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Nuclear Energy, 6th Edition

Book Description

Nuclear Energy, 6th ed. is one of the most popular text ever published due to its clear, accessible and comprehensive coverage of basic nuclear physics and chemistry. Nuclear energy is energy derived from the controlled release of nuclear transformation of materials, generally the decay of unstable neutrons during fission or fusion of atoms, therefore, this newest edition will continue the tradition of offering a holistic treatment of everything the undergraduate engineering student needs to know, in a clear, concise overview of nuclear physics and chemistry, from the behavior of isotopes, to the nature of electromagnetic radiation.

This book has long been a very popular and successful textbook for undergraduate students in a variety of engineering and scientic disciplines. It identifies with their need of a broadly based overview of all aspects of nuclear science and its applications to energy generation and useful radiological technologies in medicine and industry. This edition will continue that tradition with updates that will guarantee that the reader is offered the very latest on where nuclear technology stands today. The popular end-of-chapter exercises will be updated and expanded to give the student even more opportunity to reinforce the content learned in each chapter. It is also beneficial to the professional engineers, scientists and managers in the power industries, medical industries and other areas that make use of nuclear or radiological energy. Professionals will once again find this book highly readable, logical and extremely useful.

• New coverage on nuclear safety concerns following 9/11, including radiation and terrorism, nuclear security, use of nuclear techniques to detect weapons materials
• New developments in the use of nuclear-powered systems for unmanned space vehicles and for generating cheap and abundant hydrogen from water using nuclear technology
• New nuclear power prospects sections include desalination and the use of hydrogen in transportation
• Improved and expanded end-of-chapter problems, suggested computer exercises and updated list of references
• Also available: a website for students with computer programs and a website for intructors with solutions of exercises

