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OFDM for Underwater Acoustic Communications

Book Description

A blend of introductory material and advanced signal processing and communication techniques, of critical importance to underwater system and network development

This book, which is the first to describe the processing techniques central to underwater OFDM, is arranged into four distinct sections: First, it describes the characteristics of underwater acoustic channels, and stresses the difference from wireless radio channels. Then it goes over the basics of OFDM and channel coding. The second part starts with an overview of the OFDM receiver, and develops various modules for the receiver design in systems with single or multiple transmitters. This is the main body of the book. Extensive experimental data sets are used to verify the receiver performance. In the third part, the authors discuss applications of the OFDM receiver in i) deep water channels, which may contain very long separated multipath clusters, ii) interference-rich environments, where an unintentional interference such as Sonar will be present, and iii) a network with multiple users where both non-cooperative and cooperative underwater communications are developed. Lastly, it describes the development of a positioning system with OFDM waveforms, and the progress on the OFDM modem development. Closely related industries include the development and manufacturing of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and scientific sensory equipment. AUVs and sensors in the future could integrate modems, based on the OFDM technology described in this book.

Contents includes: Underwater acoustic channel characteristics/OFDM basics/Peak-to-average-ratio control/Detection and Doppler estimation (Doppler scale and CFO)/Channel estimation and noise estimation/A block-by-block progressive receiver and performance results/Extensions to multi-input multi-output OFDM/Receiver designs for multiple users/Cooperative underwater OFDM (Physical layer network coding and dynamic coded cooperation)/Localization with OFDM waveforms/Modem developments

A valuable resource for Graduate and postgraduate students on electrical engineering or physics courses; electrical engineers, underwater acousticians, communications engineers

