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Nuclear Fuel Cycle Science and Engineering

Book Description

The nuclear fuel cycle is characterised by the wide range of scientific disciplines and technologies it employs. The development of ever more integrated processes across the many stages of the nuclear fuel cycle therefore confronts plant manufacturers and operators with formidable challenges. Nuclear fuel cycle science and engineering describes both the key features of the complete nuclear fuel cycle and the wealth of recent research in this important field.

Part one provides an introduction to the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiological protection, security and public acceptance of nuclear technology are considered, along with the economics of nuclear power. Part two goes on to explore materials mining, enrichment, fuel element design and fabrication for the uranium and thorium nuclear fuel cycle. The impact of nuclear reactor design and operation on fuel element irradiation is the focus of part three, including water and gas-cooled reactors, along with CANDU and Generation IV designs. Finally, part four reviews spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management.

With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Nuclear fuel cycle science and engineering provides an important review for all those involved in the design, fabrication, use and disposal of nuclear fuels as well as regulatory bodies and researchers in this field.

  • Provides a comprehensive and holistic review of the complete nuclear fuel cycle
  • Reviews the issues presented by the nuclear fuel cycle, including radiological protection and security, public acceptance and economic analysis
  • Discusses issues at the front-end of the fuel cycle, including uranium and thorium mining, enrichment and fuel design and fabrication