Table of Contents

  1. Brief Table of Contents
  2. Table of Contents
  3. Dedication
  4. Preface
  5. About the Author
  6. Part I. Basic Concepts
    1. Chapter 1. Energy
      1. 1.1. Forces and Energy
      2. 1.2. Thermal Energy
      3. 1.3. Radiant Energy
      4. 1.4. The Equivalence of Matter and Energy
      5. 1.5. Energy and the World
      6. 1.6. Summary
      7. 1.7. Exercises
      8. Computer Exercises
      9. 1.8. General References
    2. Chapter 2. Atoms and Nuclei
      1. 2.1. Atomic Theory
      2. 2.2. Gases
      3. 2.3. The Atom and Light
      4. 2.4. Laser Beams
      5. 2.5. Nuclear Structure
      6. 2.6. Sizes and Masses of Nuclei
      7. 2.7. Binding Energy
      8. 2.8. Summary
      9. 2.9. Exercises
      10. Computer Exercises
      11. 2.10 References
    3. Chapter 3. Radioactivity
      1. 3.1. Radioactive Decay
      2. 3.2. The Decay Law
      3. 3.3. Radioactive Chains
      4. 3.4. Measurement of Half-Life
      5. 3.5. Summary
      6. 3.6. Exercises
        1. Computer Exercises
      7. 3.7 References
    4. Chapter 4. Nuclear Processes
      1. 4.1. Transmutation of Elements
      2. 4.2. Energy and Momentum Conservation
      3. 4.3. Reaction Rates
      4. 4.4. Particle Attenuation
      5. 4.5. Neutron Cross Sections
      6. 4.6. Neutron Migration
      7. 4.7. Summary
      8. 4.8. Exercises
      9. Computer Exercises
      10. 4.9 References
    5. Chapter 5. Radiation and Materials
      1. 5.1. Excitation and Ionization by Electrons
      2. 5.2. Heavy Charged Particle Stopping by Matter
      3. 5.3. Gamma Ray Interactions with Matter
        1. (a). Photon-Electron Scattering
        2. (b). Photoelectric Effect
        3. (c). Electron-Positron Pair Production
      4. 5.4. Neutron Reactions
      5. 5.5. Summary
      6. 5.6. Exercises
        1. Computer Exercises
      7. 5.7 References
    6. Chapter 6. Fission
      1. 6.1. The Fission Process
      2. 6.2. Energy Considerations
      3. 6.3. Byproducts of Fission
      4. 6.4. Energy from Nuclear Fuels
      5. 6.5. Summary
      6. 6.6. Exercises
        1. Computer Exercises
      7. 6.7 References
    7. Chapter 7. Fusion
      1. 7.1. Fusion Reactions
      2. 7.2. Electrostatic and Nuclear Forces
      3. 7.3. Thermonuclear Reactions in a Plasma
      4. 7.4. Summary
      5. 7.5. Exercises
        1. Computer Exercises
      6. 7.6 References
  7. Part II. Nuclear Systems
    1. Chapter 8. Particle Accelerators
      1. 8.1. Electric and Magnetic Forces
      2. 8.2. High-Voltage Machines
      3. 8.3. Linear Accelerator
      4. 8.4. Cyclotron and Betatron
      5. 8.5. Synchrotron and Collider
      6. 8.6. Spallation
      7. 8.7. Summary
      8. 8.8. Exercises
        1. Computer Exercises
      9. 8.9 References
    2. Chapter 9. Isotope Separators
      1. 9.1. Mass Spectrograph
      2. 9.2. Gaseous Diffusion Separator
      3. 9.3. Gas Centrifuge
      4. 9.4. Laser Isotope Separation
      5. 9.5. Separation of Deuterium
      6. 9.6. Summary
      7. 9.7. Exercises
        1. Computer Exercises
      8. 9.8 References
    3. Chapter 10. Radiation Detectors[†]
      1. 10.1. Gas Counters
      2. 10.2. Neutron Detectors
      3. 10.3. Scintillation Counters
      4. 10.4. Solid State Detectors
      5. 10.5. Statistics of Counting
      6. 10.6. Pulse Height Analysis
      7. 10.7. Advanced Detectors
      8. 10.8. Detectors and Counterterrorism
      9. 10.9. Summary
      10. 10.10. Exercises
        1. Computer Exercises
      11. 10.11 References
    4. Chapter 11. Neutron Chain Reactions
      1. 11.1. Criticality and Multiplication
      2. 11.2. Multiplication Factors
      3. 11.3. Neutron Flux and Reactor Power
      4. 11.4. Reactor Types
        1. (a). Purpose
        2. (b). Neutron Energy
        3. (c). Moderator and Coolant
        4. (d). Fuel
        5. (e). Arrangement
        6. (f). Structural Materials
      5. 11.5. Reactor Operation
      6. 11.6. The Natural Reactor
      7. 11.7. Summary
      8. 11.8. Exercises
        1. Computer Exercises
      9. 11.9 References
    5. Chapter 12. Nuclear Heat Energy
      1. 12.1. Methods of Heat Transmission
      2. 12.2. Heat Generation and Removal
      3. 12.3. Steam Generation and Electrical Power Production
      4. 12.4. Waste Heat Rejection
      5. 12.5. Summary
      6. 12.6. Exercises
        1. Computer Exercises
      7. 12.7 References
    6. Chapter 13. Breeder Reactors
      1. 13.1. The Concept of Breeding
      2. 13.2. Isotope Production and Consumption
      3. 13.3. The Fast Breeder Reactor
      4. 13.4. Integral Fast Reactor
      5. 13.5. Breeding and Uranium Resources
      6. 13.6. Summary
      7. 13.7. Exercises
        1. Computer Exercises
      8. 13.8 References
    7. Chapter 14. Fusion Reactors
      1. 14.1. Comparison of Fusion Reactions
      2. 14.2. Requirements for Practical Fusion Reactors
      3. 14.3. Magnetic Confinement Machines
      4. 14.4. Inertial Confinement Machines
      5. 14.5. Other Fusion Concepts
      6. 14.6. Prospects for Fusion
      7. 14.7. Summary
      8. 14.8. Exercises
        1. Computer Exercise
      9. 14.9 References
  8. Part III. Nuclear Energy and Man
    1. Chapter 15. The History of Nuclear Energy
      1. 15.1. The Rise of Nuclear Physics
      2. 15.2. The Discovery of Fission
      3. 15.3. The Development of Nuclear Weapons
      4. 15.4. Reactor Research and Development
      5. 15.5. The Nuclear Controversy
      6. 15.6. Summary
      7. 15.7. Exercises
