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OCA Oracle Database 11g: SQL Fundamentals I: A Real-World Certification Guide by Steve Ries

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Structured Query Language

SQL was developed by Donald Chamberlain and Raymond Boyce in the early 1970s as a language to retrieve data from IBM's early relational database management systems. It was accepted as a standard by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI ) in 1986. SQL is generally referred to as a fourth-generation language (4GL), in contrast with third-generation languages (3GLs) such as C, Java, and Python. As a 4GL, the syntax of SQL is designed to be even closer to human language than 3GLs, making it relatively natural to learn. Some do not refer to SQL as a programming language at all, but rather a data sub-language.

A language for relational databases

Before we look at what SQL (pronounced either 'S-Q-L' or 'sequel') is, ...

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