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributor contact details
  6. Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy
  7. National Nuclear Laboratory
  8. Part I: Introduction to the nuclear fuel cycle
    1. Chapter 1: Nuclear power: origins and outlook
      1. Abstract:
      2. 1.1 The rise of nuclear power: 1938 to 1970
      3. 1.2 The fall: 1970 to the mid-1990s
      4. 1.3 The resurgence: the mid-1990s to the present day
      5. 1.4 Future trends
    2. Chapter 2: Radiological protection and the nuclear fuel cycle
      1. Abstract:
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 The international system of radiological protection
      4. 2.3 International safety standards
      5. 2.4 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety requirements and guidance for radiation protection
      6. 2.5 Radiation protection in the nuclear fuel cycle
      7. 2.6 Conclusions and future trends
      8. 2.8 Appendix: Requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards relevant to radiological safety in the nuclear fuel cycle
    3. Chapter 3: Safeguards, security, safety and the nuclear fuel cycle
      1. Abstract:
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.2 Nuclear safeguards
      4. 3.3 Nuclear security
      5. 3.4 Nuclear safety
      6. 3.5 Conclusion and future trends
      7. 3.6 Sources of further information and advice
    4. Chapter 4: Public acceptability of nuclear technology
      1. Abstract:
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 Historical background
      4. 4.3 Investigating determinants of acceptability of nuclear technology
      5. 4.4 Beyond an instrumental approach to public acceptability
      6. 4.5 Future trends
    5. Chapter 5: The economics of nuclear power
      1. Abstract:
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 Levelised cost of electricity (LCOE)
      4. 5.3 Financing of NPPs
      5. 5.4 Conclusions
      6. 5.5 Future trends
  9. Part II: Uranium and thorium nuclear fuel cycles: materials mining, enrichment and fuel element design and fabrication
    1. Chapter 6: Mining and milling of uranium
      1. Abstract:
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 Uranium mining and milling
      4. 6.3 World uranium mines
      5. 6.4 Environmental and social impacts
      6. 6.5 Secondary sources of uranium
      7. 6.6 Conclusion and future trends
    2. Chapter 7: Uranium conversion and enrichment
      1. Abstract:
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 Uranium hexafluoride
      4. 7.3 Conversion
      5. 7.4 Enrichment
      6. 7.5 Uranium hexafluoride quality, sampling and analysis
      7. 7.6 Tails management
      8. 7.7 Transport cylinder management
      9. 7.8 Nuclear safeguards
      10. 7.9 Future trends
    3. Chapter 8: Development of the thorium fuel cycle
      1. Abstract:
      2. 8.1 Reasons for considering the thorium cycle
      3. 8.2 History and development of the thorium fuel cycle
      4. 8.3 Key technological features of the thorium fuel cycle and industrial challenges
      5. 8.4 Generic issues linked to the deployment of the thorium fuel cycle
      6. 8.5 Conclusion
    4. Chapter 9: Nuclear fuel assembly design and fabrication
      1. Abstract:
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Principal design features of LWR fuel assemblies
      4. 9.3 Basic reactor physics affecting fuel assembly design
      5. 9.4 Fuel rod design and fabrication
      6. 9.5 Fuel forms
      7. 9.6 Factors affecting fuel rod endurance
      8. 9.7 Future trends
      9. 9.8 Sources of further information
  10. Part III: Impact of nuclear reactor design and operation on fuel element irradiation
    1. Chapter 10: Water cooled thermal reactor designs, operation and fuel cycle
      1. Abstract:
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Main characteristic of LWRs
      4. 10.3 Pressurised water reactor (PWR) design features
      5. 10.4 Factors affecting reactivity and their impact on PWR reactor design
      6. 10.5 PWR core design
      7. 10.6 Boiling water reactor (BWR) design features
      8. 10.7 Factors affecting reactivity and their impact on BWR reactor design
      9. 10.8 BWR core and fuel assembly design
      10. 10.9 Safety features and issues
      11. 10.10 Advantages and limitations
      12. 10.11 Future trends
      13. 10.12 Sources of further information
    2. Chapter 11: CANDU nuclear reactor designs, operation and fuel cycle
      1. Abstract:
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 CANDU reactor features
      4. 11.3 CANDU fuel and refuelling
      5. 11.4 CANDU reactor control and safety
      6. 11.5 Future trends
    3. Chapter 12: Gas-cooled nuclear reactor designs, operation and fuel cycle
      1. Abstract:
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 Magnox reactors
      4. 12.3 The advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR)
      5. 12.3.5 Fuel storage
      6. 12.3.6 Waste management and decommissioning
      7. 12.4 Safety features and issues
      8. 12.5 The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR)
      9. 12.5.2 Main plant features
      10. 12.5.3 Fuel design and refuelling
      11. 12.6 Acknowledgements
    4. Chapter 13: Generation IV reactor designs, operation and fuel cycle
      1. Abstract:
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 General issues in developing sustainable fuel cycles
      4. 13.3 The Generation IV Initiative
      5. 13.4 Common Generation IV requirements for fuels and fuel cycles
      6. 13.5 The very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) and its fuel cycle
      7. 13.6 The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) and its fuel cycle
      8. 13.7 The molten salt reactor (MSR) and its fuel cycle
      9. 13.8 The sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) and its fuel cycle
      10. 13.9 The lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) and its fuel cycle
      11. 13.10 The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) and its fuel cycle
      12. 13.11 Future trends
      13. 13.12 Sources of further information and advice
    5. Chapter 14: Understanding and modelling fuel behaviour under irradiation
      1. Abstract:
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Description of important phenomena
      4. 14.3 Modelling fuel behaviour under irradiation
      5. 14.4 Sources of further information
  11. Part IV: Spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management
    1. Chapter 15: Nuclear management of spent fuel from power reactors
      1. Abstract:
      2. 15.1 Types of nuclear reactors and nuclear fuel arisings
      3. 15.2 International initiatives in spent fuel management
      4. 15.3 Characteristics of spent nuclear fuel
      5. 15.4 Spent fuel management strategies
      6. 15.5 Spent fuel storage
      7. 15.6 Spent fuel disposal
      8. 15.7 Spent fuel reprocessing and recycling
      9. 15.8 High-level radioactive waste (HLW) storage and disposal
    2. Chapter 16: Reprocessing of spent oxide fuel from nuclear power reactors
      1. Abstract:
      2. 16.1 Introduction: closed and open cycles
      3. 16.2 Targets and constraints of reprocessing
      4. 16.3 Main industrial reprocessing process (PUREX)
      5. 16.4 Reprocessing plant
      6. 16.5 Reprocessing: industrial organization
      7. 16.6 Closed cycles
      8. 16.7 Future trends
      9. 16.8 Sources of further information and advice
      10. 16.9 Appendix: Industrial-scale reprocessing of spent oxide fuel in selected countries
    3. Chapter 17: Partitioning and transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste
      1. Abstract:
      2. 17.1 Introduction
      3. 17.2 Physics of transmutation
      4. 17.3 Transmutation in different types of reactors
      5. 17.4 Implementation scenarios
      6. 17.5 Potential benefits of P&T for a repository
      7. 17.6 Future trends and R&D challenges
      8. 17.7 Conclusions
      9. 17.8 Acknowledgement
    4. Chapter 18: Disposal of radioactive waste
      1. Abstract:
      2. 18.1 Introduction
      3. 18.2 Nature of radioactive waste
      4. 18.3 Pre-disposal
      5. 18.4 Framework for disposal
      6. 18.5 Modern disposal practice
      7. 18.6 Future trends
      8. 18.7 Sources of further information and advice
    5. Chapter 19: Packaging and transport of radioactive material in the nuclear fuel cycle
      1. Abstract:
      2. 19.1 Introduction
      3. 19.2 Safety and security in the packaging and transport of radioactive material
      4. 19.3 Governing international regulatory security principles and guidance in radioactive materials’ packaging and transport
      5. 19.4 Regulatory requirements for packages and transport
      6. 19.5 Transport experience and operations
      7. 19.6 Current technologies and future trends
      8. 19.8 Acknowledgements
  12. Co-operation in the field of nuclear power: An overview of non-commercial international nuclear power organisations
  13. Index