6. Practical example 6.2 Inter-cell interference coordination in LTE
    4. 6.4 Summary of key ideas
  18. 7 Use of multiple antennas
    1. 7.1 MIMO channel modeling
      1. 7.1.1 Linear antenna arrays
      2. 7.1.2 Polarized antennas
    2. 7.2 SU-MIMO techniques
      1. 7.2.1 Channel state information at both transmitter and receiver
      2. 7.2.2 Channel state information only at receiver
      3. 7.2.3 Multiplexing with polarized antennas
    3. 7.3 Multiuser MIMO techniques
      1. 7.3.1 Uplink SDMA
      2. 7.3.2 Downlink beamforming
    4. 7.4 Multi-cell MIMO techniques
      1. 7.4.1 Coordinated beamforming
      2. 7.4.2 Inter-sector beamforming
      3. 7.4.3 Inter-cell interference avoidance with polarized antennas
      4. Practical example 7.1 Multiple antenna techniques in LTE
    5. 7.5 Summary of key ideas
  19. 8 Scheduling
    1. 8.1 Scheduling for infinitely backlogged traffic
    2. 8.1.1 Fairness based on utility functions
      1. 8.1.2 Gradient-based scheduling schemes
    3. 8.2 Scheduling for elastic traffic
      1. 8.2.1 Congestion control and scheduling
      2. Discussion notes 8.1 TCP performance over wireless
    4. 8.3 Scheduling for inelastic traffic
      1. 8.3.1 Throughput optimal scheduling
      2. 8.3.2 Tradeoff between queue-awareness and channel-awareness
      3. 8.3.3 Admission control
    5. 8.4 Multi-class scheduling
    6. 8.5 Flow level scheduling
    7. 8.6 Signaling for scheduling
      1. 8.6.1 Dynamic packet scheduling
      2. Practical example 8.1 Signaling for scheduling in LTE
      3. 8.6.2 Semi-persistent scheduling
      4. Practical example 8.2 Semi-persistent scheduling in LTE for VoIP
      5. 8.6.3 MAC state scheduling
      6. Practical example 8.3 LTE DRX mode and Flash-OFDM HOLD state
    8. 8.7 Summary of key ideas
  20. 9 Handoff in IP-based network architecture
    1. 9.1 IP-based cellular network architecture
      1. 9.1.1 Motivation for IP-based cellular network architecture
      2. 9.1.2 Description of IP-based cellular networks
    2. 9.2 Soft handoff in CDMA
    3. 9.3 Make-before-break handoff in OFDMA
      1. 9.3.1 Parallel independent links to multiple base stations
      2. 9.3.2 Mobile IP-based MBB handoff procedure
      3. 9.3.3 Uplink macro-diversity
      4. 9.3.4 Downlink macro-diversity
      5. 9.3.5 MBB handoff in an FFR or multi-carrier scenario
    4. 9.4 Break-before-make handoff in OFDMA
      1. 9.4.1 BBM handoff in an FFR or multi-carrier scenario
      2. 9.4.2 Expedited BBM handoff
    5. 9.5 Handoff initiation
      1. 9.5.1 The universal frequency reuse case
      2. Practical example 9.1 Flash signaling in Flash-OFDM
      3. Practical example 9.2 Handoff in a railway Flash-OFDM network
      4. 9.5.2 The non-universal frequency reuse cases
    6. 9.6 Mobile-controlled versus network-controlled handoff
      1. Practical example 9.3 Cell search and random access in LTE handoff
    7. 9.7 Summary of key ideas
  21. 10 Beyond conventional cellular frameworks
    1. 10.1 Heterogeneous topology
      1. 10.1.1   Relays
      2. 10.1.2   Femtocells
      3. 10.1.3   Device-to-device communications
      4. Discussion notes 10.1 Gaussian interference channel capacity
    2. 10.2 Cooperative communication
      1. 10.2.1  User cooperation
      2. 10.2.2  Network cooperation
    3. 10.3 Cognitive radio
      1. 10.3.1    Spectrum sensing
      2. 10.3.2    Spectrum sharing
      3. Practical example 10.1 LTE-Advanced
      4. Practical example 10.2 Cognitive radio RAN in TV white spaces (IEEE 802.22)
    4. 10.4 Summary of key ideas
  22. A Overview of system operations
    1. A.1 Cell search, synchronization, and identification
    2. A.2 Link establishment
    3. A.3 Traffic control and transmission
    4. A.4 Sleep state
    5. A.5 Handoff
  23. B OFDM point-to-point communications
    1. B.1 Signal-presence detection
    2. B.2 Synchronization
    3. B.3 Channel estimation
    4. B.4 Error correction
  24. C Brief review of channel capacity
    1. C.1 AWGN channel
    2. C.2 Flat fading channel
      1. C.2.1 Channel side information only at receiver
      2. C.2.2 Channel side information at both receiver and transmitter
    3. C.3 Frequency selective fading channel
    4. C.4 Multiuser capacity
  25. References
  26. Index