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Preface
  6. Acronyms
  7. Notation
  8. Chapter 1: Introduction
    1. 1.1 Background and Context
    2. 1.2 UWA Channel Characteristics
    3. 1.3 Passband Channel Input–Output Relationship
    4. 1.4 Modulation Techniques for UWA Communications
    5. 1.5 Organization of the Book
  9. Chapter 2: OFDM Basics
    1. 2.1 Zero-Padded OFDM
    2. 2.2 Cyclic-Prefixed OFDM
    3. 2.3 OFDM Related Issues
    4. 2.4 Implementation via Discrete Fourier Transform
    5. 2.5 Challenges and Remedies for OFDM
    6. 2.6 MIMO OFDM
    7. 2.7 Bibliographical Notes
  10. Chapter 3: Nonbinary LDPC Coded OFDM
    1. 3.1 Channel Coding for OFDM
    2. 3.2 Nonbinary LDPC Codes
    3. 3.3 Encoding
    4. 3.4 Decoding
    5. 3.5 Code Design
    6. 3.6 Simulation Results of Coded OFDM
    7. 3.7 Bibliographical Notes
  11. Chapter 4: PAPR Control
    1. 4.1 PAPR Comparison
    2. 4.2 PAPR Reduction
    3. 4.3 Bibliographical Notes
  12. Chapter 5: Receiver Overview and Preprocessing
    1. 5.1 OFDM Receiver Overview
    2. 5.2 Receiver Preprocessing
    3. 5.3 Frequency-Domain Input–Output Relationship
    4. 5.4 OFDM Receiver Categorization
    5. 5.5 Receiver Performance Bound with Simulated Channels
    6. 5.6 Extension to CP-OFDM
    7. 5.7 Bibliographical Notes
  13. Chapter 6: Detection, Synchronization and Doppler Scale Estimation
    1. 6.1 Cross-Correlation Based Methods
    2. 6.2 Detection, Synchronization and Doppler Scale Estimation with CP-OFDM
    3. 6.3 Synchronization and Doppler Scale Estimation for One ZP-OFDM Block
    4. 6.4 Simulation Results for Doppler Scale Estimation
    5. 6.5 Design Examples in Practical Systems
    6. 6.6 Residual Doppler Frequency Shift Estimation
    7. 6.7 Bibliographical Notes
  14. Chapter 7: Channel and Noise Variance Estimation
    1. 7.1 Problem Formulation for ICI-Ignorant Channel Estimation
    2. 7.2 ICI-Ignorant Sparse Channel Sensing
    3. 7.3 ICI-Aware Sparse Channel Sensing
    4. 7.4 Sparse Recovery Algorithms
    5. 7.5 Extension to Multi-Input Channels
    6. 7.6 Noise Variance Estimation
    7. 7.7 Noise Prewhitening
    8. 7.8 Bibliographical Notes
  15. Chapter 8: Data Detection
    1. 8.1 Symbol-by-Symbol Detection in ICI-Ignorant OFDM Systems
    2. 8.2 Block-Based Data Detection in ICI-Aware OFDM Systems
    3. 8.3 Data Detection for OFDM Systems with Banded ICI
    4. 8.4 Symbol Detectors for MIMO OFDM
    5. 8.5 MCMC Method for Data Detection in MIMO OFDM
    6. 8.6 Bibliographical Notes
  16. Chapter 9: OFDM Receivers with Block-by-Block Processing
    1. 9.1 Noniterative ICI-Ignorant Receiver
    2. 9.2 Noniterative ICI-Aware Receiver
    3. 9.3 Iterative Receiver Processing
    4. 9.4 ICI-Progressive Receiver
    5. 9.5 Simulation Results: ICI-Progressive Receiver
    6. 9.6 Experimental Results: ICI-Progressive Receiver
    7. 9.7 Discussion
    8. 9.8 Bibliographical Notes
  17. Chapter 10: OFDM Receiver with Clustered Channel Adaptation
    1. 10.1 Illustration of Channel Dynamics
    2. 10.2 Modeling Cluster-Based Block-to-Block Channel Variation
    3. 10.3 Cluster-Adaptation Based Block-to-Block Receiver
    4. 10.4 Experimental Results: MACE10
    5. 10.5 Experimental Results: SPACE08
    6. 10.6 Discussion
    7. 10.7 Bibliographical Notes
  18. Chapter 11: OFDM in Deep Water Horizontal Communications
    1. 11.1 System Model for Deep Water Horizontal Communications
    2. 11.2 Decision-Feedback Based Receiver Design
    3. 11.3 Factor-Graph Based Joint IBI/ICI Equalization
    4. 11.4 Iterative Block-to-Block Receiver Processing
    5. 11.5 Simulation Results
    6. 11.6 Experimental Results in the AUTEC Environment
    7. 11.7 Extension to Underwater Broadcasting Networks
    8. 11.8 Bibliographical Notes
  19. Chapter 12: OFDM Receiver with Parameterized External Interference Cancellation
    1. 12.1 Interference Parameterization
    2. 12.2 An Iterative OFDM Receiver with Interference Cancellation
    3. 12.3 Simulation Results
    4. 12.4 Experimental Results: AUTEC10
    5. 12.5 Emulated Results: SPACE08
    6. 12.6 Discussion
    7. 12.7 Bibliographical Notes
  20. Chapter 13: Co-located MIMO OFDM
    1. 13.1 ICI-Ignorant MIMO-OFDM System Model
    2. 13.2 ICI-Ignorant MIMO-OFDM Receiver
    3. 13.3 Simulation Results: ICI-Ignorant MIMO OFDM
    4. 13.4 SPACE08 Experimental Results: ICI-Ignorant MIMO OFDM
    5. 13.5 ICI-Aware MIMO-OFDM System Model
    6. 13.6 ICI-Progressive MIMO-OFDM Receiver
    7. 13.7 Simulation Results: ICI-Progressive MIMO OFDM
    8. 13.8 SPACE08 Experiment: ICI-Progressive MIMO OFDM
    9. 13.9 MACE10 Experiment: ICI-Progressive MIMO OFDM
    10. 13.10 Initialization for the ICI-Progressive MIMO OFDM
    11. 13.11 Bibliographical Notes
  21. Chapter 14: Distributed MIMO OFDM
    1. 14.1 System Model
    2. 14.2 Multiple-Resampling Front-End Processing
    3. 14.3 Multiuser Detection (MUD) Based Iterative Receiver
    4. 14.4 Single-User Detection (SUD) Based Iterative Receiver
    5. 14.5 An Emulated Two-User System Using MACE10 Data
    6. 14.6 Emulated MIMO OFDM with MACE10 and SPACE08 Data
    7. 14.7 Bibliographical Notes
  22. Chapter 15: Asynchronous Multiuser OFDM
    1. 15.1 System Model for Asynchronous Multiuser OFDM
    2. 15.2 Overlapped Truncation and Interference Aggregation
    3. 15.3 An Asynchronous Multiuser OFDM Receiver
    4. 15.4 Investigation on Multiuser Asynchronism in an Example Network
    5. 15.5 Simulation Results
    6. 15.6 Emulated Results: MACE10
    7. 15.7 Bibliographical Notes
  23. Chapter 16: OFDM in Relay Channels
    1. 16.1 Dynamic Coded Cooperation in a Single-Relay Network
    2. 16.2 A Design Example Based on Rate-Compatible Channel Coding
    3. 16.3 A Design Example Based on Layered Erasure- and Error-Correction Coding
    4. 16.4 Dynamic Block Cycling over a Line Network
    5. 16.5 Bibliographical Notes
  24. Chapter 17: OFDM-Modulated Physical-Layer Network Coding
    1. 17.1 System Model for the OFDM-Modulated PLNC
    2. 17.2 Three Iterative OFDM Receivers
    3. 17.3 Outage Probability Bounds in Time-Invariant Channels
    4. 17.4 Simulation Results
    5. 17.5 Experimental Results: SPACE08
    6. 17.6 Bibliographical Notes
  25. Chapter 18: OFDM Modem Development
    1. 18.1 Components of an Acoustic Modem
    2. 18.2 OFDM Acoustic Modem in Air
    3. 18.3 OFDM Lab Modem
    4. 18.4 AquaSeNT OFDM Modem
    5. 18.5 Bibliographical Notes
  26. Chapter 19: Underwater Ranging and Localization
    1. 19.1 Ranging
    2. 19.2 Underwater GPS
    3. 19.3 On-Demand Asynchronous Localization
    4. 19.4 Bibliographical Notes
  27. Appendix A: Compressive Sensing
    1. A.1 Compressive Sensing
    2. A.2 Sparse Recovery Algorithms
    3. A.3 Applications of Compressive Sensing
  28. Appendix B: Experiment Description
    1. B.1 SPACE08 Experiment
    2. B.2 MACE10 Experiment
  29. References
  30. Index
  31. End User License Agreement