      8. 15.8 References
    2. Chapter 16. Biological Effects of Radiation
      1. 16.1. Physiological Effects
      2. 16.2. Radiation Dose Units
      3. 16.3. Basis for Limits of Exposure
      4. 16.4. Sources of Radiation Dosage
      5. 16.5. Radiation and Terrorism
      6. 16.6. Summary
      7. 16.7. Exercises
        1. Computer Exercises
      8. 16.8 References
    3. Chapter 17. Information from Isotopes
      1. 17.1. Stable and Radioactive Isotopes
      2. 17.2. Tracer Techniques
      3. 17.3. Radiopharmaceuticals
      4. 17.4. Medical Imaging
      5. 17.5. Radioimmunoassay
      6. 17.6. Dating
      7. 17.7. Neutron Activation Analysis
      8. 17.8. Radiography
      9. 17.9. Radiation Gauges[†]
      10. 17.10. Summary
      11. 17.11. Exercises
        1. Computer Exercise
      12. 17.12 References
    4. Chapter 18. Useful Radiation Effects
      1. 18.1. Medical Treatment
      2. 18.2. Radiation Preservation of Food
      3. 18.3. Sterilization of Medical Supplies
      4. 18.4. Pathogen Reduction
      5. 18.5. Crop Mutations
      6. 18.6. Insect Control
      7. 18.7. Applications in Chemistry
      8. 18.8. Transmutation Doping of Semiconductors
      9. 18.9. Neutrons in Fundamental Physics
      10. 18.10. Neutrons in Biological Studies
      11. 18.11. Research with Synchrotron X-rays
      12. 18.12. Summary
      13. 18.13. Exercises
        1. Computer Exercises
      14. 18.14 References
    5. Chapter 19. Reactor Safety and Security
      1. 19.1. Neutron Population Growth
      2. 19.2. Assurance of Safety
      3. 19.3. Emergency Core Cooling and Containment
      4. 19.4. Probabilistic Risk Assessment
      5. 19.5. The Three Mile Island Accident and Lessons Learned
      6. 19.6. The Chernobyl Accident
      7. 19.7. Philosophy of Safety
      8. 19.8. Nuclear Security
      9. 19.9. Summary
      10. 19.10. Exercises
        1. Computer Exercises
      11. 19.11. References
    6. Chapter 20. Nuclear Propulsion
      1. 20.1. Reactors for Naval Propulsion[†]
      2. 20.2. Space Reactors
      3. 20.3. Space Isotopic Power
      4. 20.4. Future Nuclear Space Applications
      5. 20.5. Summary
      6. 20.6. Exercises
        1. Computer Exercises
      7. 20.7 References
    7. Chapter 21. Radiation Protection
      1. 21.1. Protective Measures
      2. 21.2. Calculation of Dose
      3. 21.3. Effects of Distance and Shielding
      4. 21.4. Internal Exposure
      5. 21.5. The Radon Problem
      6. 21.6. Environmental Radiological Assessment[†]
      7. 21.7. Newer Radiation Standards
      8. 21.8. Summary
      9. 21.9. Exercises
        1. Computer Exercises
      10. 21.10 References
    8. Chapter 22. Radioactive Waste Disposal
      1. 22.1. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle
      2. 22.2. Waste Classification
      3. 22.3. Spent Fuel Storage
      4. 22.4. Transportation
      5. 22.5. Reprocessing
      6. 22.6. High-Level Waste Disposal
      7. 22.7. Low-Level Waste Generation, Treatment, and Disposal
      8. 22.8. Environmental Restoration of Defense Sites
      9. 22.9. Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning
      10. 22.10. Summary
      11. 22.11. Exercises
        1. Computer Exercises
      12. 22.12 References
    9. Chapter 23. Laws, Regulations, and Organizations[†]
      1. 23.1. The Atomic Energy Acts
      2. 23.2. The Environmental Protection Agency
      3. 23.3. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission
      4. 23.4. The Department of Energy
      5. 23.5. International Atomic Energy Agency
      6. 23.6. Institute of Nuclear Power Operations
      7. 23.7. Department of Homeland Security
      8. 23.8. Other Organizations
      9. 23.9. Energy Policy Acts
      10. 23.10. Summary
      11. 23.11 References
    10. Chapter 24. Energy Economics
      1. 24.1. Components of Electrical Power Cost
      2. 24.2. Forecasts and Reality
      3. 24.3. Technical and Institutional Improvements
      4. 24.4. Effect of Deregulation and Restructuring
      5. 24.5. Advanced Reactors
      6. 24.6. Nuclear Power Renaissance
      7. 24.7. Summary
      8. 24.8. Exercises
      9. 24.9 References
    11. Chapter 25. International Nuclear Power
      1. 25.1. Reactor Distribution
      2. 25.2. Western Europe
      3. 25.3. Eastern Europe and the CIS
      4. 25.4. The Far East
      5. 25.5. Other Countries
      6. 25.6. Summary
      7. 25.7 References
    12. Chapter 26. Nuclear Explosions
      1. 26.1. Nuclear Power versus Nuclear Weapons
      2. 26.2. Nuclear Explosives
      3. 26.3. The Prevention of Nuclear War
      4. 26.4. Nonproliferation and Safeguards
      5. 26.5. IAEA Inspections
      6. 26.6. Production of Tritium
      7. 26.7. Management of Weapons Uranium and Plutonium
      8. 26.8. Summary
      9. 26.9. Exercises
        1. Computer Exercises
      10. 26.10. References
    13. Chapter 27. The Future
      1. 27.1. Dimensions
      2. 27.2. World Energy Use
      3. 27.3. Nuclear Energy and Sustainable Development
      4. 27.4. Greenhouse Effect and Global Climate Change
      5. 27.5. Perspectives
      6. 27.6. Desalination
      7. 27.7. Recycling and breeding
      8. 27.8. The Hydrogen Economy
      9. 27.9. Next Generation Nuclear Plant
      10. 27.10. Summary
      11. 27.11. Exercises
        1. Computer Exercises
      12. 27.12 References
  9. Appendix Appendix
    1. Conversion Factors
    2. Atomic and Nuclear Data
    3. Answers to Exercises
    4. Comments
    5. Original Computer Programs