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Non-Photorealistic Computer Graphics

Book Description

Even as developments in photorealistic computer graphics continue to affect our work and leisure activities, practitioners and researchers are devoting more and more attention to non-photorealistic (NPR) techniques for generating images that appear to have been created by hand. These efforts benefit every field in which illustrations—thanks to their ability to clarify, emphasize, and convey very precise meanings—offer advantages over photographs. These fields include medicine, architecture, entertainment, education, geography, publishing, and visualization.

Non-Photorealistic Computer Graphics is the first and only resource to examine non-photorealistic efforts in depth, providing detailed accounts of the major algorithms, as well as the background information and implementation advice readers need to make headway with these increasingly important techniques.

Already, an estimated 10% of computer graphics users require some form of non-photorealism. Strothotte and Schlechtweg's important new book is designed and destined to be the standard NPR reference for this large, diverse, and growing group of professionals.

*Hard-to-find information needed by a wide range and growing number of computer graphics programmers and applications users.
*Traces NPR principles and techniques back to their origins in human vision and perception.
*Focuses on areas that stand to benefit most from advances in NPR, including medical and architectural illustration, cartography, and data visualization.
*Presents algorithms for two and three-dimensional effects, using pseudo-code where needed to clarify complex steps.
*Helps readers attain pen-and-ink, pencil-sketch, and painterly effects, in addition to other styles.
*Explores specific challenges for NPR—including "wrong" marks, deformation, natural media, artistic technique, lighting, and dimensionality.
*Includes a series of programming projects in which readers can apply the book's concepts and algorithms.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Computer Graphics and Geometric Modeling
  5. Copyright
  6. Dedication
  7. FOREWORD
  8. PREFACE
  9. Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION
    1. 1.1 Before and After Photorealism
    2. 1.2 Non-Photorealistic Rendering
    3. 1.3 Approaches to Algorithms for NPR
    4. 1.4 Visions for NPR
    5. Exercises
    6. Bibliographic Notes
  10. Chapter 2: PIXEL MANIPULATION OF IMAGES
    1. 2.1 Halftoning Methods
    2. 2.2 Screening
    3. 2.3 Stippling
    4. 2.4 Image Mosaics
    5. Exercises
    6. Bibliographic Notes
  11. Chapter 3: LINES, CURVES, AND STROKES
    1. 3.1 Drawing “Incorrect” Lines
    2. 3.2 Drawing “Artistic” Lines—The Path and Style Metaphor
    3. 3.3 A Generalization: Multiresolution Curves
    4. 3.4 Comparison of the Line-Drawing Methods
    5. Exercises
    6. Bibliographic Notes
  12. Chapter 4: SIMULATING NATURAL MEDIA AND ARTISTIC TECHNIQUES
    1. 4.1 Simulating Painting with Wet Paint
    2. 4.2 Simulating Pencils Drawing on Paper
    3. 4.3 Simulating Woodcuts and Engravings
    4. Exercises
    5. Bibliographic Notes
  13. Chapter 5: STROKE-BASED ILLUSTRATIONS
    1. 5.1 Strokes and Stroke Textures
    2. 5.2 Detail and Orientation
    3. 5.3 Rescaling Stroke-Based Images
    4. Exercises
    5. Bibliographic Notes
  14. Chapter 6: WORKING WITH 2½D DATA STRUCTURES
    1. 6.1 G-Buffers
    2. 6.2 Operations on G-Buffers
    3. 6.3 Comprehensible Rendering
    4. 6.4 Interactive Painting
    5. 6.5 3D Parameters for 2D Dithering
    6. Exercises
    7. Bibliographic Notes
  15. Chapter 7: GEOMETRIC MODELS AND THEIR EXPLOITATION IN NPR
    1. 7.1 Geometric Models as Data Types
    2. 7.2 Polygonal Models
    3. 7.3 Free-Form Surfaces
    4. Exercises
    5. Bibliographic Notes
  16. Chapter 8: LIGHTING MODELS FOR NPR
    1. 8.1 Conveying Shape Versus Illumination
    2. 8.2 A Basic Lighting Model
    3. 8.3 Colored Illustrations
    4. 8.4 A Component-Based Lighting Model
    5. 8.5 Implementation Issues
    6. Exercises
    7. Bibliographic Notes
  17. Chapter 9: DISTORTING NON-REALISTIC RENDITIONS
    1. 9.1 Image-Space Distortion
    2. 9.2 Object-Space Distortion
    3. 9.3 Making Distortions Comprehensible
    4. 9.4 Distortions in an Animated Context
    5. Exercises
    6. Bibliographic Notes
  18. Chapter 10: APPLICATIONS FOR NPR
    1. 10.1 Non-Photorealistic Animation
    2. 10.2 Architectural Illustrations
    3. 10.3 Rendering Plants
    4. 10.4 Illustrating Medical and Technical Texts
    5. 10.5 Tactile Rendering for Blind People
    6. Exercises
    7. Bibliographic Notes
  19. Chapter 11: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR NPR
    1. 11.1 Methodological Disclaimer
    2. 11.2 Mathematical Preliminaries: Equivalence Relations, Equivalence Classes, and Quotients
    3. 11.3 Physical Preliminaries: Communication via Light Rays
    4. 11.4 Neurobiological Context: Look-Ahead Sets and Look-Around Sets
    5. 11.5 A Model for Visual Communication
    6. 11.6 Summary and Practical Connection with NPR
  20. REFERENCES
  21. AUTHOR INDEX
  22. SUBJECT INDEX
  23. FIGURE CREDITS
  24. ABOUT THE AUTHORS